Biodiversity and Sustainability
Biodiversity and Sustainability WATS 1200
Utah State University
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Atmosphere FIGURE LT Th our quotquot hnwinn 39 39 LU ule Uljlcl aphcm of Earth quot After Christensen 1991 quot Ecosphere is what connects Lithosphere Atmosphere and Hydrosphere All happens in very thin layer on surface of our planet 200 m deep in ocean to 6000 m into atmosphere mm 8000 E Upper limits of most Where life exists 5quot 4000 Crops AEUUm 2000 0 Powered by sun 52000 4000 ters 6000 8000 Characterized by 1200 Cycles Of C N O P S FIGURES I Vertical dimension of the ecospheret Most life is restricted to the zone between 200 meters below I 4 39 leveL L L39 L 39 100 meters of the ocean is 39 39 life found in L I L althmmh 39 39 uaueuin and nekton fish What makes Organic C Chemicall it is C in chain rinv or multi le bonded com ound Biologically it refers to compounds made by organism These are very reactive Food Toxins Mimics do environmental harm CFCs Tree of Life w m m m quot22 M MW m may i MW WW 39 Acellular llev contains DNA and FINA Kingdom Monera Metabolism anaernblc or aerobic Numunn pholoautotrophlc absorptive etc Bacteria cyanobactsrla quotm Wm if um mm mm 1 ARCHAEEACYERlA Prokaryotes Cell wall Nuclsold erwvdlmwv vlnunmuuiI39nll mm mm lRNAixmurelhenMlm lm m a a quotmum mmmm mm m mm dqu murva n ilrwr my Kingdom Pmlocllsta 39 Solitary and colonial gtEukaryoles Biological classification I Multlnuclsate Asexual and sexual reproduction I Nutrition absorptive Zygomycetes mushrooms mildew sic iazoai insects humans anglusparms etc Viruses Acellular parasites with FIGURE 5 2 O O to O ThebiologicaldassilicationaforganismsAlterSiolzel311989 Prokaryotes bacteria cell walls but no nucleus Eukaryotes DNA in nucleus organelles 4 kingdoms Protoclista Fungi Animalia Plantae Purple bacteria in Great Salt Lake QuickTimeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Classification within a Kingdom Tabie 51 The hierarchy of the taxonomic units of classification Kingdom 8 u vi Phylum 59 a H 395 Class 13 a E a 3 Order 5 g on a 1 a Family 3 U 1 an Genus 3 3 Species 395 Sapiens Homo Hominidae Primata Mammalia Chordata Animaia species Group of organisms that can interbreed and produce viable offspring ndividuas Autonomous organism that interacts with other individuals Populations Collection of individuals that interbreed revularl Communities A group of populations living in same area Ecosystem Interactions of collection of communities and their abiotic environments Ecosphere Collection of all ecosystems on earth What if you go to smaller levels of organization Components of an Ecosystem Energy nutrient sources Interaction between biotic and abiotic components Energy flows through ecosystems it doesn t cycle 2nd law of thermodynamics loss or energy as heat Nutrients cycle they do not flow 1st law of thermodynamics Conservation of matter and energy Relationships with biotic and abiotic populations adapt in response to these relationships Abiotic components Energy Physical setting Water soils air light temperature amp nutrients Heat energy 42 loss c FIGURE 54 Biotic components Producers Use light energy to produce organic matter from inorganic matter Consumers Primary and secondary Consume and w convert organic matter The biotic and abiotic components constituting an ecosystem structure and their interactions The relationship among producers consumers and decomposers is critical to functioning of the system Light energy is degraded as it flows through the system After Nebel 1981 a Trophic level b Food chain c Food web 6 same L FIGURE 55 The transfer of nutrients and energy is represented by a trophic levels b a food chain and c a food web In c numbers refer to the trophic levels occupied by each member of the food web Confusion over terms be sure to understand Primary Producers autotrophic Light energy Plant makes its own food called glucose Know equation Carbon dioxide 002 i Understand the role f nrin FIGURE 56 The process of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide from the air and water and nutrients from the soil react in the presence of light energy from the sun to make organic matter in land plants 6C02 12H20 Canoi 602 61130 Consumers Primary and Secondary consumers and so on Decomposers responsible for the decay of organic material Know equation for respiration Ecological Pyramid ii The10 Relative Trophic biomass of level I each trophic 6 level m 4 Secondary consumers Third carnivores lt Primary consumers Second herbivores Topdown and bottom up effects lt Producers plants First FIGURE 57 An ecological pyramid Biomass in successively higher trophic levels decreases due to losses of energy originally introduced at the base of the pyramid in the form of sunlight Carbon Cycle Start looking at component parts FIGURE 6V1 uau u g surfate After Mooney at al 1937 Carbon Cycle Natural cycle dominant until last 1000 years Organisms use carbon from the oceanatmosphere 43702 a Photosynmasis resplvatlon Uplaka n FIGURE 62 39 3 Laluun pa mulalian 039 organic carbon and Cam in marine sediments their subducliun alteration and 39 r 39 cement manufacturing and delaresminn Earth has seen wide range of carbon dioxide levels But our species has only flourished in last few thousand years 50 15 gt13 r 40 E g 14 m E 2 12 N i 308 a 2 g u a o E 20 3 lt 5 s m w 5 5 4 10 8 2 H Presemday o ilolslnl Cl Pliildl Kl T a 600 5m 400 300 200 mo 0 Time Milliuns oi