Special Studies in Music
Special Studies in Music MUSIC 680
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Popular in Music
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Music 680 Special Topics in Music Interactivity and Improvisation Spring 2007 Handout 2 January 31 2007 Some signal basics control vs signal control rate objects only send a message to their outlets when they are activated usually by receiving a message at their leftmost inlet signal rate objects are continuously operating on any input and producing output at the sampling rate normally 44100 samplesvalues per second as a result they are much more computationally expensive than control objects to turn off signal rate objects uncheck the compute audio box in the Pd window signals are how audio is passed through and manipulated in Pd this means that we need to attend to the mathematics of audio a signal is a stream of numbers and we processmanipulatecalculate accordingly signal objects can be identified by tilde at the end of their names signal connections can be identified by the thicker line between objects signal objects have built in documentation via right or control click just like control objects and they obey the law of gravity just like control objects but they don t necessarily have a hot or triggering inlet because computation is going on all the time usually the leftmost inlet is a signal inlet quottake this input stream of numbers and manipulate it in some way prior to output Some useful signal objects adc get sound input from the audio interface as a signal bp basic bandpass filter catch nonlocal signal connection in conjunction with throw clip constrain the values of an input signal to user specified bounds dac use any signal as sound output to the audio interface delread output from a delay line for echo etc delwrite input to a delay line for echo etc note that delay lines like tables always have to have a name associated with them hip basic highpass filter line ramp generator Pd s fundamental object for creating envelopes and transitions this is probably the single most important signal object lop basic lowpass filter osc sine wave oscillator receive nonlocal signal connection in conjunction with send send nonlocal signal connection each send can broadcast to many receive objects but you can t have more than one send with the same name for many to one connections use throw and catch sig convert a control rate message to a constant signal better to use line in almost all situations snapshot convert a signal to discrete control values when snapshot receives a bang message to its left inlet it outputs the current signal value soundfiler read and write soundfiles to and from tables this is technically a control object note that it doesn t have a tilde but it s grouped here for its relevance to tabplay tabread4 and tabosc4 switch turn on off signal computation in a subpatch abstraction tabosc4 looping playback of data from a table as a signal tabplay read the contents of a table as a signal one shot sample playback tabread4 read the contents of a table as a signal with control over read speed location direction tabplay is easier to use for simple sample playback but tabread4 provides more control tabwrite write a signal to a table for display or for later use throw nonlocal signal connection many throw objects can be summed together by a single catch but you can t have more than one catch with the same name for one to many connections use send and receive vcf bandpass filter with a center frequency sweepable at signal rate vd output from a delay line with variable delay length more complex version of delread useful for creating pitch transpositions flanging etc writesf write a signal directly to a soundfile on disk easier than using tabwritetablesoundfiler but also less flexible and more expensive add together signals mixing subtract signals multiply signals can be amplitude change or ring modulation ring modulation is the multiplication of two periodic signals audio waveforms gain control is the multiplication of one periodic signal by a constant linear ramp or other nonperiodic amplitude envelope divide signals Music 680 Fall 2007 Special Topics in Music Compositional Algorithms Class 7 October 29 2007 collaborative realization Cage Cardew Sharp and Freeman Pritchett Cage s transition from chance to indeterminacy as a new relationship between composer and performer following Wolff Brown and Feldman quotchancequot as random procedure within the act of composition quotindeterminacyquot as the ability of a piece to be performed in radically different ways and thereby almost necessarily inviting the performer into a collaboration first works in this area include WinterMusic Musicfor Piuno Concertfor Piano and Orchestra Music Walk Fontunu Mix Theater Piece and the Variations series as kits tools for making scores Cage and Cardew different kinds of composition construction kit Eli structured improvisation with each performing determing their own algorithmicprocessual path through given material