General Ecology LIFE 3400
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Verdie Sporer on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 3400 at University of Wyoming taught by Daniel Doak in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/230306/life-3400-university-of-wyoming in Life Sciences at University of Wyoming.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Week 1 Lecture Study Notes covering lectures I and 2 and chapters 1234 1What are the four basic areas of ecological research Organismal behavior physiological ecology Population Community Ecosystem highest level general 2What is a biome What are two examples of biomes A major regional or global biotic community such as a grassland or desert characterized chie y by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate 3The ENSO Paci c Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation are all examples of large scale climate variation Describe an example of an ecological pattern or process that is strongly in uenced by each of these climate variations and how climate exerts these effects 4What were two of the many things that Darwin studied and wrote about EvolutionNatural selection and Finchescompetition for natural resources 5What are at least 4 of the climate cycles that are important ecological Annual Daily Draught cycles Ice ages 6Bark Beetles attack and kill trees using two different types of cooperation What are they Coevolution and cooperation with fungus cooperation with each other They attack in mass while attracting other beetles with phermones What are the bene ts of each type of cooperation for the individuals involved Beetles eat and the fungus that the beetles store in their armpits can be spread The fungus larvae kills the cambium part of the tree the beetles eat 7How do conifers defend themselves from bark beetles In what way can this defense be counter productive They extract SAP to suffocate the beetles There isn t enough SAP to kill all of the beetles once there are a lot though It can be counter productive when repeated attacks cause stress and weakens branches Eventually it becomes blind wood 8What is the purpose of anti aggregation pheromone It stops more beetles from coming to one tree so that they don t starve not enough food for everyone 9What external factors in uence whether bark beetles are likely to outbreak killing large numbers of trees over wide areas Outbreaks not during wet and cold but during hot and dry With warmer winters there is less mortality of beetles during the winter Normally they don t survive winters 10Describe two patterns that imply that lizard running speed is subject to strong natural selection If live in cold temps run best in cold temps etc Natural selection If highly specialized run very fast but only small range of temps What is a piece of evidence that speedier lizards are not always more t It s honed to 39 SWZUFV 39 quot Most t isn t fastest Experiment 1 Cali lizards run faster on narrow sticks and slower on broad sticks which are more like the ground specialized 2 Cali lizards have best surefootedness don t fall off of the stick as much 11Why in general are traits like splint speed not even more fmely tuned or better matched to the environments an animal faces that they are What 12What climate variable best matches the northern distributional limit of birds in winter Minimum Temp in mid winter worked best isoc1ine lines of diff temperatures 13What are the key features of a controlled experiment contains an experimental group with factor being tested contains a control group without factor Sca1e Rep1ication Assign treatments to subjectsplots at random statistical analysis to determine signi cant effects 14In what ways do leg deformities decrease the tness of frogs What causes these deformities Inability to produce offspring dif cult to catch preyfood dif cult to escape from predators Parasites cause deformities as well as decreased immune systems to ght off parasites due to fertilizer and pesticides 15Why is it desirable to have replicates in ecological experiments Makes it less likely that the results were actually due to a variable that was not measured or controlled in the study To answer this contrast the possible explanations for a result that comes from an experiment that does and does not have replicates If Kiesecker did his exp with 2 ponds only there could have been another difference between the two ponds that he didn t pick up on giving scued results 16What is the difference between conduction and convection conduction is the process of thermal energy transfer without the ow of material medium While in convection heat is transferred with the ow of material medium 17What causes the differences between a maritime and a continental climate Proximity to oceans Ocean has a higher heat capacity than land so seasonal temp changes are less over oceans and oceans provide a source of moisture for clouds and precipitation Maritimehigh huminity little temp variation Continentalvariation in temp 18Why do many mountain ranges have markedly different rainfall and snowfall on one side versus the other Mountains Pressure and density of air in atmosphere decreases so heat capacity of the air decreases heating of air by ground is less effective because of lower density Also highlands exchange air more effectively with cooler air in the surrounding atmosphere And wind velocity increases due to less friction with the ground Mountains in uence wind patterns and gradients in temp and precipitation The Rain shadow effect Low precipitation and dry warmer temperatures occur on slopes facing away from wind wind moves down the mountain and high precipitation and wet cold temperatures occur on slope facing the wing wind