years beiore presenl BF FIGURE 54 are geologic periods shown in Figure 13 A er Earner 1991 1 c1 5 grams During last 100 years humans have completely changed this biogeochemical cycle Our species usurps 25 of terrestrial primary production ATMOSPHERE Carbon ln co2 gas T l Living plants 602 ram t 02 ecayine i 002 was amquot organic mailer irom and respiration cement manulacluririg wealnenn plants and animals Oceans of limesmna 5 002 and silicate Buried Aquatic planis 2 irom organic mailer pm Go into water alteration fro organic matter 2 burning l 3quot 00 coal oil and s HYDROSPH RE co dissolved in ocean Preclpitallon of oacoa EDIMENTS AND ROCK Carbon in buried plants and animals and sediments Kerogen FIGURE 53 A diagram of geometric shapes iermerl boxes showing the major reservoirs and ows in the w L 39 iheir direction rirai Hall xLI I 39 ries oi interlocking circuits in rlre reservoirs of biosphere hydrosphere atmosphere and crust L 39 39 ir ererrurror 39 39 5 lo irrrrer ement manufacturing and deforestation After Skinner and Porter 1987 Oxygen is another biogeochemical cycle Atmospheric Respirations and 02 photosynthesis again involved Smaller influence from geochemistry L I hm 39 flows or uxes DI oxygen quotam one box to another The heavier the arrow the la 39 39 39 burial in se mam v ya L dreae 1987 Oxidation Photosynthesis Marine sediments Continental rocks mganic camequot FIGURE 65 ospheric oxygen Respiration Oxygen dissolved When upimed L iger the ux i wear An Nitrogen cycle Why is it important Legumlno us plants N2 Amino acids Proteins DNA RNA Nitrogen gas In the almusphere Most common component in the atmosphere FIGURE 67 39 39 39 This cycle is very mple NH is also mptex Involving many remions in which bacteria take part For exa converted m NH439 m the presence ofwater Nitrogen present in atmosphere 80 Plants cannot use this form of N2 Bacteria fix the n en int ammonia NH3 Plants also use NO2 and N03 Humans are radically changing the Nitrogen Cycle Burning fossil fuels produce NO2 1950 s we learned how to make NH3 from N2 HaberBosch industrial process Used as fertilizer in agricultural applicaitions Sulfur cycle is important in oceans needed for plant growth and also in atmosphere rain droplets and reflects light Mining of FIGURE 69 a ndimanl The Inaiul Phosphorus cycle has no atmospheric phase Needed by plants and animals DNA RNA lipids Often a limiting nutrient for plant growth Humans have changed cycles of CNSO e lnduslr39 f Nina39s C 002 NDX 502 panlculates 02 gt Ozonedepieiihg gases Photosymhesls CFCs Fhmasynlhesis i Demrsslation FossiHual V A ricuilural CINES consummion 35 as FossiHuel 3mm H consumption H20 Runoff Denitn licalion asle 39 I Nltrogsn m fixing bacteria FIGURE 510 nitrogen phosphorus sulfur and oxygen The cycling of these elemean is critical 0 the maintenance of lifeu Fluxes of major biogeochemical cycles and man s impact le 61 Fluxes of carb 0 en Sp sulfur and oxygen the global biogeo Flux Element million metric inns of element per year C N P S 0 1 River dissolved 400 40 3 115 2 Net primary production N at u ra I 63000 580 320 265 168000 Ocean 45000 7925 1097 1925 120000 I a n c e 3 Respiration and decay Land 61400 560 310 260 163700 Ocean 45200 7960 1100 1930 120500 4 Nitmgen xation Land 270 Natural 130 l A n m39 140 OCQan 40 5 Denit ri calion p 390 d u 039 0 1 Land 115 Ocean 70 6 Combustion fossil fuel 6300 30 80 s i I F u 7 Land use activitiesb 1600 15 46 14 e I s Burial and uplift 400 15 3 4o amp land use 9 Melamorphism and volcanism 120 10 1o Weathering 22n 380 inorganic flux lo ocean bDeforestation and biomass burning Steady state Elux Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems Ecosystem is smallest unit that has all the characteristics to sustain life Biomes are another way of characterizing Ecosphere Large geographic region with similar characteristics Terrestrial Biomes include Tundra Temperature Forest Tropical Rain Forest Grassland Deserts Aquatic Biomes include rivers lakes wetlands estuaries Continental shelf Deep Ocean Corral Reefs The major Terrestrial Biomes Defined by Location and Climate Table 53 D Tundra E Grassland I Chaparral D Temperate boreal coniferous 1 Desert E Mountain Temperate coniferous Savannawoodlands I Tropical deciduous D Temperate deciduous Tropical rainforest FIGURE 5 8 The major biomes of the terrestrial realmi QuickTimeTM and a decompressor are needed to see this picture QuickTime TM and a decompressor are needed to see this picture QuickTimeTM and a decompressor are needed to see this picture QuickTimeTM and a dec mpressor are needed to see this picture QuickTimeW and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Continental shelf biome Coral reef biome Hydrothermal vent biome 0 200 sea 0 I Estuary biome Open ocean biome 033 Marine Biomes Defined by location and depth a c Eplpelaglc 200 m Mes qpelagic Pelagic open water FIGURE 59 B B Classi cation and distribution of benthic and pelagic ecological zones in the world s oceans e n I C 39 0 0 m Several of the larger marine biomes discussed in the text are also shown After Hedgpeth 1957 substrate Freshwater Biomes Lakes Streams Wetlands Aquatic biomes have pelagic and benthic components Lake Biome and Food Webs QuickTimeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Stream Biome and Food Webs QuickTimeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture QuickTimeTM and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Marine Biomes and Food