Freeman democratic process and note that the performer doesn t experience indeterminacy here a return to Music ofChunges Common Lisp material for this class linear automata polyphonic rising scalar passages preview minimalism listeningscore reading George Aperghis Recitations nos 1 12 13 and 14 Tom Johnson Rutionul Melodies loan La Barbara Klee Alee Pauline Oliveros Bye Bye Butter y reading Rosalind Krauss LeWitt In Progress The Originality of the Avunt Gurde and Other ModernistMyths pp 244 259 Alvin Lucier Origins of a Form eonurdo Music ournul vol 8 pp 5 11 Music 680 Special Topics in Music Interactivity and Improvisation Spring 2007 Class 9 March 28 2007 rescheduling April 4 class reminder re George Lewis colloquium Friday March 30 2 pm CRT 175 reminder re participation in GVBall Saturday March 31 9 1160 pm Iannis Xenakis u legende d Eer discussion revisiting last week s code quottop 5pd constraining pitch choices according to top 5 frequencies present in an analysis histogram constraining durations according to one of five specific values chosen using a triangular random distribution quotboundarypd constraining pitch and duration choices to the range of values present in a windowed analysis using linear random distribution for velocity data quotintervalpd as top 5pd but making pitch choices using the intervals between the highest value in the histogram and the next four values then moving that interval distance from any of the five histogram intervals can compute pitches not present in the original material but with an intervallic relation final project proposal discussion Roger Dean Evolution 2 layered composition trumpet is pre recorded performing Dean s Trumformutions Sono VII clarinet is live performing another Dean work Notes in Pussing Evolution these performances then alter through analysis parameters of computer algorithmic processes William Kleinsasser Avuiluble Instruments a particular rich and complex instance of sound processing of an acoustic instrument on top of an already multiply layered piano composition Thomas Ciufo llBeginner s Mind An 39 t for sonic 39 p 39 39 P quot O 2005 International Computer Music Conference ICMC05 a processing environment which egtltpects instrumental or other sonic input sound processing activities which can be configured in any sequence including feedback using a footpedal or other control to interpolate between one sequence and another delays at the output stage of every module facilitate recursionfeedback ability to record any input or output for later playback including new processing automated analysis of both sound input and sound output one use of this feature stored sounds can be recalled based on perceptual similarity to input different kinds of interactive modes ability to patch different control sources to parameters emphasis on audio analysis for parameter generation in solo performance with some higher level metacontrols also available emphasis on tweakability when a performer s activity is running the software with other performers providing sonic input to the system full autonomy mode with all parameters derived from audio input state machines as a strategy for generative algorithms controlling behavior via transition diagramming the behavior of a state machine types of machines deterministic machines nondeterministic machines nondeterminstic self driven quasi machines without input preview Anthony BraxtonRichard Teitelbaum Open Aspect 4 and 6 Christopher Dobrian 11Strategies for Continuous Pitch and Amplitude Tracking in Realtime lnteractive Improvisation Software Proceedings 2004 Sound and Music Computing SMC04 Conference assignment 6 algorithmic response to inputgesture capture Music 680 Special Topics in Music Interactivity and Improvisation Spring 2007 Class 3 February 7 2007 Pierre Boulez explosunte fixe Jonathan Harvey 0112 Evening the aesthetics of score following and the basic technical aspects more on audio feature detection from Roads Computer Music Tutorial pitch estimationdetection as an inherently noisy phenomenon microvariation vibrato inharmonic instrument tones etc polyphony and musical nonmusical audio context attack transients are typically unstable difficulties recognizing low frequency tones because waveforms are long elapsed time to repeated cycle pitch estimation strategies zero crossing detection or peak interval measurement must discard high frequency information to work correctly can be improved by using a filterbank preprocessor use only the two lowest bands with significant amplitude autocorrelation compare a signal with delayed copies of itself and look for similarities works best for speech limited pitch range reduces computation adaptive filtering tune a comb filter to minimize the filtered input signal results in best fit for relatively harmonic signals spectrum analysis short time Fourier transform produces frequency data from time data seek strong peaks harmonic relationships etc time frequency tradeoff still problematic for low frequency estimation tracking phase vocoder improves on STFT by