Lecture Notes Week 2 Anthro 131
Lecture Notes Week 2 Anthro 131 ANTH131
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyle Roe on Monday January 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH131 at a university taught by Gamble in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 248 views.
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Date Created: 01/19/15
Week 2 Notes Movement from Asia to North America Population expansions probably occurred both during the existence of the Bering land bridge and after possibly before the Bering Strait was formed 0 Some suggest 3 main migrations happened at different times in prehistory Hypothesized migration routes through North America 0 Through icefree corridor that formed once glaciers started to melt I Great hunters following mammoth big game I Came across land bridge as hunters o Alternately along the west coast on boats One theory came on boats from Europe 0 Unlikely Some of the earliest recorded NA artifacts are from South America Some think people crossed sea ice from Europe to North America 0 Also unlikely Early Sites in North America Early NA archaeological site Arlington Springs Santa Rosa Island Meadowcroft PA an interesting site 0 May have been contaminated by coal mines in the area Evidence for Asiatic Origins Asian and NA prehistoric skeletal remains show similar physical characteristics Modern NA and Asian populations also share many distinctive physical characteristics 0 Ex shovelshaped incisor teeth DNA analysis indicates that NA populations originated in Asia Kennewick Man 9000 year old man found buried not alive in Washington state Unique skeletal structure Looks Caucasoid instead of Asiatic Found spear point embedded in his back NA in the area were very offended the anthropologists were disturbing their ancestor s grave site Lawsuit over Kennewick Man remains dug up cannot be connected to NAs in the area Started European migration theory Environment South of Continental Glaciers Lots of megafauna mammoths giant sloths etc o Died off about 12000 years ago 0 Overkill by NA one possibility was widely accepted 0 People are now saying it might have been due to climate changes natural disasters Cooler and wetter climate allowed large lakes to exist in currently arid areas of western US Water contained in glaciers sea level about 300 feet lower 0 4 Channel Islands were one giant island Santa Rosae Island 0 Eastern tip was very close to land 0 Found early sites of NA activity mammoth remains 0 Living on an island alters evolution for animals especially on the Channel Island where there are no predators o Mammoths became smaller about 6 ft high no need to really defend themselves Paleoindians First welldocumented occupation of North America began about 13000 years ago Known as Clovis people Identifiable by Clovis spear points 0 Giant flakes removed from the base 0 Highly distinctive Hunted mammoth Attached to large wooden spear shafts Date to about 1120010900 BP Caches of these have been found Several problems with evidence of early occupation in North America Lack of clearly defined stratigraphy 0 Dating artifacts from different strata layers of sediment underground because they are relatively close 0 Different strata different time periods Lack of reliable radiocarbon dates Artifact assemblages are often not accepted as artifacts 0 Sometimes what are thought to be stone tools are just rocks that have been smashed together with other rocks over the centuries until they merely look like stone tools Lack of evidence from other disciplines to support chronological claims 0 Anthropology requires input from various fields one person can t do it all Monte Verde site in southern Chile Possible preClovis site One layer is about 1270012300 BP Another is 33000 BP Most scholars don t believe the 33k dates but most believe the 127k Earliest houses anyone has found in the Americas Found tent stakes made out of bone tents themselves made out of skin Child s footprint also found Fairly close to the coast No Clovis points Artifacts vs Geofacts Supposed finds on Santa Rosa Island Someone thought they found 40000 year old site on Santa Rosa Thought he found tools near firereddened areas dating 14000 plus years ago 0 Huge fire areas bigger than a hearth Thought they belonged to pygmy mammoth hunters Found geofact resembling a chopper thought it was a chopper We ve never found an arrow point in a pygmy mammoth bone Found evidence pygmies were around the same time as humans Two major sites on Channel Islands Arlington Springs on Santa Rosa Daisy Cave on San Miguel Human remains in both Arlington Springs c 1300012000 years ago Daisy Cave c 11500 years ago Calico Claims the site is 50000 to 200000 years old Geofacts mistaken for artifacts Folsom People of the Plains 1927 discovered spears points with extinct bison bones near Folsom New Mexico Dated to 10500 BP BP 2000BC Beginning around 11500 years ago Folsom hunters used spear points similar to the Clovis people Archaeologists have found many kill sites where many bison were killed 0 Beds of bison bones 0 First find NAs corralled the bison off a cliff into an arroyo o Bison have good sense of smell hunters had to wait until the wind was blowing away from them to sneak up on them Frighten the herd the herd runs off the cliff profit People would sometimes eat 10 lbs a day after bison hunts Arctic Culture Area Population 28000 along Arctic coast from north Alaska to Greenland 0 20000 in western and southwestern Alaska Arctic one of the harshest environments to live in Native people s adaptation is incredible Languages spoken in Arctic Culture Area Aleut language spoken on the Aleutian Islands Eskimoan spoken throughout the rest of the culture area Precontact Period of the Arctic Culture Area Earliest known occupation is about 1100013000 years old similar to Clovis Paleoindian occupation to the south Technological innovations allowed for more effective adaptation to the Arctic environment over time Expansion of nuit people known as Thule Eskimo eastward across Arctic began about AD 1000 and reached the eastern high Arctic about 100 years later Permanent Dwellings Some are occupied only during the cold months of the year Permanent Dwellings