Web QuickTimeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Estuarine Wetlands Our most productive biomes QuickTimeTM and a decompressor are needed to see this picture QuickTimeTM and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Ocean chloro h H QuiokTimeTM and a Highest in decompressor are needed to see this picture upwellmg Zones and at higher Ia udes Photosynthesis roughly Gross Primary Production GPP Photosynthsis minus the respiration of plant NPP The number of species varies by group God must have been very fond of beetle Haldane Pememage H Bacteria have not been wellstudied 000 31000 900 2507000 250000 750000 Algae Fromm Fungi igher other nsects piams animais Dlslribution of living specia by group Biodiversity has not been constant Number of species has declined precipitiously during 5 penods c 0 quotb 0 4730 Q 0 0 quot lt5 00 ew ox o 69 60A ltbfolt 00 309 299 70 29 0 0 0gt0 039 Q0 5 0 W 800 g 600 L E 9 2 Witquot 3 1 E 5 z 200 I 0 l l 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Millions of years ago FIGURE 513 The pattern of biological diversity through Phanerozoic time as expressed by the number of families present in the fossil record Biodiversity has increased slowly over time interrupted occasionally by massive extinction events shown as black dots on the figure After Wilson 1990 World Population DeveloEment and Resource Consumption Human population through the ages 6 OldStone 6 Age Bronze Middle quotCt to scale New Stone Age Age Iron Age Ages 9 5 5 A H AA 2 C 9 C m 3905 3 4 w I 6 4 g g as raw 01 5 at E E 58w 3 c O o cu m C c115 a 3 0 3 E 0 10 may CE U 07 pm 5 D03 9 O m v a a 0 m g NU lt 8 E 0 8 a 9390 E 3E 395 58 0 arc chmcoac f 0 E0 g cm ggg 2 I mumxse 0 5 3 mad m 9 m 3 US 3 5 mg E 15m 9 ngI S39EB a was 5 a EEO 32 1 E 2 2 5 a 88 gm 0 595 1 1 I 030 l C E E 03 O o i l Lv i l l l I 739 I i 500000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Years BP M FIGURE 81 The growth of the world population over the past half million years Some major historic ages and events in the history of the human population are also shown KCEISOHS IOI popuiauon l CICEISE El Agricultural Revolution I 10000 years ago I Shift from huntin and atherin to civilization of food and the domestication of animals I Domestication of plants impacts of the Agmcuiturai Kevoiutlon El Crops began to yield surpluses for storage El More control over food supply population X mmnii vl El More free time led to specialized work and advanced tools El Modified environment forests felled cities built mining Industrial Revolution El 19th century El Steam engine I Provided power to replace labor intensive manufacturing techniques I This required more people and more resources to sustain growing needs of society I Forests turned to farmlands Industrial Revolution El Energy production increased El Food production increased El Birth and death rates were balanced in the past I New medicines I Disease control I Made for lower death rate birth rate stayed the same population increases Since world war 2 El Resource consumption increases significantly n Forests depleted El Water resources used and polluted at increasing rates El Often referred to as technological revolution Population El 10000 years ago 0000 5miion I 1850 1 billion I doubled in just 80 years I 1930 2 billion I Doubled in onl 45 ears I 1975 4 billion I In 12 ears o ulation increased b a billion I 1987 5 billion I 1999 6 billion Past and L rolected human L 0L ulation Wurld Mal a Develuping regions 8 Developed raglvns m 3 Population billions lnduslnal Revolu on lt Wortd War 1 o 1750 1300 1850 1900 1550 2000 2050 2100 Year HGURE 83 Th 1 39 I 1750 m mn r 39 inq world a er 950 Projected aths of o ulation L L L U mu n Central 4 W 2 ngh monallly ngh fertilwa a ngh manamy 21 F Low fertihty 8 I 4 Low mortality 5 High rammy L NF 5Lawmnflal1y 5 3 Low lemhty J 51 2 3 5 an L E 50 A o P l 1990 2000 29m 2020 2030 2040 2050 Ysar HGURE 82 39 L quot L K K um um hanges m mortality and enmty The pruye ioru lot we shaded died are less rename than thnse up un lth vearzoso AfterLuu 994 Demographic transitions 4 stages lst hih birth rate hih death rate no increase in population I The stage of most past history El 2nd increased rate allu IUVVCI ucaul IaLc causes increase in population I Many poorer countries in this stage I 3rd39 lower birth rate already low death rate population growth slowed l Desire for large families decreased industrialization I 4th lower birth rate lower death rate population stabilized Not reached b world 0 ulation LO t DUUO S IO lOWGI 0621111 rates El Developed countries El Disease control El Efficient agricultural practices El Higher sanitation standards El Advances in medicine Factors of birth rate Influence of family planning programs I Chane in children39s role no lon39er necessary to family labor El Woman39s education important in lower fertility El Perspectives in culturessocioeconomic groups I Worldwide woman are generally having fewer children l OpUJath UrOWUl Kate Average annuai r v a change quot 39 E More man 30 W 22 A 30 215 21 i 10 LMw 1 Less than 10 No data I f opulation Growth Rate b Cl gy KCSOUI CCS El Primitive industries developed a needs for energy El Wood wind water even fossil fuels l 2500 BC Bab lonians used I etroleum l 1100 BC china mined coal and natural gas El Humans have used resources to advance development of modern society Lemmer C1211 1quot 11618 El Fossil fuels 90 I Coal 30 I Oil 400o I Gas 20 El Nuclear 5 El