interpolating inside frequency bands cochlea models understanding of the human auditory system is work in progress rhythm recognition onset detection amplitude thresholding large amplitude increases indicate the onset of a new event ideally combine this strategy with frequency domain analysis is the timbrepitch changing along with the amplitude tempo tracking space onsets into a metrical grid use a decaying history of onsets time windowing to account for uctuations score following allen and dannenberg 1990 and multiple simultaneous representations of location allen and dannenberg tracking musical beats in real time icmc 90 dannenberg and mont reynaud following an improviation in real time icmc 87 amplitude tracking env as a tool to capture RMS amplitude amplitude averaged over very short periods of time takes one parameter length of the time window specified as a number of samples power of two 64 128 256 512 1024 etc reports amplitude expressed in dB where 0 is silence and 100 is the maximum output of the system though prior to the output the amplitude can be much higher if necessary not peak to peak amplitude which describes the maximum and minimum excursions but how do we know where to look for those as a rough rule of thumb add 3dB to the RMS value to get the peak to peak value envelope following as a simple if imperfect way to segment an audio stream look for a new maximum above the current threshold and call it a new event then set the threshold to that maximum and let it gradually decay can be improved by halting the threshold decay for sustained signals and by looking for relative silences as an opportunity to restart or accelerate the decay dbtorms and rmstodb objects for easy units conversions pitch tracking fiddle as a tool to capture a variety of frequency data from an audio stream based upon Fourier analysis transforming a set of time samples into a set of frequency samples uses the tracking phase vocoder to locate specific frequencies inside the frequency bands that are reported by the basic STFT pitch estimation algorithm likelihood of a given frequency peak being the fundamental pitch is determined thus for each peak that s a near multiple of the analyzed frequency multiply together three values the peak amplitude a value expressing how close of a multiple the frequency is a value favoring low multiples over high multiples then sum together the resulting product for each near multiple peak the frequency with the highest sum is the pitch estimate if we re looking for more than one pitch polyphonic estimate then the frequency with the next highest score that isn t a near multiple becomes the next estimated pitch for as many pitches as we ask to estimate takes four default values number of samples per analysis frame defaults to 1024 unless specified again specified as a power of two 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192 increasing the number of samples improves pitch resolution decreases time resolution number of polyphonic voices to track defaults to 1 unless specified note that you will get extra outlets if you ask for 2 or 3 voices but don t expect polyphonic pitch tracking to be unproblematic number of frequency peaks to track defaults to 20 unless specified number of frequency peaks to report defaults to 3 unless specified and returns five or more outlets outlet 1 cooked pitch outlet fiddle s best estimate as to pitch and as to changes of pitch outlet 2 report of new events fiddle s best estimate as to the onset of new events outlet 3 quotraw pitch outlet list with continuous estimate of pitch and amplitude for the first polyphonic voice use unpack to pull apart pitch and amplitude into separate values outlet 4 and 5 only if polyphonic voice tracking is specified same as outlet 3 for the second and third polyphonic voices outlet 4 or 5 or 6 continuous estimate of overall amplitude outlet 5 or 6 or 7 data about individual frequency peaks in the overall analyzed spectrum all frequency peak data is reported in list form via the last outlet data is reported as a triple peak number from 1 to the maximum number of peaks to report continuous frequency in Hz for that peak continous amplitude in dB for tha tpeak mtof and ftom objects for easy units conversions prep for next week arraystables data collection storage and representation David Tudor Neural Synthesis n0 8 electronic systems to facilitate and confound improvisation Roger Dannenberg on music representation Music 680 Fall 2007 Special Topics in Music Compositional Algorithms Class 2 September 17 2007 Serialism l Stockhausen cultural contexts for serialism the Schoenberg Webern Messaien lineage Cage as the algorithmic and parameterizing outsider postwar reconstruction and the Stunde Null the CIA Darmstadt and artistic abstraction as a form of defense against communism Stockhausen Darmstadt and Kreuzspiel quotthe shock of the encounter with Messaein and Goeyvaerts is all there in the leap from the from the Sonatina for violin and piano completed soon before to Kreuzspiel written in the immediate