Survey of Astronomy
Survey of Astronomy ASTR 1050
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Popular in Astronomy
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Chapter 118 Jupiter Largest and most massive planet in the solar system Contains almost 34 of all planetary matter in the P solar system Most striking features visible from Earth Multicolored cloud belts I Visual image Infrared false oolor image Jupiter s Interior From radius and mass a Average density of Jupiter 134 gcm3 gt Jupiter can not be made mostly of rock like earthlike planets a Jupiter consists mostly of hydrogen and helium Liquid hydrogen Liquid metallic hydrogen Heavyelement yr core dopite Magnetie Field Axis of rotation Solar wind Earth39s radiation belts to scale a zone Eronkslcnle TMmsnn Discovered through observations of decimeter radio radiation Magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than Earth s magnetic field Magnetosphere over 100 times larger than Earth s magnetosphere Extremely intense radiation belts Very high energy particles can be trapped radiation doses corresponding to 100 times lethal doses for humans The Cloud Belts on Jupiter ll Just like on Earth highand lowpressure zones are bounded by highpressure winds 7 Nu Jupiter Jupiter s cloud belt structure has remained unchanged since humans began mapping them Galileo spacecraft image of Jupiter s ring illuminated from behind Rings must be constantly resupplied with new dust Jupiter s Ring Not only Saturn but all four gas giants have rings iter s ring dark and reddi h only discovered by Vo ger 1 spacecraft Comp sed of microscopic partic es of rocky material Location Inside Roche limit where larger bodies moons would be destroyed by tidal forces Ring material can t be old because radiation pressure and Jupiter s magnetic field force dust particles to spiral down into the planet The Galilean Moons Over two dozen moons known now new ones are still being discovered Four largest moons already discovered by Galileo The Galilean moons size 039 Earth39s mnon Europa Ganymede Callisto Interesting and diverse individual geologies Saturn Mass 13 of mass of Jupiter Radius 16 smaller than Jupiter Av density 069 gcm3 9 Gaseous Liquid Liquid metallic hydrogen hydrogen hydrogen Cloud layers Heavyelement core Saturn Rotates about as fast as Jupiter but is twice as oblate a No large core of heavy elements Mostly hydrogen and helium liquid hydrogen core Saturn radiates 18 times the energy received from the sun Probably heated by liquid helium droplets falling towards center Ring consists of 3 main segments A B and O Ring separated by empty regions a divisions quot cassini Division Rings cant have oeen formed together with Satorn because I Rings must be material wouid have repienished by been blown away by fragments of particie stream from Passlng comets hot Saturn at time of meteorOIds formation 9 2m Brooks Cole Publishmg a mwsmn mThumsnn Learnlng Composition of Saturn s Rings Rings are composed of ice particles moving at large velocities around Saturn but small relative velocities all moving in the same direction Shepherd Moons Encke39s dIVlSIun n F ring The transparency 0t Salum39s rings 5 evident where lhe moss in lronl ol the plane e 2002 Brooks Cole Publishing a divisi Shepherd satellite Some moons on Fri ngmseup orbits close to the rings focus the ring material keeping the rings confined Shepherd satellite e 2m Brooks Cale Publishing 7 a divisinn ammmsnn Leamin Titan Uranus 13 the diameter y Of Jupiter aseous hydrogen and helium 120 the mass I lces Of Jupiter rocky 39 no liquid metallic hydrogen Deep hydrogen 1 Northern half of i planet in darkness helium atmosphere Uranus Orbit slightly m elliptical orbital U period 84 years Very unusual orientation of rotation axis Almost in the orbital plane Possibly result of impact of a large planetesimal during the phase of planet formation Large ponions of the out planet exposed to e E k celestialpole eternal sunlight for 3 many years then 39 complete darkness for many years g ms Eiauks c mama The Atmosphere of Uranus Like other gas giants No surface Gradual transition from gas phase to fluid interior Mostly H 15 He a few methane ammonia and water vapor Optical view from Earth Blue color due to methane absorbing longer wavelengths Cloud structures only visible after artificial computer