Hydroelectric 5 Energy consumption El developed nations 25 of world population uses more than 70 of global energy budget I Eg US 47 of world population uses 20 of worlds energy 2004 I Developing nations with 75 of the worlds population use only 29 of global energy I Eg India 17 of world population uses only 4 of global energy World consumption of commercial energy past and pro1ected VIEW an I H 0 E9 5 l 35 E 391 xquot a o el 74quot 39 v 39 r 391 ma mu mm mm zn m 20m mu m HGUIE so 2 MM mmmoponn m mmmcw wwng bflwccu 1960 m cm on mum mm momom W m momma AMHWNWM WWIqu W m mm m owva 1010 by was my wonmoon M Developing world I Use mainly non commercial fuels El BiomaSSfirewood charcoal animal and crop residues El More people in the world depend on biomass than any other source of energy El Accounts for 11 14 of energy consumed in the world El Main source of energy for roughly 45 of world population DO What Large amounts of energy is required to sustain large populations Thr i limit resources are not finite Many natural resources of coal oil and gas are non renewable gasp Fossil fuels formed many millions of years ago It would take many more millions of years to form new reserves to replace the depleted ones FOSSll FUCIS El Most abundant COAL I Black combustable sedimentary rock I Primarily carbon oxygen and hydrogen I Formed from remains of terrestrial vegitation I Permian age I 2nd largest source of energy in world I Low in price I Likely to increase in use I Dirty fuel releases carbon dioxide soot and sulfer in atmosphere I Cleaner burning is not economical FOSSll tueis n Petroleum I Provides 60 of the total world use of commercial n rJ I Used mainly in transportation sector I Heat homes fuel fire of industry Styrofoam plastics I Present rate of consumption petroleum cannot meet the long term energy needs of the world societies I Use has been increasing present consumption rate amounts to 45 barrels of oil per person per year or about 04 tons of carbon emitted to the atmosphere annually yummy I Peak production estimates vary book says 2005 WO Cl U11 KCSCIVCS Ulst DuUOl l 750 571 Z 600 o a 1 g A50 a S 3 200 5 139 g 155 mm 24 54 0 Norm Wesmm Eastern Mlddle Far East Csmra Europe Europe East and and and Scum and Alrica Ocean s America Former USSR FOSSll FUCIS El Natural Gas I Mostly methane I 20 loba commercial ener I Was neglected as energy source and was commonly burned off when oil extracted I Relatively clean fuel I Emits only half the amount of carbon dioxide as coal I Reserves thought to last about 60 years KCHCWZIDIC KESOUIC S El Solar El Geothermal El Wind El Tax credits in US for alternative energy these account for less than 1 of total global energy usage Growth of world population 10 I l l l Industrial Revoiulion Agricultural Revolution 9 a llJL g Toolmaking a 10 l l l l 1000000 100000 10000 1000 100 10 EC AD Vears BF FIGURE 822 The gm m oi war 0 population lor the past million yearsi This pomayal of population is w the logarllhmic making it possible in plot the glowth of population over a longer time period from r l Mmor pomts El Population relatively stable except two rapid growth periods I Agricultural revolution I Industrial revolution El Increase in resource consumption is a direct outcome of the population growth El Technological advanced has increased planets carrying capacity falsely Some important concepts about populations Population growth rate is composed of Birth rate Death rate Fig 86 Understand the demographic transition Four stages p 236 Population pyramids and what they mean Fig 88 Afew final thoughts on World populations Geographic patterns in birth rate fquot or pinns per woman 39 r 21 is replacement Total Fertility Rate v5 GDP per Capirta 2004 90 Linits countries with populations over 5 Mllions 168 countries No data available for Somalia E m E O 3 S E E E U E g 40 gig SaudiArEbia E E g o 30 I a E 39 a 3 g a Israel H i S g 20 39339 3 a g i g Q i g a 1n g g a i 30 quot0 I I I I I I I I 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 GDP per caplta US 2004 Lisa freer no copyrIght Souroo CIA world fact book wwwciagovj Gross domestic product value of goods and services Gross happiness quotient A Sigw Mass 419 rquot Well Hem tram 1 quotmm Llnlc modern New tor1 mm 151905 1 339 quotJ Lug In rr nalllquot Jf n lmmk Hui 4nd Liston m Hut 391 M m mmn EmmuorkEIm Science Mm may gtr S lmcos FIND OUT MORE ABDUI THE PROGRESS CATERPILLAR IS MAKING POSSIBLE AROUND THE WORLD h r mm39n Go a at Bv li u Lug r v Minskquot 43 1NYT Ema mat SamLII j t m 593455le 511quot5EJL gym 1 h39vrnmumar A New Measure of WeillBeing From a Happy Little Kingdom Change what 39 you give 1 Change the world Chungan tho grunt QuickTimeT39V39 and a decompressor are needed to see this picture Move to Chapter 9 Terrestrial Vegetation Trends over time Maximum Miami Dummy quotummm wqu mm Mumlt1imudru uvn Wm Table 91 examine gains and losses in forests Tropical Rainforest in developing word have highest rates of loss Consequences of current Forest Practices 1 Soil erosion Tropical forest store most nutients above ground I I3 UU After deforestation in tropics hard to recover 2 VV dLUl cycle Most rain is recycled through evaporation Falls again as rain further up the watershed Clear cutting disrupts this cycle 3 Biodiversity loss 50 of all species in tropical rain forest Tropics have 50 tree species per acre Temperate forest have 4 species per acre The Changi g Earth Sumter Tetwslri l Vegemlion 835 Lad I 9 Li 3 