Introductionto Nutrition C L SCI 232
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gregg Borer on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to C L SCI 232 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Taylor De Oliveira in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/230267/c-l-sci-232-university-of-wisconsin-milwaukee in Clinical Laboratory Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
ClinSci 100809 Fluid amp Electrolyte Balance Fluid distribution Intracellular fluid 0 Water found inside the cell Extracellular fluid 0 Water outside of the cell Blood plasma Interstitial fluid fuid between the cells Osmosis Passage of water from a low electrolyte concentration to an area of high electrolyte concentration Function of water Healthy 0 Healthy 0 Medium for chemical reactions Waste removal Lubricant for joints Regulates body temperature Major component of blood Humans are about 5070 made up of water 1 liter of perspiration can give off up to 600 kcal Transport chemicals amp compounds throughout the body On average typical urine production is about 1 liter per day Man 170b man 105 lbs of water 62 27 lbs of protein 16 27 lbs of fat 16 10 lbs of minerals 6 1 lb of glycogen lt1 Woman 130lb woman 74 lbs of water 57 17 lbs of protein 13 32 lbs of fat 25 7 lbs of minerals 5 1 lb of glycogen lt1 Water balance Increased fluid needs 0 Athletes 2 cups of water for every pound lost Fever Vomiting Diarrhea Older adults Hot humid conditions OOOOO o Kidneys responsible for reducing urine production amp output to prevent dehydration o Aldosterone Signals to contain sodium amp therefore water 0 Antidiuretic hormone Secreted by pituitary gland causes to maintain blood pressure 0 Must replace fluid lost through feces skin amp lungs o Dehydration 0 Symptoms Thirst Decrease muscle strength lmpaired memory Weakness Kidney failure Coma Death 0 Adequateintake o 11 cupsday for adult women 0 15 cupsday for adult men 0 Intake 0 Fluid 0 ood 0 Metabolic water 0 Output 0 Urine greatest source of fluid loss 0 Skin 0 Lungs o Perspiration Water sources 0 Tap water regulated by EPA Environmental Protection Agency 0 Hard water high levels of calcium amp magnesium 0 Soft water higher in sodium 0 Bottled water regulated by FDA Food amp Drug Administration Sodium Na 0 Salt Sodium Chloride o 40 sodium 0 60 chloride 0 Functions of sodium 0 Fluid balance 0 Nerve impulse conduction 0 Absorption of nutrients Sodium Deficiency 0 Groups at risk 0 Low Na diet 0 Excessive sweating athletes 0 Persistent vomiting or diarrhea 0 Symptoms 0 Muscle cramps Nausea amp vomiting Dizziness Shock Coma OOOO Sodium Sources 0 80 from processed food amp restaurant food 10 added while cooking 10 naturally occurring in food Daily value 2400 mgday Upper level 2300 mgday High intake of sodium associated with hypertension Potassium K 0 Functions 0 Waterbalance o Nerve impulse transmission 0 High potassium intake associated with lower blood pressure Potassium deficiency 0 Groups at risk 0 Low K diet Diuretics Alcoholism Athletes Eating disorders 0 Vomiting amp diarrhea 0 Symptoms 0 Loss of appetite O O O O 0 Muscle cramps o Confusion o Constipation 0 Heart beat irregularities Chloride o Foundin extracellularfluid 0 Functions 0 Component of stomach acid 0 Immune response 0 Nerve function 0 Sources 0 Come in fruits amp veggies o Chlorinated water 0 Salt 60 chloride Phosphorus P 0 Function 0 Electrolyte found inside cells o Fluid balance 0 Combines with calcium to form bones o Phospholipids O 0 Acid Base balance Hypertension 0 Overview 0 1 in 5 adults has hypertension 0 Blood pressure systolicdiastolic 0 Optimal blood pressure lt12080 0 Hypertension gt13989 0 Silent disorder 0 lncreases risk of CVD kidney disease amp stroke 0 Causes 0 Family history 0 Age 0 Heart disease 0 Overweight o lnactivity 0 Excess alcohol 0 High sodium intake 0 Treatment 0 DASH diet characterized as low in fat amp