aftermath One might even speak of a conversion specially when what exhilarated both Stockhausen and Goeyvaerts was the spiritual dimension of their work the possibility of liberating more than creating sound structures which would have nothing human in their composition which would be images of divine unity Since at this point Stockhausen was a devout Catholic the form and title of his first piece after the Darmstadt experience cannot have been accidental through the crossplay is also a direct extension from Goeyvaerts method this is already a characteristic Stockhausen piece not only in its perfect digestion of its models but also in its intriguing introduction of discrepancies its delighted newness and its brio The discrepancies include disturbances to the pitch pattern when a pitched attack coincides with one in the percussion Stockhausen may have been concerned to make some connection between the two streams quotIt cannot be contemplated that the crossplays described are to be followed by the listener their effect rather is of a ruthlessly channelled disorder of unseen hands moving notes according to unknown rules as if one were observing a complex game with no prior knowledge of its etiquette Where order is glimpsed for instance in repetitions of intervallic motif it will likely be adventitious Kreuzspiel ies free from the thematic harmonic continuity that Schoenberg had wanted to preserve and does so not by punishing that continuity as Boulez had done but by ignoring it register as a crucial counter example here Morgan s 11concern for large scale processes quotHis Stockhausen s strategy was to draw up a scheme follow it through and then look at the results Such an approach to composition would justify the use of such terms much vaunted at the time as experiment and research and would partly explain the pattern of Stockhausen s output which to some extent has continued a pattern of one offs all these quotations are from Paul Griffiths Modern Music and After Boulez serialism and complexity llSchoenberg Is Dead quotThe last point of equilibrium opus 23 clearly is the inauguration of serial writing into which the fifth piece a waltz introduces us each of us may be permitted to meditate on that very expressionistic meeting of the first J J 39 r 39 39 with a typ pr 1 t of German romanticism Prepare oneself for it by serious immobilities Satie might have said perceived con ict between tonal formsconventions including thematics 2 serial technique though note that these issues are still in play in the 2nd Sonata quotThe confusion between theme and series is explicit enough to show his impotence to foresee the sound world that the series demands Boulez teleological view of history at the time quotEvery composer outside the serial experiments has been useless Structures Ia Boulez insistence on the composer s hand quotThus the global serial structure may be seen from a double point of view on the one hand the activity of serial combination with structures produced by the automatism of numerical relations on the other hand directed and interchangeable combination where arbitrary choice plays a much larger role The two ways of regarding the musical structure can obviously provide an extremely effective dialectic of musical development borrowing from Cage the notion of generalizing the series quotIt is obvious that in terms of rhythm one can use rhythmic possibilities Ligeti s analysis the row form borrowed from Made 512 vuleurs et d intensities the fixity of pitch relative to rhythm and especially dynamics two pianos as an acoustic necessity two bundles of serial threads proceeding independently rapid decay permitting sophisticated pointilistic textures forty eight serial threads one for each transposition and form of the initial series for both pitch and duration each thread is homogenous in its dynamics and modes of attack combined into bundles of one two or three simultaneous threads per piano for a total vertical density from one to six threads and distributed in fourteen total sections Ligeti notes Boulez deviations from the serial plan quotAn exaggeration of serial thought would here establish a series of degrees of error 1 fautless 2 quite small deviation the dynamic alterations 3 rather more radical deviation interchange of modes of attack 4 very radical deviation disturbance of the course of the durations But such error series could only be functionally evaluated if they were built into the overall architecture in a truly organic way which is not the case here organizing patterns thread density tempo movements towards certain types of serial combination choices left to the composer register intended to avoid octave relationships where possible which becomes a major constraint in dense areas also preferring note repetitions as a kind of structural knot commentary quotSo the poor old serialist is no more a captive than the tonal composer chained to his cadences now as ever the vital thing is how far and in what way one can tug at one s chains quotThe adding together of regular processes