a w a D Page a 3mm m m mm mm a Manama 3 L I FICU RE 98 I Spend rat wlm alumna rm mug twumw I39m ms Mum FWD wmm m MEI Wm Whllnm amt Elan1 1091 Animal species need rainforest habitat loss of 35 of species by 2040 Extinct birds 190 known out of 12000 715 Aquot JAN Extinct mammals 80 known out of 4200 12 Reptiles 24 extinct out of 8000 02 Problem is that rates seem to be increasing Consequences oftropical forest loss continued 4 Global Carbon balance Tropical deforestation similar to fossil fuel emissions In C02 was ammuan now quotam mmnnm l mg lwculwtunim prod net on Wannaquot bls d an 1 tall m quotUPCll 7 A n Wm myquot gt Reforestation fimmkkm WWW mm WWW mu m could balance fossil fuel emissions for aw ile quotqu u 9 n 04mm u m mnwu 1m rmnlwpkald umullw mmmmhm m mm luelmimmx mutter mam Hum lumiu39d nmmmiv v model mm Forest loss due to economic issues Agroecosystems These Systems survive because they 7 are manaied intensivel 39 r Green Revolution is responsible for progress Genetic varieties Fertilizer Pesticides 39 Irrigation i These all lead to problems Tip39139 39n39 niriI hm VtiiiJ39V xil39if vii li JquotV 1quot Iquot Y quotr Fertilizer u has increa HaberBos ff process 1950 s Leadsto overfertilizati A g 39 and dead 20 39 in marine are H H 1 Similar change in pesticides although declining recently m lquot 9 H iquot a 3 F I g k 397 392 E quotMr V 5 rr 2 r 39 r 39r quot 5 1 3 5 K m 7 3 a 5 1 cm E L39rumn39 n r x1 M4 HIMJIM 393 I4 quot 39J39 viLIAMquot w L mum Inth 33 LHEULPHJM aquot 4 xnp m hitw 11 u w 1 Hm inn Mr aI r 5quot5 1 l r ur39 iwr A Human til Ma 1m quot m39erJrii v39 v39 h m LEI InnJ nulal hm n Green Revolution put into 4 grains and 3 herbivores The genetic for these food crops are found in a small band of latitudes 10 20 degrees N 9 Ijiam d 39 r 1 Guns Germs Steel by V 0 V Miiiion Tons World Grain Production 19502005 Food production that reaches people is increasing Food production per capita Index 19612005 M WEED WEED 197n WEED WEBB Source USDA Food production is increasing faster than o ulation and distribution is better o r Jrquot P a d 3quot a 3 equot a 9 5 3 as 3am CHM HiahMU Fundcanxumpim munwumm wr new A J m ahma dSllmn mm Mum r v Food contributes to the Genuine Progress Index Daily fond consumpliun at the WORLD 1997 232132 W mm um i I Need to compile genuine progress index for world Map of World Happiness Summary Large land use changes in 20th century Due to population growth and technology Reduction in species diversity 12 of bird pop decline 20 of mammals 28 of reptiles Most humans better off Land changes to industrial uses led to changes in atmosphere Land use changes have led to movement of nutrients and pollution to oceans Study questions 45678910111618 Goods and Serviws Last time we discussed how we need to change our Gwynw 39 ExchangeValue View of the relationship between Ecology and Economics immigrm Figure 11 The neocllshll model or the economy Move economic activity into ecological framework gmw 233 manmac lvredmpilal M me E zansq Q nmuralcqmlal mm 21 The economy as an or an subsystem a he global emsyslcm Estimating Carbon foot rint is one wa Take the survey and bring in results on Thursday for 10 points extra credit htt wwwcarbonfoot rintcom Your Carbon Footprint DO It for semester House 260 tonnes of C02 Flights 138 tonnes of 002 bept 1 Dec 1 Car 381 tonnes of C02 Motorbike 000 tonnes of C02 Bus amp Rail 003 tonnes of C02 Secondary 619 tonnes of C02 Total 1402 tonnes of CO2 Send your result to me chrislueckegmail 500 Exosphere incoming sollar radiatipn Ozone is a trace gas i i i I 400 Only 0008 of E i atmosphere g g g Most of this gas 90 is ii i g Stratosphere 5 i 1050 km in atmosphere r IOEOP 6 L cj 50 Mesosphere 39 163 6 e g Stratosphere Temperature scale C FIGURE 31 The layered structure of Earth s atmosphere The structure is defined on the basis of the way temperature varies with height The warm stratosphere acts as a lid for the lower atmosphere thus weather systems develop and circulate only in the troposphere The tempera ture of the thermosphere varies with the intensity of solar ultraviolet radiation and this in turn varies with the sunspot cycle and solar activity in general Sunspots are dark areas on the face of the sun visible with telescopes or the partially shielded naked eye Sunspots cur in a definite cycle with periods of more or less sunspots The periodicity of the sunspot cycle is approximately 112 years The temperature of the thermosphere in this figure is for a period of time of minimum sunspot activity Decrease in stratospheric Ozone results in more UV Stratosphere reased Ozone deplemn ultraviolet radiatio a h Ozone layer Troposphere ozone accumulation Photochemical reactions VOC t S Noxemission p h Increase in tro hos heric Ozone leads to smog FIGURE 1 337 Stratospheric and tropospheric ozone Depletion oi the former can lead to increased radiation reaching Earth s surface and human health and ecosystem riskst increase in at nearground atmospheric levels helps to create smog see Chapter ii a human i ecosystem hazard Also tropospheric ozone is a greenhouse gas It is possible that in UV radiation reaching Earth s surface because of stratospheric ozone depletion could the production of photochemical smog near Earth s surface Ozone serves 2 functions for life on earth Thin protective layer that filters out 99 of UV light Absorbtion of light by 03 warms atmosphere and caps the climate regime in the Troposphere Ozone is held in balance by UV