Exam Notes NSC170
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lena P on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NSC170 at University of Arizona taught by Jennifer Ricketts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and You in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
NSC 170 Unit 1 Leading causes of death in US heart disease cancer stroke and diabetes chronic diseases Risk factors age environment lifestyle practices F young women have less water and protein and more fat Metabolism all chem rxns energy generation protein production waste elimination Food Energy caorieskiocaories Macronutrients carbs fats proteins micronutrients contain no energy vitamins and minerals water is the most necessary for life but has no energy carbs 4kcag protein 4kcag fat 9kcag alcohol 7kcag Law of Thermodynamics energy is only transformed not created or destroyed energy from sun in abs by chlorophyll in plants use CO from air and H20 from soil What provides cells with energy Carbs lipids proteins alcohol How many classes of nutrients 6 Nonnutrients plants alcohol phytochemicals antioxidants Dietary supplements vitamins minerals herbs plants amino acids Malnutrition dietary inadequacy lowincome risk eating disorders substance abuse medical issues both under and overnutrition There are no good or bad foods emptycalorie foods nutrient dense foods Nutrient dense vs energy dense a lot of essential nutrients vs a lot of calories the ratio Best source of Nutrients quotwholequot and minimally processed foods natural foods Nutrient supplements pills powders bars wafers beverages digestibility phytochemicals Functional foods boosting nutrient intakes managing speci c health issues probiotics Unit 2 Scienti c Method observe develop a question test coect info analyze ndings form conclusions share results conduct more research Human Intervention Studies research applied to human situation Experimental studies heath condition results from speci c dietary practices possible to identify cause and effect observational studies case and population studies initial study into a subject area can only identify relationships and correlations Doubleblind study treatment and control group Signi cance treatments placebo placebo effect Dietary Reference Intakes energy and nutrients diet planning dietary adequacy evaluation based on healthy individuals Estimated Average Requirement 50 of healthy people ife stagegender not for dietary adequacy evaluation scienti c use Adequate Intakes no RDAs determination Estimated Energy Requirement avg daily intake healthy people weight maintenance factors physical activity height weight gender life stage Food Groups Grains wheat rice oat pasta noodles crackers our cornmeal popcorn whole grains Enrichment re ned cereal product Forti cation added vitamins etc Dairy milk and milk products protein phosphorous vitamin D calcium protein beef pork lamb beans eggs nuts tofu seeds micronutrients iron and zinc saturated fats and cholesterol fruits fresh dried frozen sauced vitamin C vegetables ber and phytochemicals low fat and low energy oils group sugary foods alcoholic foodsunnecessary Overview of Digestion Major organs Mouth esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine Accessory organs teeth tongue salivary glands liver gall bladder pancreas The Mouth teeth and chewing salivary glands saliva and enzymes tongue taste buds and smell Esophagus signs of choking and the Heimlich maneuver Stomach Lower gastroesophageal sphincter stomach gastric juicHCIenzymes mucus chime muscular movement pyloric sphincter Small intestine duodenum jejunum ileum absorption villi capillary network lacteals absorptive cells large intestine colon and the rectum bacteria makes Vitamin K and biotin absorption fecal matter intestinal bacteria fermentation nutrient production atulence antibiotics probiotics intestinal infections Starvation antibiotics emotional stress constipation hemorrhoids diverticula acid re ux controlled by lower gastroesophageal sphincter heartburn pregnancy excess body fat and smoking citrus foods etc GERD gastreoesophageal re ux disease symptoms frequent acid re ux nausea gagging chronic dry cough hoarse voice risk reduction antacids lose excess weight don39t lie down following a meal do not overeat avoid smoking no solution increases ulcers peptic ulcers burning pain In upper abdomen vomiting blood black tarry stools increased risk H pylori infection excessive stomach acid smoking alcohol consumption prolonged use of NSAIDS and family history gallstones when you have high