Sophomore Chemistry Seminar
Sophomore Chemistry Seminar CHEM 2130
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeff Gleichner on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 2130 at University of West Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/230257/chem-2130-university-of-west-georgia in Chemistry at University of West Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
SC 2001 Final Exam Review 1 Describe the four classes of important organic molecule and their uses by living organism 2 Describe the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells The prokaryotic cell is very small It was the rst to evolve It has a cell membrane cytoplasm cell wall ribosomesmake proteins and one circular chromosomeDNA It has no nucleus Examples of this are bacterial and Achaean cells The Eukaryotic cell is larger than the prokaryotic cell and has many membranous organelles It has a nucleus which contains multiple linear chromosomes Examples of this are Plant animal and fungal cells 3 Describe the cellular organelles and what they do 4 Be able to describe and identify the stages of mitosis What is the purpose of mitosis Mitosis divides the nucleus The four stages of mitosis are Prophase Metaphase Anaphase and Telophase Mitosis occurs so that cells can repair damage reproduce and grow Prophasechanges occur in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of the dividing cell The chromatin condenses into discrete chromosomes The chromosomes begin to migrate toward the cell center The nuclear envelope breaks down and spindles form at opposite I I 1 poles of the cell MetaphaseIn the nuclear n completely The spindle fully develops and the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate a plane that is equally distant from the two poles Chromosomes are held at the metaphase plate by the equal forces of the polar fibers pushing on the centromeres of the chromosomesIn animal cells two pair of centrioles align at opposite poles of the cell Anaphase In anaphase the paired chromosomes sister chromatids separate and begin moving to opposite ends poles of the cell Spindle bers not connected to chromatids lengthen and elongate the cellOnce the paired sister chromatids separate from one another each is considered a full chromosome They are referred to as daughter chromosomesIn preparation for the next stage of mitosis telophase the two cell poles also move further apart during the course of anaphase At the end of anaphase each pole contains a complete compilation of chromosomes Telophase In telophase the chromosomes are cordoned off into distinct new nuclei in the emerging daughter cells The polar fibers continue to lengthen and nuclei begin to form at opposite polesAt the end of telophase the genetic content of the cell is divided equally into two parts Cytokinesis the division of the original cell39s cytoplasm begins prior to the end of mitosis and completes shortly after telophase At the end of mitosis two distinct cells with identical genetic material are produced 5 What are enzymes and how do they function They are proteins that digest carbohydrates proteins and lipids 6 What is the difference between a hapoid and a diploid cell Be able to identify them Diploid cells have two of each type of chromosome Haploid have only one of each type and are formed by meiosis 7 Given one strand of DNA be able to generate the other strand Also if given a codon table be 1