moves up getting colder along the mountain 19Be able to explain what kind of climate variation is created in North America by the El NinoSouthern Oscillation and also by the PDO El Nino wet and cold After an El Nino El Nina opposite PDO warmcool phases 20From material in both the text and lecture what are the patterns in changes in salmon numbers that are caused by the PDO and what does the PDO do that causes these changes warmer and cooler temp of North Pacific in uenced marine ecosystems salmon depended on and thus shifted salmon production north or south depending on the phase of the PDO 21What does the term convergence mean in the study of biomes The evolutionary development of similar external morphological traits in organisms which are unrelated except through distant ancestors as each adapts to a similar way of life andor environment 9 They evolved separately Text The evolution of similar growth forms among distantly related species in response to similar selection pressures 22What is the difference between transpiration and evapotranspiration Evaporation of water from inside plant evaporation from the soil 23What are three different explanations for the extinctions of large mammals at the end of the Pleistocene 1 human hunting 2 climate change Temperatures were warming Rainfall patterns were changing The glaciers were melting The seasonal difference in temperatures was increasing 3 Hyperdisease humans brought over disease causing agents 24The Distribution of Aspen appears to be strongly driven by temperature but temperature can limit aspen in several different ways What are three of these 70ish 25What in the context of physiology ecology are one sentence de nitions of stress andacclimatization What about tolerance vs avoidance 26Describe two different ways in which plants are able to alter the temperature of their leaves 27Is it easier for large or for small animals to change their temperature away from that of their environment If this is not an easy question to answer provide an explanation of what kind of changes are easier or harder for animals with different body sizes 28Are the frozen frogs of Chapter 4 really frozen Explain 29What is torpor give a clear de nition of what it means to be in torpor 30What is the thermal neutral zone Temperature tolerance zone don t have to increase metabolic rate 31Are larger or smaller organisms better able to tolerate extreme desiccation Why 32Be able to give one sentence de nitions of the bolded terms in each of the chapter sections that were assigned for this week also check the reading notes for explicit things I ask you to know they are not all repeated here but I do want you to know them Chapter Questions Chapter 1 1 Connections in nature refers to the idea that whether indirectly or directly all organisms and their environment within a community or ecosystem are connected some how or can affect one another Because of these connections one actionchange may have an unexpected consequence or result that you might not expect Ex increase use of pesticides 9 decrease in immune system of frogs increased deformities 3The scienti c method has 4 steps which are all paIt of a self correcting process The results lead to new knowledge and more questions a cycle A controlled experiment involves contains an experimental group with factor being tested contains a control group without factor Scale Replication Assign treatments to subjectsplots at random statistical analysis to determine significant effects a Why is replication especially important in performing ecological experiments Makes it less likely that the results were actually due to a variable that was not measured or controlled in the study b Explain how the predators of frogs are imp01tant in determining the population wide effects of Ribeiroia Predators of frogs are directly connected A decrease in the frogs could mean a decrease in predators which can changeaffect the entire community By looking at the affects of the predators of these frogs the effects of Ribeiroia are more obvious Chapter 2 1 Why is the variability of physical conditions potentially more important than average conditions for determining ecological patterns such as species distributions It tells us more about mortality or a species or organism It tells us whatwho can survive at extremes through distribution 3How do the following features affect regional terrestrial climates a Mountains Pressure and density of air in atmosphere decreases so heat capacity of the air decreases heating of air by ground is less effective because of lower density Also highlands exchange air more effectively with cooler air in the surrounding atmosphere And wind velocity increases due to less friction with the ground Mountains in uence wind patterns and gradients in temp and precipitation The Rain shadow effect Low precipitation and dry warmer temperatures occur on slopes facing away from wind wind moves down the mountain and high precipitation and wet cold temperatures occur on slope facing the wing wind moves up getting colder along the mountain b Oceans Temperatures don t vary as much with seasons higher heat capacity Oceans also provide a source of moisture for clouds and precipitation This affects the coast lines maritime climate by having little change as well The OPPOSITE happens to terrestrial areas in the middle of continents making them have more variation called continental climate bad news for transgenic solutions to pest problems 9market high price works for a couple years then stops working and create a new one Solution rotate different ones to remove strong selective pressure but won t make as much money preventing rapid evolution Cost of adaptations Warfarin resistance in rats mode of action