gives awholly irregular result of very elegant flexibility quotThis ascetic attitude akin to compulsion neurosis is self limitation from choice as if the composer were taking himself for a walk on the end of a lead yet Boulez had to break away from it in order to throw himself into something completely opposed but internally related And so he created the sensual feline world of the Murteuu z Murteuu suns muitre and the generalization of serial technique beyond analyzability addressing the parenthetical form through interlocking cycles rather than through aleatorics as a response to Pierrot Lunuire more Common Lisp programming let and local variables the Common Music algorithmic composition environment atop Common Lisp cd Documents teaching 680 fall 2007 directory change for saving MIDI files defun series values start time if null values nil let current value car values current rhythm float 112 current value 1 cons new midi time start time keynum 60 current value amplitude current rhythm duration current rhythm series cdr values start time current rhythm need to handle transposition events series list 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 testmid monophonic line events list series list 0 1 2 3 4 5 series list 6 7 8 9 10 11 testmid two voice polyphony defun rotate left values attach car values cdr values defun attach element values if null values list element cons car values attach element cdr values defun rotate right values cons last element values all but last values defun last element values if length values 1 car values last element cdr values defun all but last values if length values 1 nil cons car values all but last cdr values more complex serialism transposition and or not Music 680 Special Topics in Music Interactivity and Improvisation Spring 2007 Class 10 April 5 2007 Anthony BraxtonRichard Teitelbaum Open Aspect 4 and 6 shared evolutionary structural process rather than shared material linearity made complex through multidimensional thinking George Lewis follow up Christopher Dobrian Strategies for Continuous Pitch and Amplitude Tracking in Realtime Interactive Improvisation Software Proceedings 2004 Sound and Music Computing SMC04 Conference insisting on improvisation as the defining quality of interactivity both human and computer must make decisions in response to the other quotstealing eXpressivity deriving computer audio characteristics from characteristics of human performance continuous pitch tracking of the duegum where stable pitch is not really idiomatic then pruning trajectories disregarding leaps of an octave or more eliminating pitches outside the range of the instrument eliminating pitches when the amplitude estimate is below a certain threshold smoothing trajectories and representing them as a signal via lowpass filtering removing high frequency spikes from the trajectory and then finally using this track for almost any controlexpressive purpose required similar strategy for a continuous amplitude track pruning strategies are different quotduckingquot any value below a threshold is treated as zero note boundary detection in Dobrian s system quotwait time only declare a note off if there s a certain time lapse until the next note on long attackrelease times for the gate 120 msec to deal with amplitudes near threshold looking for the true amplitude peak after the note on threshold is passed gesture capture in Pd using window output to alter velocity data for fm synth using quasi centroid and harmonicity estimate data to control timbre parameters for fm synth using fiddle amplitude estimation to control output amplitude all riffs on Dobrian s stealing eXpressivity concept group brainstorming about ways to go farther with this concept reminder no class meeting April 11 preview more strategies for sound synthesis and especially manipulation Karlheinz Stockhausen Kurzwelleri Curtis Roads excerpts from Basic Concepts of Signal Processing Computer Music Tutorial 387 432 filterbanks vocoding convolution Jason Freeman Graph Theory and audience intervention Luigi Nono u onturiurizu Nostalgicu Utopicu Futuru and the continuous availability of ending strategies Music 680 Special Topics in Music Interactivity and Improvisation Spring 2007 Class 11 April 18 2007 EAMC concert Thursday April 19 730 pm including music by Alvin Lucier 2 Pauline Oliveros Kenilworth Open house Friday April 20 5 9 pm and Saturday April 21 12 5 pm last chance for participation Saturday afternoon group improvisation 2 pm setup 230 pm start Karlheinz Stockhausen Karzwellerl as a faulty process of repetition material varies as it is passed across the ensemble due to instrumental difference and because of the variation structure specified by the graphic score the radios as a unique random seed for each performance literally pulling music out of the air Qaartet demonstration block diagram offline pitchtracking online interactivity entirely through a MIDI like protocol which means that the listening diverges from the sound for longer events signal processing techniques dynamic range