light UV o2 0o 02o 03 UV 03 02 39 V ChloroFluoroCarbons CFCs Manmade chemicals that are stable in trophopshere Break down in Stratosphere to generate Chlorine consumes O3 CFCs were made in large quantities in Refridgeration Air conditioning spray aerosols 19608 1990s Size millions of square kilometers 30 25 20 l l l l l l I l l 1995 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 l l l l 0 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 Year 1993 FIGURE 1 344 The area of the stratospheric ozone hole above Antarctica The area of the ozone hole is de fined as that area where stratospheric ozone levels drop below 200 Dobson units DU After httptomsgsfcnasagoveptomsdataqualozonehtml wwwepagovozonesciencemole sizedatahtml 2002 Antarctica Stanth America 3311511931 m39ajgiw muglam uugm muym mo 15 2m 2m arm 35 4m 45th 5131 Bahama um 2008 Ozone hole has been typical svme m a we 2008 Southern Hemisphere Ozone Hole Area NOAA SBUWZ Currznl Y 39 m qur 2003 2007 2006 98707 Mean 98707 IVIax 98707 N n Decrease in Ozone from 1980 to 1990 about 3 globally Lead to international treaties to ban CFCs 1987 Montreal Protocol 24 countries 1990 London Agreement 36 more countries Agreement was for a total haseout of CFCs By 1996 in developed countries By 2010 in developing countries Great Success increase in CFCs has been halted Increase in UV radiation has subsided Return to past Ozone levels by 2060 Why hasn t similar treaty worked for Carbon Total ozone DU 300 39 250 200 150 stratospheric chlorine AGAGE tn strut archive lm I Ozone amp EESC l Halley Antarctica ozone October mean BAS 2008 Montreal Protocol scenarlo A1 r r quot a 4 1900 19m 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 15 25 Jeloul odd BUEJDMD 31113005013113 altos3413 What are the consequences of lower 03 Loses of biodiversity particularly aquatic organisms Amphibians Skin cancers in Humans Organisms in Shallow water aquatic habitats are most vulnerable Mean proportion surviving lo hatching If you screen 02 UV white 39 pars survuval o 10 50 100 Is better Depth cm I50 f x TurmtnCanudu a GurmischGernmny As ozone 39 a 39 Trassu oniki reece levels have 39 MnunaLouHawuii c39 x L d N 2 Id decreased UV 3 5 s r rpongw Em m H radiation has E 3900 Medal Increased E U 1 E E E E 1 D 139 50 E 9 gt E 0 EU 50 40 31 3920 3910 0 Ozone Change 34 Increases in radiation seem to increase suseptibility to diseases World wide decline in amphibians is due in part to increases in UV radiation Red numbers show declines black no decline Skin cancer rates are increasing for humans Meianuma new cases and deaths by sex NSW 1985 in 2mm Rate per mu uuu pupuiatiun m Bu 7 O J r 4 Newcases maies 7o 939 V 5n 7 or w I on 7 a A q Newcases femaies 7 v v39 amp A V 4 a an 7m 7 quot m 7 Beams maies H quot Beams rema Es W K 77 Diiiiiiii Vear EASE w1mmo Best studied in North American and Australia hcidanaa rules fut mignml malamlrm 14 Ftrmli mu 5 th1h 1 1 I r 1 1 I l I 1 l I 1m 1935 1m 1w tum 19m 2011 m5 m m m 3315 That a WI Chapter 13 study questions 123478 How are policies affecting biodiversity climate change ozone depletion being developed Historically all these things have varied Difference is that one species is now causing the change The physical and chemical changes on earth have led to and constrained biological evolution Biological evolution has changed the our planet Leads to our current enigma 999 of the history of the earth proceeded without our species last 3 million years Only in last 3 of that time did current short inter glacial period allow our species to dominate Now our species consumes 25 of primary production We increased greenhouse gases Reduced Ozone Concentrations Spread nutrients and toxic chemicals to all ecosystems Last Lecture Can we go back NOW 00 we CIO It Abundance parts per billion O 1 980 FIGURE 1346 I I I III I Montreal c 1987 I I I I I I I I l 7 I London 1990 Vienna quot39n quot Copenhagen Ww a1amp9 Montreal1997 quotquot 39 su I I I 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 Year The effect of the Montreal Protocol and other international agreements on ozonedepleting chlorine and bromine from 1980 to 2100 Without the Montreal Protocol and amendments the abundance of atmospheric chlorine and bromine in halocarbons would have reached 20 parts per billion by volume in the year 2055 Total chlorine from halocarbons in the tropo sphere peaked in concentration in the mid19905 and is now slowly declining Total bromine is still increasing slightly The abundance of stratospheric chlorine and bromine in the strato sphere appears to have peaked in 2000 After World Meteorological Organization 1998 Hydrosphere Chapter 4 Water on the planet Been around for 4 Billion years Very different due to climate Water vapor and Ice content Hydrogen Bonding Water Molecule has positive end and a negative end Leads to cohesion High Surface Tension Liquid at broad range of temperatures Most dense at 4 degrees Hydrogen Bonds m m Leads to density effects m Density of ice 09 kgm3 At high temperatures 100 C Hydrogen bonds break down 3 DENSITY frgm z a Q 919 967 I0 7 517 la 20 30 rEMPERATuRE 6 figure 21 Relnnumhip hennau um39wntum me may at mm A leospnmil mum Thermal Properties Wide Freezing and Boiling point difference i l omwm m a mayMr at i df I410 a I a i g 7 J E T 2729 quot7 7 1259 st I M IN 151 MOLELULAR WEEHT Figure 23 Tmperalun nag m in liquid pm in sam hydrogen compound oiximdM mm In suuclure Phee grem W39 er critical paint 225 atm 1 ratm p Ice ressure