enhancement of optical images taken from Voyager spacecraft Cloud Structures of Uranus Hubble Space Telescope image of Uranus shows cloud structures not present during Voyager s passage in 1986 a Possiny clue to seasonal changes of the cloud structures Neptune Discovered in 1846 at position predicted from gravitational disturbances on Uranus orbit by J C Adams and U J Leverrier Bluegreen color from methane in the atmosphere 4 times Earth s diameter 4 smaller than Uranus The Atmosphere of Neptune quotj Great Dark Spot Visualwavelength images lrom Hubble Space Telescope Visualw lrorn Voyg z Cloudbelt structure with highvelocity winds origin not well understood Darker cyclonic disturbances similar to Great Red Spot on Jupiter but not longlived White cloud features of methane ice crystals Pluto as a Planet Virtually no surface features visible from Earth 65 of size of Earth s Moon Highly elliptical orbit coming occasionally closer to the sun than Neptune Orbit highly inclined 17 against other planets orbits a Neptune and Pluto will never collide Surface covered with nitrogen ice traces of frozen methane and carbon monoxide Daytime temperature 50 K enough to vaporize some N and CO to form a very tenuous atmosphere eeevereca m quotU978 abeui haw the e ze awe i Z the maes ef P uto hteeh Tida y QCked Hubble Space Telescope image P uto If the hydrogen Balmer alpha line has a rest wavelength of 6563 nm and you observe it in a star moving away from us at 600 kms use the Doppler shift formula to find the observed wavelength of the line MJ A 6563 nm A A04 CV B 6576 nm AOA0 C 6550 nm AOde Afxox D 6583 nm CV E 6537 nm AObSeW6dA0AOAOAO 600 C Aobserved A0 3 A0 6563 6563 6576 300000 A spectrum of a star is an example of A Kirchhoff s 1St law a hot body solid liquid or dense gas will emit a continuous spectrum Kirchhoff s 2nol law A low density gas excited to emit light will do so at specific wavelengths producing an emission spectrum Kirchhoff s 3rOI law If light comprising a continuous spectrum passes through a cool low density gas the result will be an absorption spectrum Why oh why Another Wien s law question An AOV star has a surface temperature of about 10000 K What regime of light does the majority of it s radiation fall under Hint You need to find the peak wavelength in meters first to compare to the table on page 79 Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Xray Radio W909 m 2005 mamcm r mummy e qu h1 1 a QX I7JNH 15 3m Very Important Warning Never look directly at the sun through a telescope or binoculars This can cause permanent eye damage even blindness Use a projection technique or a special sun viewing filter The Photosphere Apparent surface layer of the sun Depth z 500 km Temperature z 5800 K Highly opaque H39 ions Absorbs and reemits radiation produced in the solar interior The solar corona Chromosphere Photosphere Energy Transport in the Photosphere Energy generated in the sun s center must be transported outward In the photosphere this happens through Convection Cool gas sinking down Bubbles of hot gas rising up Bubbles last for z km Sinking gs z min39 is the visible consequence of convection The Solar Atmosphere 4000 To corona Only visible during solar eclipses Height above pho sphere km Apparent surface of the sun lo 7 l I l I I l I l I I I I I I 1000 10000 100000 1000000 Temperature K Temp incr Solar interior inward Heat The Chromosphere Region of sun s atmosphere just above the photosphere Visible UV and Xray lines from highly ionized gases Temperature increases gradually from z 4500 K to z 10000 K then jumps to z 1 million K I Tr Vriglis gl Transition region I I a 2000 4000 e km J O O l photospher Chromosphere Height abov Chromospheric structures visible in Hoc emission filtergram 1000 Photosphere l l l ll I l l ll I r I l lOOO 10000 100000 1000000 Temperature K The Chromosphere II Spicules Filaments of cooler gas from the photosphere rising up into the Chromosphere Visible in Hoe emission Each one lasting about 5 15 min The Layers of the Solar Atmosphere Sunspot 39 raviolet Regions 1 Corona omosphere Coronal activity seen in visible light An egg cooks in boiling water 1 2 The northern hemisphere gets warm in summer 3 An egg cooks in boiling water 4 5 Your feet get cold standing outside in winter Your house gets cold at night A Convection B Conduction C Radiation D