of the Arctic NAs Some occupied only during cold months of the year King Island Village 0 Right against the coast teetering on the bluffs 0 Homes built on stilts Typical settlements log houses built in dirt o Semisubterranean built into the earth 0 Made of huge logs center posts in the homes Used driftwood to build houses 0 Almost no trees to cut down Some walls lined with whale skull parts Will enter the hut and crawl through winter passageway into the earth under an inner wall to enter the main area of the home 0 Inner wall guards against harsh Arctic winter winds Slept on benches it s warmer if you re up high Usually heat with just an oil lamp Some homes had rooftop doorways Variety of house designs 0 All somewhat subterranean 0 Usually have a winter passageway Summer Dwellings Covered with animal skins 0 Seal caribou etc Easily taken apart and moved Rocks surround skin tent hold it down against winds Snow Houses or Igloos Snow knives made of ivory are used to cut blocks of snow Knives appear in archaeological record about 2700 years ago Made for when nuit go hunting need to build a house to protect against a storm when your village is too far away Has to be a certain type of snow Building igloos is an ancient skill Snow must be hard and dry 2 Inuit can build an igloo in 30 minutes Daylight can shine through wind is kept out Inside of igloo can get up to several degrees above freezing Snow houses can be ornate 0 Can have passages separate rooms 0 More suitable for hunting trips spanning several days 0 Skin lining keeps in the warmth separates snow from interior 0 Has meat storage 0 Sometimes make mini igloos for the dogs No way to build a fire in an igloo Made sealoil lamps using moss wicks Often ate sea mammals raw Sealoil lamps occur in the archaeological record beginning about 4000 years ago Social and Political Organization Anthropological family 0 Nuclear family consists of a married couple and their children 0 Extended family consists of married couple and their children as well the grandparents or aunts and uncles 0 Successful men sometimes practiced polygyny marrying more than one woman I Also had larger homes supposedly to accommodate their larger family Social organization 0 May be nuclear or extended family 0 Villages included one or nuclearextended families I Up to a few hundred people in West Arctic I Around 50in central and eastern Arctic sometimes only in one house I Larger villages often had separate men s meeting houses Societies groups of villages within a geographic region 0 Members of a society spoke a distinct dialect Wore a distinctive style of clothing Populations ranged between 150 and 2000 people average 450 About 200 societies existed within the culture area Technologically advanced NAs o The Arctic is remote pretty much untouched by Europe traditional ways live on Political organization 0 Political authority generally was based on seniority and leadership qualities I Usually good hunters 0 Village headman was a senior male with demonstrated wisdom I Know what ice not to walk across I Know when a big storm is coming 0 Among whalehunting people of north Alaska the headman was the umialik the owner of a whaling boat umiak I Hunt whales in cold conditions without motors OOOO I Really impressive I Umialik was always very revered Why did people even live in the Arctic when there were so many milder climates available Incredible amounts of fish and sea mammals to hunt 0 Not a lot of vegetables 0 Maybe kelp Sea mammal hunting 0 Would go out in kayaks made of skins 0 Would harpoon animals from the kayaks 0 Need to penetrate thick outer layer of blubber I Developed toggling bone points for harpoons I Harpoon point penetrates blubber and then turns 90 degrees I Allows hunters to drag mammal to shore I Pretty brutal I Toggle technology at least 4000 years old Fishing n ocean near shore and rivers Lots of salmon other types of fish ce fishing Gorges a type of fishhook used in ice fishing Big traps used in large holes in river ice Big fish were hunted with leisters tridents Spear carvings Believed you needed certain powers to be a good hunterfisher Would carve animals on spear heads hooks to obtain these powers Transportation Used sleds 0 Bone and ivory sleds preserved for archaeologists wood doesn t preserve Kayaks and umiaks o Equipped with gear 0 Lacings to keep hunting gear secure 0 Skincovered boats o Umiak much bigger than a kayak Foot wear for travel over snow and ice 0 Ice creepers are cleats attached to the bottom of shoes for walking on ice 0 Ice creepers begin to occur in the archaeological record about 2700 years ago 0 Snowshoes made for walking on deep snow Eye protection from glare from snowfields and ocean waters 0 Visors and snow goggles important Original sunglasses Made out of wood or ivory Little slit of goggles kept out most of the sun visor provided even more protection Hunters said it would give them power and success animal images on eye wear as well 0000 Clothing InuitYupik and Aleut peoples made tailored clothing from animal skins Parkas and boots had fancy parkas for special occasions Raingear Rain parkas made of strips of seal intestine 0 It s kind of translucent o Sown with bone needles natural materials for thread Tailored clothing appeared about 4000 years ago Good for hunting whales as well Containers for storage and other purposes Wood bowls and boxes Usually decorated Twined baskets Writing on some of them Dance masks Used by Yupik groups in Western Alaska Birds on masks were known for leading hunters to pray o Hunters believed these masks gave them greater luck for that reason nuit believed every object and being had a spirit Dances would get people in touch with these spirits Masks had transformational qualities wear them and dance you enter the spirit world Different spirit realms based off different animals 0 Ex Grizzly Bear Spirit Realm Dancing and Singing Inside large dwellings Hole in the bottom where people could emerge Large drums Shamans wore masks while healing Acquired spiritual power through isolated quests nuit Throat Singers Performers usually women who ding duets in entertaining contests Mostly a game seeing who can outlast who Inuksuit Rocks piled to imitate an Inuit markers