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by: Verdie Sporer

Genetics LIFE 3050

Verdie Sporer
GPA 3.65

Robin Groose

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Robin Groose
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This 65 page Class Notes was uploaded by Verdie Sporer on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 3050 at University of Wyoming taught by Robin Groose in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/230305/life-3050-university-of-wyoming in Life Sciences at University of Wyoming.


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Date Created: 10/27/15
welcome syllabus GENETICS LIFE 3050 Spring 2010 o v e Q ampamp amp fay 25 Qf c a c 4 oo amp I 399 eb 3 49 AA avg zampe 26 90x b 3 39 Naoz ogt a lt ultx o ozlt e e ltw y 6 ltL ltL gt a TOTAL ENROLLMENT 12 5 REQUIRED 85 71 MAYBE REQUIRED 13 10 NOT REQUIRED 23 g 10 DISCUSSION SECTION 10 55 DISCUSSION SECTION 11 66 as of 10 Dec 2009 rwg class schedule home works getyour s worth read it some students bring it to class scslogicai geneticist warks with amphibians a Southwestern University lectyre outlines what the outlines are and what they are not the outlines contain important PowerPoint slides used in lectures the outlines are not a substitute for reading the text the outlines are not a substitute for attending lecture some students bring their laptop to lecture amp follow along that way priorities concepts concepts concepts vocabulary genetics spoken here thinking amp problem solving details but we ll try not to get too bogged down in details we walk a tightrope between concepts and details Introduction to Genetics Chapter 1 a SEQ S Em IQva mun 701a Genetcs Second Edltlun a 2m wu Freeman and Cmpanv Film 03 Genetics Secund Edin nn 2005 w H Freeman and Company The Importance of Genetics medicine pharmaceuticals diagnostics therapy ix I v as 3 2 r II n nymnm Hum Gme cs Second Emlan swarms Swarm 51mm x mus WH Freeman and Company 9 m5 WHr Freeman and Campany b 1 Laron dwarfism IT 2 P quot Susceptibility to diphtheria Lowtone riquot deafness Limb girdle muscular Dlastrophlc dystrophy dysplasia a Chromosome 5 Fig0102b Generics Second Edition 2005 WH Freeman ar 21st Century Nobel Prizes in Medicine amp Physiology 2007 Capecchi Evans Smithies quotfor their discoveries of principles for introducing speci c gene modi cations in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells 2006 Fire Mello quotfor their discovery of RNA interference gene silencing by doublestranded RNA miRNA on text cover 2005 Marshall Warren quotfor their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease Genetic variations among humans may affect their susceptibility 2004 Axel Buck quotfor their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system 1000 genes 2003 Lauterbur Mansfield MRI 2002 Brenner Horvitz Sulston for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death 2001 Hartwell Hunt Nurse quotfor their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cyclequot Oliver Smithies for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells Genetics in the news The Importance of Genetics 0 a major role in modern biology 0 genetic diversity amp evolution 0 divisions of genetics 0 model genetic organisms ivisions 0f Genetics Transmission Molecular genetics genetics Population genetics Figure 1 6 Genetics A Conceptual Approach Third Edlrlan v v 2009 W H heeman and Company Integration of Genetics Molecular genetics U Figure 1lt6Jlt Genera31 tantlpmldppinm h TNrdEdI nn FL 2009 W H Fveenwn and Company mi quot 39I EL JJ EJ J The Rise of Genetics a H g l l meant In Germ plum hm 569 qu reproduction prefomtlonlsm cunmm vi gum n xohmE Weismann 1882 Charles Darwin Gregor Mendel On the Origin Laws of Species of Inheritance 1859 18651900 Charles Darwin s Fundamental Insight Heritable variation in fitness survival amp reproduction drives evolution by natural selection Gregor Mendel s Principles of Inheritance The Principle of Particulate Inheritance The Principle of