processing waveshaping as a strategy for limiting compression and expansion env as an average detector limiter abstraction as an example of look ahead compression filtering as an application of delay preview April 25 signal processing techniques using delay more Roads Tutorial reading Pauline Oliveros ear 0n the Road Kaija Saariaho Nymphea faralirl Secret III Olga Neuwirth Instrumental Inseln aas quotBahIamms Fest H Music 680 Fall 2007 Special Topics in Music Compositional Algorithms Class 6 October 22 2007 canon ll Ligeti and Holliger Ligeti quotMetamorphoses of Musical Formquot understanding music history as a kind of organic process technical evolution spurred by demands placed upon composers by their materials specifically the expansion of serialism from pitch to all parameters to form describing the evolution of serialism as a weakening of pitch ordering through superposition of series into bundles as in Structures 15 the use of series defined primarily by interval content rather than melodic structure incl chromatic scales and other quottrivialquot structures subservience of series to higher level controls eg registral needs in Grupperl abandoning intervallic structuring for control of density register and quotweavequot the serial situation as a high degree of quotpermeabilityquot layering and juxtaposition of textures possibility of multi temporality as in Zeitmusse forms defined by layers and juxtaposition esp in tape music but also Gruppen etc and a parallel situation even more extreme in Cage s music all resulting in a flattening or quotlevelling outquot of form entropicstatic in nature against which Ligeti prescribes serial organization of high level form coupled with more specific types of local determinations quotdesired characters worked out by postulating or avoiding certain specific constellationsquot note the footnoted critique of Boulez s quotAleaquot article quotno genuine freedom of interpretation simply a manifold ossia formquot micropolyphony as Ligeti s particular solution the serial thread or bundle reinvented as continuously mobile texture contrast with Penderecki s static clusters and textural blocks canon as a compositional device rather than a perceptible feature quotcollapsing registerquot section of Atmospheres from four octaves to four semitones canonic permeation in Lontrmo Melodien and after Holliger and canon in the Scurdunelli Zyklus a highly rationalized form used to irrational ends as a re ection of Holderlin s quotScardanelliquot persona Sommer Ill three statements of a seven voice prolation canon where the tempi are defined by the singer s individual heart rates staccato semitones non staccato quarter tones tenuto eighth tones Sommer 1 similar prolation technique six to eight voices pitches eliminated gradually leaving only silent lip motions Sommer ll similar pitch compression triple canon repeated as quarter and then eighth tones Winter 1 quottonal negativequot of Komm 0 Tod Flu Schlufes Bruder notes of the original piece become rests filled in by spoken recitations of the Scardanelli text Winter Ill four voice canon built on overtones of a quotCquot harmonic series each canonic part consists of close position triads a deliberately perverse clash between the spectral and the tonal Fruhling l root position triads with unusual vocal techniques singing with near empty lungs inhaled singing declamation through closed mouths singing with a 11tight throat Common Lisp material for this class algorithmic transformation of pre eXisting material as in the lltonal negative of Winter 1 and intervallic translations in Sommer Ill parsing and modifying lists preview collaborative realization reading Pritchett listening Cage Cardew Sharp Freeman negtltt assignment canon construed broadly a set of rules relating one voice to another Music 680 Fall 2007 Special Topics in Music Compositional Algorithms Class 9 November 12 2007 complexity I Ashbery quotLike a wave breaking on a rock giving u lts shape in a gesture which expresses that shapequot from Self Portrait in a Convex Mirror Ferneyhough s music as a response both to the modernist challenge and to the postmodern doubt about and critique of that challenge structuring algorithmic and otherwise as partial and provisional anecdote about day to day working methods immediate engraving as a psychological strategy but also as a kind of continuous re structuring and reconsideration of the material and the preservation of the possibility surprise composing from beginning to end but trying to create a sense illusion of authentic choice through constraint anecdote about the preservation of and emphasis on mistakes an emphasizing the use of system in providing contextdirection for intuition tension between clear perceptibility as in Adugissimo and the delirious quality of system Ferneyhough and formalized composition in Patchwork Patchwork and its successor OpenMusic designed primarily for spectral composition Ferneyhough adopts the software initially to routinize his rhythmic technique often developing pitch aspects of