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Critical Thinking

by: Chyna Beatty

Critical Thinking PHIL 2420

Chyna Beatty
GPA 3.57

Mark Moffett

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About this Document

Mark Moffett
Class Notes
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chyna Beatty on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 2420 at University of Wyoming taught by Mark Moffett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/230369/phil-2420-university-of-wyoming in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Wyoming.


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Date Created: 10/28/15
First off recall that a sentence such as llEverybody loves somebody is ambiguous On the one hand it can mean that for every single person loves some person or other perhaps a different person in each case This way of reading the sentence is formalized as Vx3yL x y On the other hand the sentence can mean that there is some one person that everybody loves This reading of the sentence is formalized as 3yVx L x y The only difference between these two readings is that the quantifiers are flipped but they mean very different things lnformally the Cosmological Argument can be put as follows The Cosmological Argument 1 Everything is caused by something The Principle of Sufficient Reason 2 The cause of everything can t be something physical 3 Therefore the cause of everything is something metaphysical But just as the sentence llEverybody loves somebody is ambiguous so too is the sentence llEverything is caused by something On the first reading it means that every single event has some cause or other perhaps a different one in each case In symbols VX3yx is caused by y This could be paraphrased as saying that there are no uncaused events When the Principle of Sufficient Reason is understood in this way it is natural to think of the second premise as being based on the denial that there could not be an infinite causal chain of physicalpsychological events If not then it seems that there must be something which begins the chain but whose nature is significantly different from those events ie something llmetaphysical On the second reading by contrast it means that there is some one thing that is the cause of everything In symbols 3yVx x is caused by y Thls COUld be Paraphrased by saying that there is a quotuniversalquot cause When the PSR is understood this way it is natural to think of the second premise as being based on the claim that the universe could not cause itself and so there must be something quotmetaphysicalquot which is the cause of everything


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