Convection and radiation E Convection and conduction F Conduction and radiation GAI Three The following figures show electrons jumping energy levels in a hydrogen atom Which one would produce an emission line of Balmer alpha Ow In the following figure mission control on earth broadcasts a radio signal with a wavelength of 1 m The space adventurers are each located some distance from earth at the dot and are traveling at 1000 kms in the indicated direction while earth is presumed stationary How do the wavelengths as seen by the travelers compare Which is the correct order from shortest to longest where indicates a tie A Spiff Calvin Susie Hobbes Rex Spiff B Rex Hobbes Calvin Susie Spiff I C Spiff Calvin Susie Hobbes Rex Susie Calvin D Hobbes Rex Calvin Susie Spiff E Spiff Calvin Susie Hobbes Rex 1 Hobbes F They are all the same 1 Rex Helioseismology The solar interior is opaque ie it absorbs ight out to the photosphere 3 Only way to investigate solar interior is through helioseismology anaiysis of vibration patterns visible on the solar surtace Approx t0 million wave patterns SUN 1 if i39 illlii sunspots Cooler regions of the photosphere T z 4240 K Only appear dark against the bright sun 2 Would still be brighter than the full moon 7 when placed on the night sky What is the peak wavelength of a sunspot T424O K What regime of light does this fall If visible what color The Solar Cycle 11 year cycle 215511 Agra After 11 years NorthSouth order of leadingtrailing sunspots is reversed Number of sunspots h r 1950 1960 2000 2010 n n gt Total solar cycle Reversal of magnetic polarity 22 years The Maunder butterfly diagram S r r 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Sunspot cycle starts ou 10511111111mspots at higher latitudes on the sun Evolve to lower latitudes towards the equator throughout the cycle The Maunder Minimum Winter severity in 7 and few spots colder winters Warmer winters Period from 1645 to 1715 with very few sunspots Coincides with a period of colderthanusual winters Sunspots and Magnetic Fields Magnetic North Poles e Magnetic South Poles Magnetic eld in sunspots is about 1000 times stronger than average In sunspots magnetic eld lines emerge out of the photosphere k Magnetic Nni ti i Pain Magnetic SGM Ih Pnie Magnetic Fieid Lines Magnetic Fields in Sunspots Magnetic fields on the photosphere can be measured through the Zeeman effect P 39 I a Sunspots are related to magnetic activity on the photosphere i4 4quot Jul3219 mimd airmum aim am M39j m ragle ma Wang a 3 hand in magmatic lLaILLEJ quot ngewaumg at u travie a g and Xray wavg gngths rgvga Q that Sungpmg avg magmas f grahamgd 3 Emmy The Sun s Magnetic Dynamo N Pole Equator g unw 8 Pole The sun rotates faster at the equator than near the poles This differential rotation might be responsible for magnetic activity of the sun Magnetic Loops 1 I39e iding quot prIIS magnetic Magnetic eld lines north I Rotation 4 Leading 3 spot is l Smagnetic south The Sun s Magnetic Cycle After 11 years the magnetic field pattern becomes so complex that the eld structure is rearranged gt New magnetic eld structure is similar to the original one but reversed gt New 11year cycle starts with reversed magnetic eld orientation oznos masksCola Thnnuun Prominences g7 77 i A Looped prominences gas ejected from the sun s photosphere flowing along magnetic loops Eru ptive Prominences Ultraviolet images Extreme events solar flares release charges particles protons and electrons can significantly influence Earth s magnetic field structure and cause northern lights aurora borealis Q 2002 Brooks Cme Publismng a division oITthsun Leamlng Solar Aurora 2002 Breaks cnze Publlsmng v a aivlsion alTnomsnn Leamlng Coronal mass ejections 5 2m amaks Ca e Publishing 7 a divislun nlmumsnn Learning 5 minutes 3 am Evmks cme Publishingr a lvlslun uiTnnmsun Learning Sound waves produced 39 by a solar flare 2002 Brooks cme Publishing 7 a nivismn olTnnmsnn Learning Coronal Holes X ray images of the sun reveal coronal holes These arise at the foot points of open field lines and are the origin of the solar wind Nature s 4 Forces 1 Gravity weakest acts over large distances 2 Electromagnetism radiation 3 Weak Nuclear Force causes decay neutrons and protons 4 Strong nuclear force binds protons and neutrons in nuclei together acts over very small distances only Energy