sodium amp rich in fruits vegetable fat dairy products ClinSci 091009 Guidelines for designing a healthy diet Consume a variem of foods balanced by moderate control portion size intake of each nutrient dense comparison of vitamin amp mineral content with number of kcals empty calories ex Soda energy density 0 Comparison of kcal content with weight of food 0 Highenergydense foods 0 Lowenergydense foods States of Nutritional Health 0 Desirable nutritional health 0 Intake meets body s needs 0 Body has small surplus o Undernutrition o Intake below body s needs 0 Surpluses are depleted 0 Health declines 0 Metabolic processes slow or stop 0 Subclinical de ciency can t tell just by looking 0 Clinical symptoms 0 Overnutrition o Intake exceeds body s needs 0 Short term few symptoms 0 Long term serious conditions obesity 0 Abuse of supplements Measuring nutritional status 0 Anthropometric ex height weight Biochemical assessment ex blood hair Clinical assessment ex pale bruising Dietary assessment ex food journal Economics assessment ex economic status Limitations assessment 0 Delayed symptoms amp signs 0 Symptoms due to different causes Healthy habits to adopt o Consume healthy diet 0 Control weight 0 Drink alcohol in moderation 0 Exercise gt30 minutes a day 0 Don t smoke Food guide pyramid o Suggests patterns of food choices 0 Incorporates variety balance moderation 0 Using pyramid 0 Choose low fat or nonfat 0 Include peanut proteins several times a week 0 Dark green veggies vitamin Crich food whole grain products plant oils daily 0 Eat sh 2 times per week 0 Not for children under 2 0 Average diet 0 12 fruitsday 24 needed 0 23 veggiesday 35 needed 0 Too many fats oils sweets Dieta reference intake DRI o RDAs recommended dietary allowance 0 Als adequate intake 0 EERs o ULs upper level 0 Scienti c research studies 0 Lab animal experiments 0 Human studies 0 Casecontrol study 0 Doubleblind study 0 Peer review 0 Followup studies Dietam guidelines 0 Published by USDA and DHHS o Intended for healthy children amp adults 2 years old amp older 0 Aim for healthy weight 0 BMI waist circumference Choose whole grains fruits veggies daily Choose diet low in saturated fat amp cholesterol moderate sugar intake chooseprepare foods with less salt Standards for food labeling DRls are gender amp age speci c FDA developed the daily values Generic standard used on food labels Allow for comparison NutriSci 092209 Lactose maldigestion 0 Reduction in lactase o Lactose is undigested amp not absorbed o Lactose is metabolized by large intestinal bacteria 0 Causes gas bloating cramping discomfort 0 Primary lactose maldigestion 0 Secondary lactose maldigestion 0 Severe cases are called lactose intolerance What to do if you have lactose maldigestion or lactose intolerance 0 Determine amount you can tolerate 0 Eat dairy with fat 0 Cheese amp yogurt are usually well tolerated 0 Use LactAid Absorption o Glucose amp galactose 0 Active absorption 0 Energy is expended o Fructose o Facilitated absorption using a carrier 0 No energy expended 0 Used to help babies with constipation high fructose corn syrup After absorption 0 Portal to the liver 0 Liver can 0 Transform monosaccharide into glucose 0 Release glucose back into the bloodstream 0 Store as glycogen or fat Undigested carbohydrates 0 Only a minor amount escapes digestion o Travels to the colon o Fermentation by the bacteria 0 Acids amp gases produced are absorbed 0 May promote the health of the colon Functions of carbohydrates 0 Supplies energy 40 of nutrients should come from carbs 0 Protein sparing o Prevents ketosis results from breakdown of fat for energy Regulation of blood glucose 0 Hyperglycemia o Hypoglycemia 0 Role of the liver 0 Regulates glucose that enters bloodstream 0 Role of the pancreas 0 Release of insulin produced after a meal to take digested glucose into cells amp out of the blood 0 Release of glucagon released in between