gesture separate from the rhythmic aspects the anecdote about the influence of Patchwork on his work and the conception of pieces or sections as a whole layered approach to coding and to algorithm very small and simple modules combined often out of phase into complex results Toop s analysis as trying to unearth these transformation systems also a tendency towards fragmentation and rearrangement the structural process of Bone Alphabet as breaking up linearities Shadowtime code repeating gestures for as long as they fit into a measure structure extracting a chorale from a number of melodic lines in order to constrain an independent voice Toop and lemma Iwn Epigmm quotFor him the creative process is not a predetermined path but a labyrinth and the completed work is in a sense an arbitrary by product of that labyrinth to the extent that there is nothing predestined or predetermined about the outcome of any particular moment in it each moment is rather the inspired momentary response to a given set of constraints in each case other solutions equally compelling would have been thinkablequot identifying compression and bifurcation as characteristic processual transformations emphasizing the relationship between the systematic and the intuitive quotmy distrust of the motivic cellular diversification principlequot BF Ferneyhough quotDuration and Rhythm as Compositional Resourcesquot quotthe lingering residues of superseded affective vocabulariesquot or the wearing out of expressive materials when their context has passed meter as a temporal container rather than as a pattern of accentuation quotinextricable interlocking of meter and subdivisional impulse as correlatable strands of sonic informationquot quotSince I myself tend to regard processes as loblique objects in the sense that by definition their full identity only becomes clear with the elapse of time the ever changing quality of partial clarification is an extremely valuable aspect of the basic stuff of composition quottime being palpably manipulated almost like a physical object again simple processes densification and llfiltration applied to temporal structures keenly aware of the ways in which i n t 39 create 1 39 u 1 ti 1 Ferneyhough llResponses to a Questionnaire on Complexity quotThe coming into being of the work necessarily occupies center stage the performer and by extension the listener is led to share some sense of the anxiety generating provisional is continually being made productively aware of his own binding contribution the frequently anti natural confrontation between the actual ow of events and the amount of time that would normally be understood to be appropriate for their adequate reception notation is always relative to intention whereby it is up to the composer to suggest adequate forms of response llthe new complexity coined by musicologist Richard Toop other associations Michael Finnissy and transcription as a particular working method James Dillon and the influence of Xenakis and spectralism Chris Dench Richard Barrett and now a large number of Ferneyhough and Finnissy students Music 680 Fall 2007 Special Topics in Music Compositional Algorithms Class 1 September 10 2007 Course introduction definitions what is an algorithm what is algorithmic composition quot2 Math A process or set of rules usually one expressed in algebraic notation now used esp in computing machine translation and linguistics Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed quotModels of process are natural to musical thinking As we listen part of us drinks in the sensual experience of sound while another part is constantly setting up expectations and in so doing constructing hypotheses of musical process Curtis Roads The ComputerMusic Tutorial formalization as the precise strict representation of a musical process perspectives a relatively open View of algorithmic composition in the syllabus continua that might provide perspective process versus constraint process as procedures which define musical parameters at any formal scale isorhythm as a historical example constraint as rules which limit compositional choices species counterpoint as a historical example though not a formalized one totalizing vs limited or what percentage of the work by amount by number of parameters is algorithmic stochastic vs deterministic algorithms which embrace randomness vs those which provide a fixed result listener designed vs composer designed algorithms designed for perceptibility vs those intended as creative support classification by algorithm type state machines cellular automata iterative processes etc classification by musical style serial aleatoric minimal spectral etc historical instances of algorithic composition isorhythm Machaut as exemplar deployment of numerical ratio Dufay as exemplar canon and canonic technique Ockeghem and Bach as exemplars including inversion retrograde mensuration the dice game Mozart variation form canon in the early twentieth century Arnold Schoenberg Drei Sutiren 1928 Ruth Crawford Seeger String Quartet 1931 some recent