Dominance The Law of Segregation The Law of Independent Assortment Modern Genetics blending vs particulate inheritance biometricians vs mutationists selection vs mutation Darwinists vs Mendelians the Modern Synthesis both mutation amp selection underlie genetics and evolution RA Fisher JBS Haldane Sewell Wright UltraModern Genetics the elucidation of the structure of DNA the double helix cracking the genetic code biotechnology genomics the human genome and onward the double helix Watson amp Crick the double helix DNA 1953 Rosalind Franklin Basic Concepts in Genetics Cells are of two basic types eukaryotic and prokaryotic The gene is the fundamental unit of heredity Gene39s come in multiple forms called alleles Genes confer encode phenotypes Genetic information is carried in DNA and RNA pp 1112 Basic Concepts in Genetics Genes are located on chromosomes Chromosomes separate through the processes of mitosis and meiosis Genetic information is transferred from DNA to RNA to protein Mutations are permanent heritable changes in genetic information pp 1112 Basic Concepts in Genetics Some traits are affected by multiple factors Evolution is genetic change pp 1112 SEIENEEWNIAATTERS BHIEVINE SELENTIFIB LITERACY quot 1 u 39 1 v HAZEN amp Hm quot9 PM u n kict2mxmmiywW quot r quot science matters worldview 1 the universe is regular and predictable overarchinq principles 2 one set of laws describes all motion 3 energy is conserved 4 energy always goes from more useful to less useful forms 5 electricity amp magnetism are two aspects of the same force 6 everything is made of atoms 7 everything comes in discrete units amp you can39t measure anything without changing it achieving scientific literacy chemistm 8 atoms are bound by electron glue 9 the way a material behaves depends on how its atoms are arranged m 10 nuclear energy comes from the conversion of mass 11 everything is really made of quarks and leptons 12 stars live and die 13 the universe was born at a specific time in the past amp it has been expanding ever since 14 every observer sees the same laws of nature science s Q greatest hits earth sciences 15 the surface of the earth is constantly changing 16 everything on earth operates in cycles biology 17 all living things are made from cells the chemical factories of life 18 all life is based on the same genetic code 19 all forms of life evolved by natural selection 20 all life is connected scientific literacy more biology 21 living beings follow the laws of physics and chemistry there is no quotvitalquot force nevertheless life transcends laws of P amp C 22 enzymes control the work of cells 23 homeostasis is fundamental to life 24 the sun provides the energy used by almost all life on earth 25 life is based on carbon 26 life is based on water 27 no two organisms are alike 28 successful systems accumulate parasites what is biological science observational science eyes amp minds wide open experimental science hypothesis testing theory building integrative science more observations more experiments quantltatlve analySIs statlstlcal analysns better amp more inclusive theories all based on natural explanations of phenomena the principle of objectivity science rejects supernatural explanations but nevertheless we come to recognize that life comes to realize a purpose via development amp reproduction teleonomy vs teleology and perhaps in intensely selfconscious organisms such as our human selves we come to realize even deeper meaning and purpose 333 6 traits Q folding wha amp function is protein life translation W RNA 1 transcription W DNA replication A gene replication amp expression A major theme of this course traits 1 protein 1 WVVV RNA W DN1A 0 taking the gene s eye view what is life in 2 biological dimensions 1 1 313 between generations within a generation mitosis what is life in 2 biological dimensions 1 i 313 meiosis what is life a sometimes 1 it takes two 1 I 1 T 9 fusion 1quotquot ng Development gt what is life i I 1 1 3 gt gt Reproduction gt Genetics is Information