Production 0 l 1 Energy generation In the sun 5 39y We and all other stars 333 l Boilrlloelirt g trrfrgy nuclear fUSiOI39I A 1mm force on short fusing together 2 or 5 range39 strongest of39the 4 known more lIghter nucleI to forces produce heavier ones electromagnetic W GUS Nuclear fusion can M g Igona l produce energy up to the production of iron energy per nuclear particle lO UJ Bindinv For elements heavier than llg tly iron energy is gained by i nuclear ssion 0 4O 80 120 lSO ZOO Z40 Mass number Einstein s famous equation Emc2 says that energy and matter mass are equivalent and interchangeable Suppose you were to convert the mass of m1 kg about the mass of your textbook to energy How much energy would you get EJoules mc2 c3x108 ms 9x1016 J Now if Wyoming uses 81x1016 Joules 225x1010 kiloWatt hours per year how long would this supply the state A 01 years B 1year C 10 years D 100 years Energy generation in the Sun The ProtonProton Chain Basic reaction 41H 9 4He energy 4 protons have 0048103927 kg 07 more mass than 4He gt Energy gain Amc2 043103911 J per reaction Sun needs 1038 reactions transforming 5 million tons of mass into energy every second to resist its own gravity Need large proton speed ltgt high temperature to overcome H I Coulomb barrier electromagnetic V 2H repulsion between protons 1H v T 2107 K 10 million K Proton y Gamma ray I Neutron v Neutrino Positron The Solar Neutrino Problem The solar interior can not be observed directly because it is highly opaque to radiation But neutrinos can penetrate huge amounts of material without being absorbed Early solar neutrino experiments detected a much lower flux of neutrinos than expected a the solar neutrino problem Recent results have proven that neutrinos change oscillate between different types flavors thus solving the solar neutrino problem Davis solar neutrino experiment Why didn t astronomers abandon the idea of a nuclear powered sun or the Ptolemaic solar system in the face of some conflicting evidence Paradigms are resilient to change Hypotheses are proposed and theories modified to preserve paradigms until evidence becomes overwhelming Less like scientific paradigms More like scientific paradigms n L Jw L LJ I a faossxnukycmer Mnmsun Asrical Telescopes Often very large to gather large amounts of light In orderto obsene forms of radiation other than visible light very different telescope designs are needed Telescope 1 technician The northern Gemini Telescope on Hawaii ems Emucur namn Light and Other Forms of Radiation The Electromagnetic Spectrum In astronomy we cannot perform experiments with our objects stars galaxies The only way to investigate them is by analyzing the light and other radiation which we observe from them Light as a Wave I Wavelength A H Motion at the speed of light E c 300000 kms w 3108 ms quot Light waves are characterized by a wavelength Mm and a frequency f in Hertz or cycles per second 1s which tells how many waves pass you each second fand A are related through F1s cmsgt m The speed of light is cmsf1sgt m VVavg gng th and EMS iolel Infrared wavelengths Long wavelengths Visible ght spectrum Ullrav Shun i eren COWS 0f vis b e ight carrespond ta different waveengths Place lhe following colors in order of shonesl navelenglh lo longesl Blue Yellow Green Red Orange Violel Violel Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Light as a Wave ll Wavelengths of light are measured in units of nanometers nm or angstrom A 1 nm 10399 m 1A 1010 m 01 nm Visible light has wavelengths between 4000 A and 7000 A 400 700 nm Cms Cms MmfHz or fHz Mm If visible green light has a wavelength of 500 nano meters 500 x 10399 m what is its frequency in Hz A B C D E 6X1014 Hz 5x1014 Hz 16x1014 Hz 16x1014 Hz 60x1014 Hz Light as Particles Light can also appear as particles called photons explains eg photoelectric effect A photon has a specific energy E proportional to the frequency f Ehf h 6626X103934 JS is the Planck constant The energy of a photon does not depend on the intensity of the light The Electromagnetic Spectrum Vlslhlr mm Sllnn wavelengths l mu wnvclnnqllts 4 X ll Ann nml mw bx l0 7X10 N310 nm 600 nm mo nm Wavelength Imelels w 39r m l 10 ml m 1 Hr to1 Gamma Ullra st MICrD my x ray WW a lnrrored wave l l Ulll39 VHl FM AM 4 Frequency llm Wavelength 4lt Opaque Need satellites Transpamm to observe Blanes 0r