examples of algorithmic composition David Franzson Il Dolce Pure Niente Matthias Spahlinger 128 erfilllte Augenblicke the Common Lisp programming environment atoms 2 pi built in functions 2 3 nesting built in functions t 2 3 5 t 2 3 5 2 3 5 4 parameter assignments defparameter half pi pi 2 procedures defun plus X y X y plus 2 3 defun square X X X square 2 square square 2 square plus 2 3 compound procedures defun sum of squares X y square X square y conditionals defun absolute value X cond lt X 0 X t X recursion defun fibonacci X cond X 0 0 X l l t fibonacci X 1 fibonacci X 2 lists defparameter X list 1 2 3 4 car X cdr X car cdr X cdr cdr cdr cdr X defparameter y cons 0 X recursive list construction defun fibonacci list X cond lt X 0 nil t cons fibonacci X fibonacci list X l reverse fibonacci list 12 to create the list in the other order use a helper function to count up to the original X input using SLIME select a code block and type c X c e to evaluate type a to abort the debugger and return to the interpreter the Common Music algorithmic composition environment atop Common Lisp installing Common Music on Mac OS X install Aquamacs http aquamacsorg install Common Music http commonmusicsourceforgenet Music 680 Fall 2007 Special Topics in Music Compositional Algorithms Lecture 12 December 3 2007 Ligeti ll Nancarrow s canons as an important in uence on Ligeti s Piano Etudes but also Mandelbrot fractals Escher Arom Africun Polyphony and Polyrhythm Shepard tones etc not to mention Debussy and Ligeti s earlier essays in constructivism Hartmuth Kinzler Decision and Automatism in D sordre describing the basical material of D sordre as six planes 1 the top note of the accented octaves in the RH 2 the bottom note of the accented octaves in the RH 3 the scalar mote perpetuo eighth note pattern in the RH 4 6 the LH counterparts of planes 1 3 pitch disposition of this material planes 1 3 as white key diatonic planes 4 6 as black key pentatonic planes 12 based on a particular series of twenty six notes in four segments motivic analysis of the first seven pitch segment M note plus repetition M rising above M and then descending to repeat again M reversal rhythm of M same risedescent pattern but now relative to M extension single note longer duration below M quasi cadential tends to fuse together with M to form a two measure three note pattern complete segment as M M M extension 112 measure pattern planes 45 derived from series of for 12 but altered mechanically to fit into the wider interval pentatonic scale pattern and altered by hand to re ect Ligeti s preferences regarding the widening intervals also expanded to include a fifth segment thirty three pitches in five segments rhythmic disposition of this material three basic rhythmic patterns 1 quarter note eighth rest dotted quarter quarter rest 2 reversal of 1 dotted quarter quarter rest quarter note eighth rest 3 half note half rest a specific sequence of rotations for those three rhythmic patterns planes 1 2AABC AABC AAB ABA planes4 5AABC AABC AAB ABA AABC and a specific strategy for shortening those patterns consistently in order to fit into measure lengths from 28 to 78 processes applied to the basic material repetition transposition compaction gradual reduction of measure lengths quotautomatism of disorder type one the plane 45 LH series is longer than the plane 12 RH series so they drift out of phase though note that the rhythmic pattern for planes 45 disguises the drift at first quotautomatism of disorder type two metric expansionscontractions applied to one pair of planes create local rhythmic drift between hands instances of composer decision governing these automated processes patterns of metric expansion contraction are different for each hand in order to create specific rhythmic textural alignment configurations alterations to planes 25 the octave doublings to eliminate doublings in places where the extreme octave is off the keyboard in places where accented notes are consecutive and the doubling might force a slower tempo alterations to planes 25 to shorten durations relative to 1 4 to facilitate the presence of scalar infill planes 3 6 contingency of the scale formations planes 36 initially defined as continuations or anticipations of the octaves in planes 12 4 5 but then becoming freer within the constraints of the pianist s hand physical constraints applied to the system the pianist tempo the hands register span the position of the scalar infill etc overall form and the relationship to fractal geometry MandelbrotJulia fractals produced by iterative equations run a simple process again and again self similarity at various levels of structure the quadripartite theme the quadripartite series and the four instances of the series theme ends with extension series ends with metric contraction fourth repetition of the series is truncated also a degree of self similarity wrt transposition of theme and series through repetitions group discussion of final project proposals open lab time
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