Theory Reproduction The Propagation of Information Development The Expression of Information 0 a e 29 o 1 1 6 J O 0 amprecombination What is Universal Darwinism H rquot y lil fr l 17 3971fo f l l 7 Information accumulates as energy flows amp matter cycles Life diversifies Life complexifies Six Model Organisms J V 139 Escherichia coli Saccharomyces cerevisiae Caenorhabditis elegans Bacterium pp 216 21 8 Baker s yeast pp 589 591 Roundworm pp 388 390 7 rsoptla me7gppgaste 7 Fruit fly pp 84 85 Arabidopsis thaliana Thale cress plant pp 466 468 House mouse pp 534 536 how much DNA does it take to make a how many genes does it take to make a how many cells does it take to make a Model Genus amp species length mass chrom DNA genes cells The bademphage A 200nm 1pg 1 circle 585kbp 55 o Vlrus mite Eschemma 15pm 1ng 1 circle 464mbp 4 000 1 Baker s Saccharomyces Yeast cerevisiae 2pm 4ng 16 palr 12mbp 6 144 1 The caequot habd t s 1mm 300ng 5 pair 103mbp 20 500 959 Worm elegans The Fly D s ph a 25mm 1mg 4 pair 175mbp 14 000 1 000 000 000 melanogaster The Arabidopsis Plant thaliana 15cm 109 5 palr 125mbp 25 700 15 000 000 000 The Mus muscu 65cm 209 20 pair 26bbp 26 762 30 000 000 000 Mouse Us Homo sapiens 161m 64kg 23 pair 32bbp 24 000 100 trillion 39 Li 1 m J 3333 Genetics LIFE 3050 Spring 2011 Homework 2 Due Fri Jan 28 in lecture 25 points 1 4 points Problem 33 in Chapter 2 both editions of Pierce Hint Horses are like humans in their life cycle 2 6 points 2 points each In cucumbers orange fruit color R is dominant over cream fruit color 1 A cucumber plant homozygous for orange fruits is crossed with a plant homozygous for cream fruits The F1 are intercrossed to produce the F2 a Give the genotypes and phenotypes of the parents the F1 and the F2 b Give the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a backcross between the F 1 and the orange parent c Give the genotypes and phenotypes of a backcross between the F1 and the cream parent 3 5 points In sheep lustrous eece L results from an allele that is dominant over an allele for normal eece l A ewe adult female with lustrous eece is mated with a ram adult male with normal eece The ewe then gives birth to a single lamb with normal eece From this single offspring is it possible to determine the genotypes of the two parents If so what are their genotypes Ifnot why not 4 4 points 1 point eachThe following two genotypes are crossed AaBchddEe X AabchDdEe What will be the proportion of the following genotypes among the progeny of this cross a AaBchDdEe b Aabchddee c aabbccddee d AABBCCDDEE 5 6 points In eisen ower petal color is controlled by the R locus where RR red Rr pink rr white and height is controlled by the T locus where TT Tt tall tt dwarf A plant from a truebreeding red tall line is hybridized with a plant from a truebreeding White dwarf line F1 plants are then selfpollinated to produce an F2 rap96x quot1 qa 1 point What is the genotype of the F1 1 point What is the phenotype of the F1 1 point What is the genotypic segregation inthe F2 1 point What is the phenotypic segregation in the F2 1 point The plant breeder is interested in producing a truebreeding white tall variety of eisen ower What proportion of white tall plants in the F Will breed true for this phenotype 1 point The plant breeder is also interested in producing a truebreeding pink tall variety of eisen ower What proportion if any of such F2 plants will breed true for pink and tall 0 points just for fun If hybridization is easy to do can you identify any F2 genotypes that could be used to produce seed for a pink tall variety Equot 5 U SN gt1 00 Modern biology recognizes that genetics of higher organisms is based on a the pangenesis concept of acquired characteristics b reproduction via the germ line c preformation of the individual in the egg d preformation of an individual in the sperm e a vital force Today the theory of blending inheritance has been replaced by that of a acquired characteristics b mutationism c particulate inheritance d preformationism e