Interferes with vitamin K blood clotting9 causes hemeraging quick evolution go from almost entirely killed9 50 resistance very quickly rapid loss of resistance after 3 yrs of no warfarin 57 resistance 939 stop applying poison for sometime reduces resistance Reversal when take away natural selection pressure Always a down side too much or not enough blood clotting Lessons in thinking about ecology With changing conditions and newly introduced species organisms are not static The most rapid changes are in response to strong consistent novel selectionand in species with large population sizes apply to large species uncontrolled which can be bad cause selection Across a species range there may bestrong differences in important traits ipatterns of dispersal vs patterns of selection will determine how big such differences will be limited dispersal mix up gene pool9 variation bigger population and dispersalpopulations diverge from one another rapidly or other way around ress and small population size A nal Evolutionary Topic Your fitness is not your own kin selection I elatives inclusive tness your fitness includes tness of relatives The most complemehavioral adaptations are in social species Why competition and cooperation with members of own species but with relatives makes it different connected with relatives9 passing on traits Webs of competing and coinciding selection pressures You would expect selfishness own fitness but sometimes see cooperation Selection seems like it should favorselfishness socooperationis especially interesting Two reasons to cooperate AReciprocal Altruism does not rely on genetics you scratch my back I ll scratch yours primates dolphins whales ex males hunt togetherbenefit for both increase both fittnesses benefitting yourself still same species BInclusive Fitness kin selection Benefit genetically more by helping family members The key to predicting cooperation due to relatedness Hamilton s rule Br C gt 0 Bbenefit to relative Ccost to yourself Rhow related you are to relative EX baboon brother sharing banana with sister siblings r5 50 benefit4 Cost1 offspring s it costsbenefits9 YES Share EX icy stream with mom you fall in Mother thinks Should I save her Yes costs less than benefits with relatedness children are usually selfish towards parents parents do everything for children grandparentsparents are post reproductive helping you benefits them family fitness spouses increasing fitness equally for each other ex songbirds males and females raise offspring together socially monogamous 9 both cheat on each other to inc own fitness without hurting own offspring Balance in orderto not hurt own offspring and inc own fitness Simple to write but not so easy to really evaluate The Best Example Turkeys in Carmel CA The basic social system Males display for females in pairs together to impress females but only 1 male will breed Dominant breeds a lot subordinate doesn t reproduce at a 9must be related pairs9 is it worthwhile chartl Relatedness 42 almost full siblings benefit to dominant 6 offspring cost to you 9 offspring rBC 17 you gain 15 offspring so it is worthwhile to help your brother The sad facts of a turkey s life Lecture 6 Mole rats why immune to cancertumors Live for 28 years with small size rat size How allocate growthsurvivalreproduction energy Number in population vs time will grow exponentially until reach maximum capacity K 1 R vs K selection r rate of growth of pop growth rate K capacity K selected limited by foodresourceselephants R selected population booms then drops predators or climatemice R selected K selected Maximum pop growth high low Competitiveness low high Development time fast slow Age at maturity fast slow Body size small large Reproductive pattern 1 time many times Offspring size large amount small size small amount large size Do the patterns hold up Remove 900 fish L R S Llarge death Ssm all death Rrrandomly remove fish Most interested in L treatment fishing you fish for the largest fish Cause a pattern If remove smallest fish higher feeding rate and larger egg volume etc What selecting for Size eating a lot higher growth efficiency K selection Small R selection Large COD Stopped fishing but no recovery 9fishing out large fish selects for small ones survive Stopped growing fast reproduce at smaller sizes we have selected for the S fish survivors n uvv t really They WERE K selective but we didR selection on the large Cod Now m are R selective glacier Beyond r vs K what speci c tradeo 39s maximize tness Example 2 Optimal Clutch Size Approach 1 the Lack clutch size How you decide how much to reproduce Diagram Females are not limited by number of eggs can layquot ab eg Cm Maximum number of surviving edglingsrnumber they lay eggs CATCH Most birds lay 1 or 2 less than clutch size what would give you max number of offspring Problems what happens when you increase clutch size Approach 2 Maximizing lifetime tness Quality not quantity own ability to survive and produce future generations Tradeoffs 9with enlarged clutches smaller chicks 70 w se survival of chicks 53 worse survival of parenm 36 worse future repro ofparents 57 layed fewer eggs and less successful Balancing own survivability own growth and reproduction Kiwi 1 egg every 2years l K selective no native land predators evolved at high densities with only food limiting their capacity Example 3 Annual vs Perennial Plants The Basic question Why isn t everyone an annual Advantages of being an annual fastreprodgrow allocate lots to offspring prod lots of offspring really fast So What are the disadvantages competition environm ental unpredictability perennials wait for optimal climate What patterns exist in longevity
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