fat diet and cholesterol gets recirculated can become calci ed IBS and Ulcerative colitischrons disease UC is in the colon only anti in ammatory medication for treatment Colorectal cancer blood in stools weight loss tiredness narrow stools frequent gas pains constipation nausea vomiting Metabolism energy metabolism cells catabolism breaking down to release energy anabolism using energy to build adenosine phosphate ATP aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism aerobic running requires oxygen and burns fat protein and carbohydrate anaerobic lactic acid occurs without oxygen and burns carbohydrates EXAM 1 1 6 categories of nutrients Carbohydrates lipids protein vitamins minerals water provide energy main roles of each group 2 non nutrients ber phytochemicals prevent cellular damage antioxidants 3 de ciency disease direct link chronic disease indirect link but relationship 4 Scienti c Method observational and experimental method differences observational correlation experimental cause and effect gold standard in experimental method double blind randomized placebo controlled study observational study types experimental study components 5 edu or org phd or registered dietician 6 Differences of dietary guidelines for americans DRls Myplatemypyramid role for each DRI is very speci c for individual guidelines are very broad and general myplatemypyramid are individualistic and you can apply it to yourself 7different categories of the DRls and what they represent 8 nutrient claims health claims structurefunction rules 9 concept of food labels and history nutrition facts panel and what DV represents Unit 5 0 Explain the origin of dietary carbohydrates Has glucose sweet molecule energy source of molecules Plants make carbohydrates Categorize the different carbohydrates as either mono di or polysaccharides Mono glucose galactose fructose di lactose maltose sucrose poly energy storage plant structures starch glycogen Identify carbohydrate storage both in plants and animals Plants starch animals glycogen Explain the dietary differences between whole and enriched grains 0 Describe lactose intolerance Describe carbohydrate digestion where chemical digestion begins and is completed 0 Identify the two hormones that control blood glucose and describe their function and origin 0 Explain the consequences of not getting enough carbohydrates in the diet 0 Explain the difference between natural and added sugar Added to foods during processing or preparation 0 Identify the aliases of sugar on food labels HFCS 0 Explain where most of the sugar in the diets of Americans comes from soda Differentiate between the sugar substitutes Alternative sweetners few or no calories absorption and digestive issues nonnutritive sweetners manufactured more sweet than naturally occurring sugars Name the types of fiber and explain the benefits of each Soluble delays stomach from emptying lowers cholesterol slows glucose absorption insoluble increases stool bulk and eases bowel movement 0 Identify foods that are likely to be good sources of fiber Beans vegetables and fruit 0 Compare and contrast type and type II diabetes 0 Define gestational diabetes hypoglycemia and prediabetes List the consequences of diabetes 0 List and explain the risk factors of diabetes 0 Explain what is meant by insulin resistance 0 Explain what types of dietary and lifestyle changes may help to prevent and treat diabetes 0 Define and describe the different types of lipids Triglyercide three fatty acid to glycerol Phospholipid 2 fatty acids and glycerol backbone with phosphorous or nitrogen nerve cell fxn lecithin Sterols cholesterol plant sterol carbon rings bile salts for digestion vitamin D 0 List the three types of fatty acids Saturated monounsaturated polyunsaturated essential fatty acids 0 Describe lipid digestion including where chemical digestion occurs Little digestion in the stomach most in small intestine Bile salts releases in chime pancreas releases enzyme lipase for digestion Fatty acid converted to monoglycerideMicelle forms 0 List the functions of fat in the body and in food Emulsifier horomones flavoring cell membrane maintenance insulation blood pressure and inflammation protection absorption of phytochemicals and vitamins Define and describe essential fatty acids Must be consumed in diet alpha linoleic omega 3 EPA and DHA and linoleic omega 6 AA 0 List food sources of the essential fatty acids Salmon and nuts 0 Calculate fat and saturated fat needs based on total caloric intake 2035 of total calories Less than 10 for saturated Compare and