spermism if 7 is recognized as the father of Genetics 21 Sir Francis Crick b Charles Darwin c Jean Baptiste Lamarck d Gregor Mendel e August Weismann The three essential elements of a eukaryotic chromosome are a a centriole a chloroplast and a centromere b a centromere a pair of telomeres and numerous origins of replication c a centrosome a pair of centrioles and numerous origins of replication d a cytoplasm a nuclear envelope and two centromeres e a homunculus a spermist and two ovists Diploid cells have a one copy of the nuclear genome b one pair of homologous chromosomes c one set of chromosomes d two chromosomes e two sets of chromosomes Which of the following events takes place in Meiosis II but not in Meiosis I a Crossing over b Contraction of chromosomes c Pairing of homologous chromosomes d Separation of homologous chromosomes 9 Separation of chromatids Pea plants are a dioecious b hermaphroditic c heterotrophic d monoecious e prokaryotic Double fertilization occurs in a Archaea b Homo sapiens c nematodes 1 plants e prokaryotes 0 0 l 2 3 4 6 Mitosis occurs in the following sequence of events a interphase 7 prometaphase7 prophase7 metaphase 7 anaphase 7 telophase b interphase 7 prophase 7 prometaphase 7 metaphase 7 anaphase 7 telophase c telophase 7 anaphase 7 metaphase 7 prometaphase 7 prophase 7 interphase d telophase 7 metaphase 7 anaphase 7 prometaphase 7 prophase 7 interphase e telophase 7 prophase 7 prometaphase 7 metaphase 7 interphase 7 anaphase That part of the chromosome that attaches to the spindle at prometaphase is the a 5 cap b centromere c chromatid d chiasma e chloroplast In male human beings the primary spermatocyte undergoes meiosis to produce a l polar body b 2 polar bodies c 1 sperm d 2 spermatids e 4 spermatids Plants of genotypes RR and Rr have red petals Plants of genotype rr have white petals A plant from a true breeding red line is crossed with a plant from a truebreeding white line The F1 is then backcrossed to the true breeding red line The proportion of backcross progeny that are red is In a testcross an individual of unknown genotype is crossed with another individual whose genotype is a hemizygous b heterozygous c homozygous dominant d homozygous recessive e incompletely dominant In eggplant the l purple 2 violet 1 white segregation in the F2 generation derived from a cross between purple PP and white pp parents is an example of a complete dominance b heterosis or hybrid vigor c incomplete dominance or additivity d Mendel s 2nd Law e results of a dihybrid cross When in a diploid eukaryote dominance is complete at locus A these genotypes will eXpress the dominant phenotype 21 AA Aa and 2121 b both AA and Aa c both Aa and 2121 d AA only e Aa only A 933l phenotypic segregation in the F2 indicates a a dihybrid cross in the P generation for two traits each with complete dominance b a dihybrid cross in the P generation for a single trait with duplicate dominance DO D N O N N N N W A woman heterozygous at both of two loci produces 77 c a monohybrid cross in the P generation for two traits each with additivity d a monohybrid cross in the P generation for a single trait with complete dominance e maternal inheritance A testcross always involves one parent that is a hemizygous at all loci b heterozygous at all loci c heterozygous recessive at all loci d homozygous recessive at all loci e homozygous for a translocation In a testcross between a dihybrid parent and a doubly homozygous recessive tester parent two separate traits no epistasis if the two genes are not linked one eXpects a phenotyp1c segregation in testcross progeny o a lll1 b 31 c 933l d 934 e 97 i kinds of eggs 3 1 A genotype rrYy in pea when selfpollinated will in the neXt generation a breed true at the R locus and breed true at the Y locus b breed true at the R locus and segregate at the Y locus c segregate 9331 for four different genotypes d segregate at the R locus and breed true at the Y locus e segregate at the R locus and segregate at the Y locus A dihybrid F1 plant