mud 11006 atm ll it C 100 C 3H4 C Temperature r Drawing is not to scale Heat Capacity Heat Capacity of water is 10 high Specific Heat is ratio of Heat capacity of substance to Heat Capacity of Water Iron is 011 Aluminum 022 Heat of Fusion and Vaporization Latent heat of fusion 80 cal per g Amount of energy needed to melt ice Latent heat of vaporization 539 cal per g Amount of energy needed to make steam IZD 398 S TEMPERATURE 6 398 S W0 7 All A quotW MM may MTIR MNML arm P W muuqm was Rum 1w x a nsIr um at mm 7w 7mm RamM mmrwm Au 1m mm M mmx co m aw mwmrrmmnm mmw tamMs 6mm W771 m It msmrzp 1c umroO HEAT W AT WI DRM WE zo TIME Figure 24 Enetgy rclaxionships as water changes state from solid to liquid to 531 gt 7 Other Properties High Viscosity Internal friction of a fluid Changes with temperature 3 per 1 C Noncompressible High Surface Tension Hydrogen bonds Hydrologic Cycle also called Water Cycle Atmospheric water vapor transport Swlar vadlatian 4o Heat from sun r causes evaporation Water vapors circulates cools and condenses Coaesces into Evavova on Precipitation w Surfacewater 425 355 precipitation Precip is re evaporated runs off into streams or is absorb pants use Snow and ice 3 0 c9 FlGURE4 I water some Is v r y seams tra n S p red Rivi re199o ym After Maurits Ia Rain over the oceans is mostly evaporated back to atmosphere but 8 moves over land This terrestrial precipitation makes its way back to ocean over period of months Cycle is balanced Snow and ice also in balance in short term but over thousands of years changes occur Reason why Sea Level varies over thousands of years V I closed Forest E Glacial Ice Extrema Dasan 18000 YBP More water was in ice Lowered sea level Caused desert conditions Presence of water cools the planet 23 of solar energy used in evaporation water Most water is in Oceans Next largest reservoir is Ice Table 1 of water 11 the ecosphere Reservoir Volume 106 km Percent of total Ocean 1370 9725 Cryosphcre ice Caps and glaciers 29 205 Groundwater 95 068 Lakes 0125 0 01 Smls 0065 0 005 Atmosphere 0013 0 00 RIVEYS 00017 0 0001 Bmaphere 00006 000004 or 1408 100 After Homer and Bemer 1996 Size of pools is generally inversely related to the turnover time Ocean turnover thousands of years lce turnover hundreds of years Groundwater decades Surface water months or years Atmosphere hours or days Calculate turnover by dividing pool by rate Ocean 1370000000 km3 425000 km3 year 3223 years Solar mdia un Atmospheric water vapor Vanspcn 40 71 Transplra on 3 yamp rglam39amquot Preclpitauun Surface water 425 3 FIGURE 41 y cmsovwauar 39 r 39 39 yahmfterMaurltsla Rivi re 1990 Structure of the oceans Two layers Light warm thin layer floating on top Dense cold layer on bottom Thermocline is the transition zone Turbulent mixing in upper zone Energy from sun Wind and Waves Good for mixing heat and chemicals Energy is transferred from air to water propagated through the water Wave height is difference between crest and trough Amplitude is half the wave height Wavelength is distance from crest to crest The average energy of a wave is related to height 4 5 m is a typical wave height Wavelength is typically 100 m Wave energy is related to wave height Wave height is related to wind speed and fetch gL wave motion a depth Brat ax ln Shallow bottom water wave velocity and length are related to In shallow water wave action cleee net deereaee with depth depth Tsunami Caused by earthquake Long wavelengths 100200 km 30 m wave height Wave periods of 1020 minutes Tides Caused by gravitational pull of moon and sun Tides are greatest when moon earth and sun are in a line During full and new moons called spring tides Two high tides each day earth rotates once per day FIGURE 43 The alignment 0M J 4 L ing highwater HL lidal bulges and lowwater LW tidal depressions Surface currents Winds are driving force for surface currents Q L K OMS 9 anhA IBmWab E t p is Silvia A s lsquamlcmn Coriolis Effects are also important Circulation is clockwise in northern Hemisphere Counter clockwise in southern Hemisphere 8m 39 E W Counrarounen 6 r I J Qamnaicimenz OPAClFICQ Sahara c tram quotquot akwCE 1 quot7quot V e Warm currents move up eastern edge of continents in north em Hemisphere Yk 39 39 e p quot 3 location of land masses that black current motions After Munk 1955 Thermohaline circulation Conveyer Belt Water Masses are large parcels of wat hat stays coherent Cold winds from Canada cool waters of N Atlantic Dense water sinks off Greenland and move south mixing with col water near Antarctic Water flows around Africa and eventually warms up and mixes with surface water in lt Shallow ocean currents lt3 Rising ocean currents P 3 Ci C 4 g Warm Shallow water m oves towa rd th e L a C lakes about 1000 years Currently this conveyor belt circulation pattern is driyen to some ehv tent from the 39 by precipitation and continental runoti After Broecker 1995 FIGURE 46 V The conveyor belt circulation pattern oi the world s oceans Cold salty water In the North Al i e u r u I and Pacili Oceans quot Conveyor belt is maintained by more evaporation than runoff Major factor in global climates Europe is warmer than its latitude would imply Increased melting of ice in Greenland may disrupt this transport Salinity Most of the ions in sea are Na Cl Mg 804 Ca K Referred to as conservative elements always same Table 42 Ma ssolved components of seawate Chemical Concentration glkg Cnns luenl symbol seawater of salinity 35 Percentage of