contrast the typical American diet with the Mediterranean diet More plant based diet less saturated fat 0 Explain the advantages and disadvantages of trans fats Higher risk of heart disease and stroke Preserve for longer time 0 Describe the trans fat labeling requirement Even if there s a little bit they can label as 0g 0 Explain how fat substitutes and fat free products differ from their regular counterparts More water content 0 Define heart disease and atherosclerosis Blockage of artery due to inflammation and build up of arterial plaque Forms clot blocking vessel or clumps off and lodges in a smaller one 0 List risk factors for heart disease High trans and saturated fat diets refined carbs smoking LDL cholesterol alcohol poor sleep sleep apnea diabetes hypertension 0 Explain the relationship between diet hypertension and heart disease All causes and risk factors of another Hypertension is inflexible arteries 0 List the different lipoproteins and describe their origin and their functions Transports cholesterol phospholipids and triglycerides through watery environments Chylomicrons are made in absorptive cells by small intestine and transport TG VLDL high proportion of lipids made in liver transport TG LDL turns into LDL when all TG is gone HDL made in liver to remove cholesterol from cells 0 List and describe dietary methods of improving your cholesterol profile Increase essential fatty acids eliminate saturated and trans fats W 0 Define protein amino acid and essential amino acid Protein organic nutrients that are chemically similar to lipids and carbs bc they contain C H and 0 They also contain N Amino Acid basic building blocks of protein 20 different amino acids Carbon atom attached to a H amino group R group acid group Essential amino acid body cant make them or produce enough to meet its needs 0 Know the number of essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids Essential 9 nonessential 11 0 Explain the process of protein synthesis DNA gt RNA gt protein 0 Describe protein digestion including where chemical digestion occurs Begins in stomach HCI causes proteins to unfold pepsin break down peptide bonds then shortened polypeptide chains enter small intestine and pancreas release proteases protein splitting enzyme to digest poly into amino acids dipeptide and tripeptides Further digestion occurs at absorptive cells in small intestine with enzymes from microvilli After being absorbed aa enters portal vein and goes to liver 0 Explain what is meant by denaturation and explain the consequences Altering a proteins shape due to heat acids or salt Alters fxn Marinating chicken in acidic mixture frying an egg 0 List and describe the various functions of protein in the body Makemaintainrepair cells build structures collagen keratin contractile proteins produce enzymeslubricantsclotting compounds transport substances make antibodies and hormones maintain proper fluid and acidbase balance provide energy 0 Define complete protein and complemented protein Complete protein high quality has all essential aas well digested and absorbed by body meatfishmilkeggsquinoasoy Complemented protein combinations of certain plant foods that provide all essential aas without adding animal proteins categories seedstree nuts grains legumes List food sources of protein Meat tofu bagel legumes nuts eggs 0 Explain the consequences of eating too little or too much protein Too much higher urinary losses of calcium dehydration kidneys need more water to dilute and eliminate extra urea upset the ability of intestines to absorb amino acids effect of supplements Too little vitamin and mineral deficiencies improper development and growth weak irritable vulnerable to infections and dehydration lower intelligence 0 List the types of vegetarian diets Semivegetarian eats eggs fish and dairy but generally avoids meat Lactovegetarian consumes milk products for protein Ovovegetarian eats eggs Lactoovovegetarian eats eggs and milk Vegan total vegetarian only plant foods 0 List reasons one may choose vegetarian diet Religious reasons personal preference to be more healthy 0 List the benefits of a vegetarian diet Lower in fat lower risk of obesity type 2 diabetes hypertension cancers leaner more fiber phytochemicals folic acid vitamins E and C potassium and magnesium less sat fat and cholesterol 0 List and describe the concerns of a vegetarian diet Not enough energy high quality protein omega 3 fatty acids vitamins B12 D and riboflavin minerals zinc iron calcium 0 Describe the benefits of soy in a vegetarian diet Soy is a complete protein