meals 0 Functions of insulin 0 Promotes glycogen synthesis 0 Increases glucose uptake 0 Reduces gluconeogenesis o Lowers blood glucose 0 Functions of glucagon o Breakdown of glycogen o Enhances gluconeogenesis o Raises blood glucose Glycemic response 0 Glycemic index 0 Ratio of blood glucose response to a given food 0 Glycemic load 0 Grams of carbohydrate in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of that food 0 Divide result by 100 0 High glycemic load 0 Large release of insulin Increase blood triglycerides level Increase Low Density Lipoprotein LPL Increase fat deposits Increase clotting Increase fat synthesis Rapid return of hunger o Insulin resistance develops Type 2 diabetes Dietary fiber amp health Hemorrhoids o Swelling of large vein 0 Excessive straining Weight control 0 Filling 0 Low in kcal Colon cancer 0 O O O Increases transit time amp less likely to expose large amp small intestine amp rectum to prolonged exposure to processing food Controversial Focus on fruits vegetables beans amp whole grains More nutrient dense Glucose absorption 0 Slows absorption soluble Cholesterol and soluble fiber 0 000 O Inhibits cholesterol absorption Bile acid absorption reduced Risk for cardiovascular disease amp gallstones reduced lnsulin release decreased Decrease cholesterol swelling in the liver Blood cholesterol lowered Carbohydrate needs RDA is 130 gramsday for adults Average US intake is 180330 grams Recommendations vary 0 O FNB 4565 of total calories Nutrition facts panel 60amp Focus on fruits veggies whole grains Recommended Dietary Fiber intake Al is 25gramsday for women Al is 38 gramsday for men Goal of 14grams1000kcal DV is 25 grams for 2000 kcal diet For children recommended intake is age plus 5 5 years old 5 10 gramsday Average US intake 0 O 14 gramsday for women 17 gramsday for men Too much fiber 0 gt60 gramsday 0 Extra fluid needed 0 May decrease availability of some minerals o Unmet energy needs in children Recommendation for simple sugar intake Low nutrient density Dental caries Added to food amp beverages lt10 of total kcalday with a maximum of 50 grams 12tsp per day WHO Average US intake 16 of total kcalday 0 82 gramsday ClinSci 090809 What you eat amp Why Nutrition science of food nutrients amp substances their action interaction amp balance in relation to health amp disease Provide energy building blocks has specific biological function regain normal function when restored to diet Study nutrition to maintain health Chronic disease risk 0 Disease of heart 29 0 Cancer 22 0 Stroke 7 0 Diabetes 5 6 Classes of nutrients Carbs Lipids Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals water Composed of carbon hydrogen oxygen Major source of fuel Monosaccharide glucose Simple amp complex Dietary fiber Energy yielding 4kcalgram Carbon hydrogen fewer oxygen Triglycerides fats amp oils Unsaturated fatty acids Saturated fatty acids Essential fatty acids Energy yielding fats amp oils 9kcalgram Cholesterol Phospholipids Carbon hydrogen fewer oxygen Energy yielding 4kcalgram 9 essential amino acids Vitamins Minerals Water 11 nonessential amino acids Enable chemical reactions Fat amp water soluble Yield no energy Compose of various elements Inorganic substances Function in cellular processes nervous system water balance structural systems Not destroyed during cooking Trace minerals Major minerals electrolytes hydrogen oxygen majority of our body weight found in foods yields no energy recommended intake 913 cupsday functions 0 solvent lubricant medium for transport Phyiochemicais chemicals in plants 0 not essential nutrients provide significant health benefits found in fruits amp veggies also chocolate wine beer Caiorie measurement of energy amount of heat Hunger physical biological drive Appetite psychological drive K CALG RAM Carbs 4kcagram Protein 4kcagram Acoho 7kcagram Fat 9kcalgram
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