ave nu l satellites Cms MmfHz Ifthe FM radio station KRQU in Laramie broadcasts on radio waves having a frequency of 1045 MHz ie mega Hertz what is their wavelength 28m 03m 0104m 8m 104m F1909 Refracting Reflecting Telescopes Foc sing lighLW rl h a lens Refracting Telescope Lens focuses light onto the focal plane I Image Focal length Reflecting Telescope Concave Mirror focuses light onto the focal plane Focal length Almost all modern telescopes are reflecting telescopes The Focal Length Focal length Focal length Focal length distance from the center ofthe lens to the plane onto which parallel light is focused Secondary Optics In re ecting telescopes Secondary mirror to re direct light path towards back or Secondary Side Of mirror incoming light path Primary mirror Eyepiece To view and enlarge the small image produced in the focal plane ofthe primary optics Disadvantages of Refracting Telescopes Single lens Blue image Achromatic lens Chromatic aberration Different wavelengths are focused at different focal lengths prism effect Can be corrected but not eliminated by second lens out of different material Red image Red and yellow images Difficult and expensive to produce All surfaces must be perfectly shaped glass must be flawless lens can only be supported at the edges The Powers of a Teiesoope 1 Lightgathering power Depends on the surface area A of the primary lens mirror proportional to diameter squared A n 022 If the light gathering power of a telescope is described by the area A of the primary lens or mirror with D the diameter A n D22 how many times more light does the 10 m diameter Keck telescope gather than the 23 m diameter Wyoming Infrared Observatory WIRO telescope A 1 0 AW 42 m7m2 785m2 B 23 C 4 AWIRO 42 42 415m2 D 19 E 50 E 189 415 The Powers of a Telescope ll 2 Resolving power Wave nature of light gt The telescope aperture produces fringe rings that set a limit to the resolution of the telescope Astronomers can t eliminate these diffraction fringes but the larger a telescope is in diameter the smaller the diffraction fringes are Thus the larger the telescope the better its resolving power am 122 MD For optical wavelengths this gives ocmin 116 arcsec Dcm How many times better resolving power does the 10 m diameter Keck telescope have than the WIRO 23 m diameter telescope If you don t see your answer Dowgt here try 1YourAnswer 10 23 43 19 116 aarc sec Dcm 116 116 00116arcsec a Keck pm 1000 116 0050arc sec WIRO DWIRO 230 0050 0012 39 Seeing Weather conditions and turbulence in the atmosphere set further limits to the quality of astronomical images Bad seeing Good seeing The Powers of a Telescope Ill 3 Magnifying Power ability of the telescope to make the image appear bigger A larger magnification does not improve the resolving power of the telescope O 2004 Thomson Brooks Cole Far away from Civi zation to avoid ight po utiom The Best Location for a Telescope It Paranal Observatory ESO Chile On high mountaintops to avoid atmospheric turbulence gt seeing and other weather effects Trditihai Teisops i Newtonian focus Secondary mirror correcting quot l Traditional primary mirror sturdy heavy and has room to large f l SchmidtCassegram to avoid distortions telescope 2002 Brooks Cote Publishing a division of Thomson Learning Traditional Telescopes II The 4m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory Arizona ozuuz Brooks Col Puhllsmng A n ng IMHTITF Advances in Modern Telescope Design I Modern computer technology has made possible significant advances in telescope design 1 Simpler stronger mountings altazimuth mountings to be controlled by computers rial mounting Allalimmn mnuming Curricular control or mullon mm both is WIYN telescope Altazimuth mount 39I39Ill FAR uni 7 By GARY Anson All day long a bugh gang at mmw would monopollu in Macon and ln mldcto tho mm mm Advances in Modern Telescope Design ll 2 Lighter mirrors with lighter support structures to be controlled dynamically by computers Ea Flopp mirror e i y f The thrusters are located behindM segments in this photo of the Keck l mirro The technician is sitting in the front of the light baffle over the Cassegrain hole in the center of the mirror Thrusters Support structure Adaptive Optics Computercontrolled mirror support adjusts the mirror surface many times per second to compensate for distortions by atmospheric