with genotype AaBb where the A and B loci are on separate chromosomes will according to Mendel s Second Law will eXhibit the following F 2 geno pic segregation upon selfpollination a 11 b llll c l2l242l21 d 31 e 933l A monohybrid F1 plant is heterozygous at the A locus and eXhibits a higher level of the A trait than both of its homozygous parents Thus we say that there is 777 a additive b dominance c recessive epistatic d incomplete dominance e overdominance gene action at the A locus In male human beings and other male mammals pairing of X and Y chromosomes at meiosis is facilitated by the a Barr body b equal length of the chromosomes c haplodiploidy d pseudoautosomal regions near the telomeres e sexdetermining regions of the Y chromosome N N N N N N gt0 w 0 In human beings the male is the 7 seX a heterogametic b heterogeneous c heteromorphic d heterosexual e heterozygous In social insects like ants and bees seX determination is via a dioecy b haplodiploidy c monoecy d a ZW system e an XY system Redgreen color blindness in Homo sapiens is Xlinked recessive A woman with normal color vision has a father who is colorblind The woman has a child with a man with normal color vision Which phenotype is NOT expected a colorblind female b colorblind male c noncolorblind female d noncolorblind male Penetrance is the a degree to which a character is eXpressed but is always lethal when fully penetrant b degree to which a character is eXpressed but is always lethal when fully penetrant c percentage of individuals having a particular genotype that eXhibit an eXpected phenotype d result of eXpression of autosomal genes in only one seX usually the male e same thing as incomplete dominance and sometimes may be referred to as additivity In snapdragons the allele for red owers is incompletely dominant over the allele for white owers and thus heterozygotes have pink owers Thus a cross between two pink owered plants should yield progeny that a breed true pink b segregate 3 pink 1 white c segregate 3 red 1 white d segregate 1 red 2 pink 1 white e segregate 9 red 6 pink 1 white When the phenotype of a heterozygote at a single locus includes the phenotypes of both homozygotes we refer to the intralocus interaction as a additivity b codominance c dominance d epitasis e incomplete dominance Lethal and deleterious alleles are most often a additive b codominant c dominant d heterotic e recessive H1 8 points A sow gives binh to six pigleis Sexual determination is the same as in human beings 16 equal probability ofmales and females What is the probability iyfexac y 3 males and 3 females in the late 7 W C s3 i1 ng gt a09 o0g 2 h 5 39l P sLi l a 0 a93053 3amp3 720 a 64 a 72 0 36 4306625 lOfsi39zgS 5 VA 4539 mcm6 w39 n P 5s but only quot V2 5396 quotTWPa 33 6 points A species has two pairs of 4 39 1 a pair Draw a cell nfiliis organism as it would appear in ase ofmimsisl pair and m 5 km rm SC Ulla er c ova Surfer an s a OSSlae lmEN JfAh39l39 8 MA claromogcw s Ll 30M eaaln W422 WW newly Sb ara l ol SEA 6r Jurome 5 new ll 4161 56 o AramosombS gt affb l z acln o 64 Cen lmwxares leaol Ae Way 8 points Fill 39 quot llulllLl chrnmaiid and DNA molecules per cell at each sing for a diploid organism wilh 2n6b 61 prior to meiosis Prophase I of melosls Anaphase I meiosis Telophase H of melosis 35 s poinis Guinea pigs come in a wonderful variety ofcolors However you are working with two simple populations ofguinea pigs one all 39 quot while in 39 J quot 39 39 all members ofihe i 39 L Vhe F 39 J F Pnermlnn thal is made up of 394 black V brown and V while guinea pigs Diagram Le use a 1 quot X quot39 39 house whatever gene symbols you like I would probably choose B and b Also stale whal type ofimmlocus gene b lo Had kfbv go oo D 71 oww wkl E V 66 miwance ar39 4373 abovo was Su39Qch ien39k Same o39 yavx Lacng lw CD 39lt b 3939 39Caaw wx 3 2 g 0aalt Ebkx Ev gfovHA F E 1 wk orownb ne 3 Erwn 39 MMJIS Fifd39 LAW Lat4 a 63 a HOV Y 2mg 9 J RZ LA lt arwn whi


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