General Climatology GEOG 310
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jevon Schmidt on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 310 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Mark Schwartz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/230277/geog-310-university-of-wisconsin-milwaukee in Geography at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Needs 9 GIF Geography 310 Lecture 28 Coping with Future Climate and Environments A Causes of Changereview 1 CO2 CH4 CFC deforestation all contribute to the retention of extra heat in the Earth39s systems a global warming at some level is expected throughout the 21st century B Process of Change GIF1 1 quasiintransitive model suggests that quick adjustments may be made when certain P 4 U 0 levels are reached a adds to the dif culty in predicting the sequence of change how we get from the present climate to a iture one Interactions of the Ocean and Atmosphere not completely understood IPCC report says Warming of the climate system is unequivocal NO chance of error MDS as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea level IPCC report adds that Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid20th century is very likely 10 chance of errorMDS due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations Discernible human in uences now extend to other aspects of climate including ocean warming continentalaverage temperatures temperature extremes and wind patterns IPCC report expects a 18 to 40 C increase in mean global temperature and 18 to 59 cm increase in sea level by 2100 this range also depends on iture emissions see IPCC WGl Summary for details Other expected changes between now and 2100 Virtually certain less than 1 chance of error a Warmer and fewer cold days and nights over most land areas b Warmer and more frequent hot days and nights over most land areas Very likely less than 10 chance oferror c Frequency increases of warm spellsheat waves over most land areas d Frequency increases of heavy precipitation events over most land areas Likely less than 34 chance oferror 6 Areas affected by droughts increase f Intense tropical cyclone activity increases Increased incidence of extreme high sea level excluding tsunami s g 7 Even a complete stop in additional emissions ie constant year 2000 levels throughout the rest of this century will still almost certainly result in about a 06 C global temperature increase by 2100 Geog 310 Lecture 28 2 8 Strategies must be geared toward climate changes as one of SEVERAL problems of potential threat to the LONG TERM centuryscale viability of the planet a ultimate degree of validity or falseness of global warming scenarios may be less important than its possibility forcing humanity to AT LAST seriously consider their collective negative impacts on the planet Global Change Research C lmpediments to dealing with Global Change 1 dif cult to arrange planning on the 10100 year time scale 2 dif cult to achieve international cooperation GIF2 3 Quality of life versus environmental quality dilemma GIF3 a world population continues to grow at an alarming rate GIF456 b agricultural area continues to shrink c conjures up NeoMalthusian doom scenarios D Notion of a sustainable society is a global system that can be maintained over the LONG TERMONE set of quotsuggestionsquot based on positive planning rather that forced reaction to changing circumstances 1 current system is not sustainable 2 westem high living standards can be maintained 3 standards for the rest of the world can be raised E Aspects of a plan to make the transition to a sustainable society 1 assumptions a new technologies will be developed but can39t be counted on to save us b fossil fuels cannot remain our main energy source inde nitely c population levels can39t go over about 89 billion either will be controlled or there will be mass starvation 2 Increase energy ef ciency and reduce consumption a economical as new power plants cost 78 cents per Kwh while improved ef ciency averages 1 to 2 cents per Kwh b increase efficiency of homes and appliances c more use of public transportation bicycles and telecommuting GIF78 3 Energy movement to solar solarhydrogen and wind power a tax oil and gas and use money to research alternative b solar and wind are nearly competitive now with coal red plants c important roles for hydropower biomass and geothermal energy GIF9 d Internet development reduces need for travel e reexamination of a role for nuclear power 4 Third world development a developed world forgives debt as incentive to slow population growth b take a different path to development with solar wind and hydropower Geog 310 Lecture 28 3 5 Recyclingnew ethic ECONOMICALLY soundreuse to reduce waste ow a simplify food packagingpackage cost more than contents in many cases b adopt standard beverage containers for direct reuse c recycle other materialsnewspaper aluminum d burn other biomass for fuel when not feasible to reuse 6 Feeding the world a less meat less monoculturesustainable systems a priority b reduce pollution to reduce stress on plants and animals F Global Security rede ned 1 Security may be acquiring an ecological aspect as opposed to the traditional military de nition some aspects of western culture may be incompatible with a sustainable World e g consumerism and materialism For the USA Do national security goals energy independence etc call for similar action strategies to those needed to address global warming The opportunity to shape the lture positively in all areas diminishes the longer we wait to begin a can we make the transition b do we want to make the transition P LN 4 Geography 310 Lecture 1 Introduction to Climatology Needs 3x5 cards syllabi Lect731071ppt A What is Climatology 1 Atmospheric Science relationship to physics and chemistry and Geography spatial distribution and interaction of atmospheric processes a meteorologygtshort termlthours to 1 week or 1 year b climatologygtlong termlt1 week or 1 year on up as well as interactions and processes includes scales beyond human frame of reference c analytic approachesdescriptive statistical mathematical synoptic PPl d spatial scalemicrolocal Milwaukee meso Wisconsin macro North America and implications of research at each level generalizations B What are the general goals of climate research 1 what is a quotnormalquot climate description ie means and extremes a usually a 30 year average changing each ten years 1951 80 for example 2 how will climate change a not enough data for detailed forecasts also processes of change are not completely understood b quotproxyquot data quotom geologic and biological sources used to produce fairly accurate but sketchy records of past climates c past climates can be used to extrapolate long term climate changes like ice age return d climate models are used to predict the iture mathematically and to try to understand past climates e human activities in uence all scales of climate and may change climates ltltno human interaction in the past so past data cannot re ect the quothuman componentquotgtgt and we have little direct evidence to explore possible iture effects 3 How does climate a ect other processes and human activities Applied PP2 a atmospherebiospherelithospherehydrosphere interactions b humanhousing design agriculture hydrology drought health and comfort energy use economy C General Climatology this course 1 Basic goalunderstanding of the general patterns of world climate and the processes that in uence them macro scale patterns models of global climate processes that produce the global climate distribution esp mid lat circulation methods of classi cation Past and possible iture climates 9999 Geography 310 Lecture 1 2 Syllabus review of course mechanics 3 3x5 cards with name major interests reason for taking course 4 Class email re ector geog310uwmedu D Terminology 1 English and metric system PP3 2 Temperature Scales F C K PP4 3 parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude a N S ow quotmeridionalquot b EW ow quotzonalquot
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