turbulence Adaptive optics off Adaptive optics on Object revealed39as I a t 1 second of arc to 2m Blacks Cnie Publishing a a division m Thomson Leamlng Examp g f M dgm TUS Dgs gn UH The Very Large Te escope VLT 81m mirror of the Gemini Te escopes Interferometry Recall Resolving power of a telescope depends on diameter D 9 Combine the signals from jiigngg f ggpe several smaller telescopes to h 39 g simulate one big mirror 9 Interferometry Beams combined to Precision optical produce final image paths in tunnels mom mamaamen Bolt CCD Imaging CCD Chargecoupled device More sensitive than photographic plates Data can be read directly into computer memory allowing easy electronic a ipulations Falsecolor image to visualize brightness contours Negative Images The galaxy NGC 891 as it would look to our eyes ie in real colors and brightness VIsuaI wavelength Image w J 39 W 39 Negative images skywhite AH 1 L lnthe quot quot39T quot quot graft stars black are used to enhance contrasts The petrgraph Using an Sm er a grating girl can be split up ith different elengthe sellers the preduee a drum Prism Spectral lin in a speelmm tell us abQU the Chemiieal eitieh and either preperiie i the bjeel Ultraviolet Infrared Short wavelengths Long wavelengths Visible light spectrum II IIII II II IIII I 39II II II I I II IIIII III II I I I 7 39 I quot IW IIW Slullirr gtlfjllllllll II III I I II II I I I IIIII III I I I I quottgirmiiljirwgtriapmtmm Radio Astronomy Recall Radio waves of x 1 cm 1 m also penetrate the Earth s atmosphere nd can be observed from the ground sthte 1mm shun wavntnhqths 4 mm wm39etmvglhs anetength mtAer m 10 w 1 w 10 t Gamma Micro ray X my wave V UHI VHt tM AM wilt V c Wit Tmnspmm Hum snal I Radio Mow wmrlow WHVGXEHHIH Radio Telescopes Large dish focuses the energy of radio waves onto a small receiver antenna Amenna i l Amplified signals are stored in computers and converted into images spectra etc il Dish ral39laclor Computer Radio Maps In radio maps the intensity ofthe radiation is colorcoded Red high intensity Violet low intensity Analogy Seat prices in a baseball stadium Red expensive blue cheap Radio Interferometry Just as for optical telescopes the resolving power of a radio telescope depends on the diameter of the objective lens or mirror 1min 122 MD For radio telescopes this is a big problem Radio waves are much longer than visible light The Very Large Array VLA 27 dishes are combined to simulate a 39 rf 9 Use 39nte erometry to large dish of 36 km in diameter improve resolution The 100m Green Bank v 39l39e escope in Green Bank West The 300m tegescope in Virginia Arecibo Puerfto Rico Science of Radio Astronomy Radio astronomy reveals several features not visible at other wavelengths Neutral hydrogen clouds which don t emit any visible light containing 90 of all the atoms in the universe Molecules often located in dense clouds where visible light is completely absorbed Radio waves penetrate gas and dust clouds so we can observe regions from which visible light is heavily absorbed infrared Astronomy Viost infrared radiation is absorbed in the lower atmosphere However from high mountain tops or high flyihg aircraft some infrared radiation can stiii be observed was ammmu Thurman NASA infrared teiesoobe on Mauna Kea Hawaii Ultraviolet Astronomy Ultraviolet radiation with k lt 290 nm is completely absorbed in the ozone layer of the atmosphere Ultraviolet astronomy has to be done from satellites Several successful ultraviolet astronomy satellites IRAS lUE EUVE FUSE Ultraviolet radiation traces hot tens of thousands of degrees moderately ionized gas in the universe NASA S Great Observatories in Space l The Hubble Space Telescope has been e The Ielesca large blis h twice by asi repaired eq Launched in 1990 maintained and upgraded by several space shuttle service missions throughout the 1990s and early 2000 s a Avoids turbulence in Earth s atmosphere a Extends imaging and spectroscopy to invisible infrared and ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope Images Mars with its 7 polar ice cap Visual Nebula around v an aging star Vlsuakwavelsng nmags Adust lled galaxy MASKS Grgat bggwatm g in Spaw UH Thg CQmptm GammaRay bsrva zgry aperaied fmm 19m 0 ZQQQ bsgmatim 0f highgemergy gammaray m sg m tracing the ng widen pmcggsgg in mg un verge NASA s Great Observatories in Space I I I The Chandra X ray Telescope Launched in 1999 into a highly eccentric orbit that takes it 13 of the way to the moon Xrays trace hot million degrees highly ionized gas in the universe Two colliding 7 very hOt gas tfg ifil gya 39 in a cluster burst of Star Of galaXISS formation Saturn NASA s Great Observatories in Space IV The Spitzer Space Telescope Launched in 2003 Infrared light traces warm dust in the universe The detector needs to be cooled to 273 C 459 F 5n 3 w a ma hm F r d Z m F363 3 WWW Gm VUQW m ugub Hugh 5 m R9 31 mgi h quot infrared image I Thg Fw wm I39 ptiaHHmfn a d Agtmmmy Seg mented 1 quot mirror s Thg Jamgg TUp 4mm The Great Chain of Origins Early Hypotheses 1 Catastrophic hypotheses Example passing star hypothesis Star passing the sun closely tore material out of the sun from which planets could form no longer considered Catastrophic hypotheses predict Only few stars should have planets 2 Evolutionary hypotheses Example Laplace s nebular hypothesis Rings of material separate from the spinning cloud carrying away angular momentum of the cloud a cloud could contract further forming the sun Evolutionary hypotheses predict Most stars should have planets The Solar Nebula Hypothesis A relating cloud at gas 39he Solar Nebula Hypothesis Basis of modern theory fu i gomwe ii agiild of planet formation a scenter Planets form at the same time from the same cloud as the star planelsgmwrmmgasand Planet formation sites usl in the disk and are left behind whenlhe disk clears observed today as dust disks of T Tauri stars a Sun and our solar system formed 5 billion years ago a zuns monksCale Thnmsun Evidence for Ongoing Planet Formation Many young stars in the Orion Nebula are surrounded by 39 dust disks Probably sites of planet formation right now Dust Disks around Forming Stars Dust disks around some T Tauri stars can be imaged directly HST Extrasolar Planets Modern theory of planet formation is evolutionary 9 Many stars should have planets a planets orbiting around other stars Extrasolar planets Glare of star Beta lews l llddel l behind central mask l l Size at Pluto s arm Visualrwaveleng lh image a 2mm ThomsonBlanks Gala Extrasolar planets can not be imaged directly Detection using same methods as in binary star systems Look for wobbling motion of the star around the common center of mass Indirect Detection of Planets Extrasolar Velocity ms l Veiucny mls l 1 15 20 25 so Timsdays 5 1 Upsilon ndromedfe 100 i i 739 ll i150 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 Tim yr Observing periodic Doppler shifts of stars with no visible companion Evidence for the wobbling motion of the star around the common center of mass of a planetary system Over 100 extrasolar planets detected so far quot 57 Survey of the Solar System Relative Sizes of the Planets Assume we reduce all bodies in the solar system so that the Earth has diameter 03 mm Sun size of a small plum Mercury Venus Earth Mars 5amquot size of a grain of salt I Jupiter size of an apple seed Saturn slightly smaller than Jupiter s apple seed Uranus Neptune Larger salt grains a 2am Brooks Cole waistEng uwismn ofThnmsnn Lzamlng Pluto Speck of pepper Planetary Orbits All planets in almost circular elliptical orbits around the sun in approx the same plane ecliptic Orbits generally inclined by no more than 340 Excep ons Mercury 7 Pluto 1720 Sense of revolution counterclockwise Sense of rotation counterclockwise 0 with exception of 90 Venus Uranus and Pluto Distances and times reproduced to scale Two Kinds of Planets Planets of our solar system can be divided into two very different kinds Terrestrial earthlike planets Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jovian Jupiterlike planets Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Terrestrial Planets Four inner planets of the solar system Relatively small in size and mass Earth is the largest and 1 4 most massive adanmage Rocky surface 2002 Brooks Cole Publishing a division of Thomson Learning Surface of Venus can not be seen directly from Earth because of its visual d e n O u d 1 wavelengths Craters on Planets Surfaces Craters like on our moon s surface are common throughout the solar system Not seen on Jovian planets because they don t have a solid surface a 2m Brooks cm Publishing a mmmn oinlomsnn Learning
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