sans Chloride CI39 9353 5529 Sodium Na 10760 3074 Sulfuh 504239 2712 775 Magnesium Mgquot 1294 370 Calcium Caz 0413 118 Potassium K 0387 111 Bicarbonate HCO 0142 041 Bromine Br39 0067 019 Carbonaie cof39 0015 005 Strontium Srquot 0008 002 Silica SiO 0006 002 Boron B 0004 001 Fluo U 001 0003 rine F After Wilson 1975 Deplh kilometers m Trace elements are impo ant for biological activity Dissolved Inorganic c Dissolved Inorganic N Dissolved Sl mlekg mgkg mgk9 19 20 21 22 23 24 01 02 03 04 l 2 3 4 so 75 100 D l I 02 Salutation 1 l l l i i l l i I l Uptake 1Nuhlclm Uptake Uptake l Uptakeby Release oxidath by sclullon Wm mm 7 ulsillcashalls 4 mm oxidauorlol 3 939 shklng39 mgank gt V mm Paafic solmlonof Cam NIB k V l i 002 004 006 Dissolved Inorganic P mgk9 FIGURE 48 v di xalved AirSea Interactions Intertropical Convergence Zone Caused by heating at equator Evaporation cooling heavy precipitation Hadley ceii 20 1 59 091393 M warm dry A n airsubsides g y 7 Cumuionimn us 1 t activity 1 E g as k n 69 Temwiamm ma O Moisiair r I Westerlies 30 Trade winds Subtmpicai high FIGURE 41 0 r Ailuliiclci U V gt Th intenropxcair 39 Hum Thisisa inw amt an M 39 Hadley 9N circulation in the u pe r r i i Dart of ENSO El Nino Southern Oscillation A large variation in normal SeaAir interactions Normal La Nina Cool water flows north along West Coast of South America This surface current moves offshore and allows for upwelling on nutrientrich water Spurs Biological Productivity one of the highest in ocean El Nino event Warm Pacific Ocean water spreads to coast of Peru This low density water blocks upwelling Little algal production fish and birds die in large numbers ENSO events correlate with low fish catches 3E 1960 1970 1580 1990 Year FIGURE 414 39 39 39 Kill 14 eell1953 and 1990 Arrows Show times 039 El Ni o evenlsr After Laws 1992 FIGURE 415 n v u quot39 an un Eu After Rupelewski 1992 ENSO affects weather throughout the planet Three factors Ninfil um j influence ENSO 1 i 1 Increased convection 120 E 30 W 2 Increase SST 3 Deeper thermocline Study questions 1259101213 FIGURE 418 the position u The Earth s Interior and Plate Tectonics s Continental Drift I roposeo in 1960s Explains Continents are high and old Ocean oasins are low and young Fossils sands North American Antarctic IE Midocean ridgesespreading of the crust Direction of plate movement subduction sinking of the crust Transform faults FIGURE 21 Major lithospheric plates of Earth and regions of generation and spreading of crust midocean ridges and destruction and sinking of crust subduction zones After Chiras 1988 understand look at earth Zonation of Earth s Interior Solid core at center mostly very dense metallic iron Ridge spreadi of crust iViolten core iron tnat IS fluid Mantle Silicate Lithosphere contains continental and oceanic CrUStS FIGURE 23 nu M In 39 trenches not to scale Earth s Lithosphere Plate Tectonics 39 S l for breaks or ridges to a cmsl CI39US M h Lithosphsric f0 digczn nulty Fla 100km Aslhanasphere 200 km Mesosphere Causes seafloor spreading Island formation Iceland Hawaii not to scale The Crust of Midocean ridge Hydrothermal Vents and Associated Lifeforms Oceanic crust 139 i gt Oceanic crust Continental thhnsphere H L hosph FIGURE 25 lipi39agram illustrating the process of upwelling of molten rock below the midocean ridge system quot d s preading of the crust Biodiverse deep sea vents QuickTime M and a Uncompressed decompressor needed to see this picture TIFF are QuickTimeTM and a TIFF Uncompressed decompressor are needed to see this picture QuickTimeTM and a TIFF Uncompressed decompressor are needed to see this picture QuickTimeTM and a TIFF Uncompressed decompressor are needed to see this picture Subduction zones Balance oceanic spreading Creates islands near plate boundaries Earthquakes and tsunamis Continental crust Lithosphere Lithosphere FIGURE 28 Diagram illustrating the process of subduction of the lithosphere at subduction zones and vol canism associated with the subduction process Oceanic crust has been pulled down by the descending plate and partially melts leading to the generation of rising magma that feeds the island volcanoes above Arrows indicate direction of flow Good test question draw the ridges and subduction zones Eurasian Indian lt gt Antarctic Mr k E Midocean ridges spreading of the crust Direction of plate movement Subduction sinking of the crust Transform faults FIGURE 21 Major lithospheric plates of Earth and regions of generation and spreading of crust midocean ridges and destruction and sinking of crust subduction zones After Chiras 1988 V Mount Redoubt I V s Mount Saint Helens D f a n j Mauna Loa f Mount Pinatubo El Chichon r q a Krakatau l quot h It FIGURE 29 An illustration of the Ring of Fire the volcanic region surrounding the Pacific Basin Darkened lines are areas of major earthquakes and volcanoes Hawaii is wood exam le Hot spots Volcanic activity that creates seamounts and islands Emperor Seamount is oldest Hawaii is youngest North America L100MYA 6 O Aleutianfe39f m 3 U 2 2 at Paci c amp3 Ocean 2 Q a 039 V k 39 nk Islands FIGURE 210 HawaiianEmperor chain of seamounls and islands The southernmost part of the chain consti tutes the wellvknown Hawaiian islands Hawallan Islands 5 Emperor Seamounts South FIGURE 21 l u 139 ll and Mm ihena unnhwm 39 L Whit 39 39 frnrturn 0f 39 A 39 39 dmmmion of the chain by subduction A er Skinner and Porter 1995 Hot spot in mantle remains in place Demonstrates movement of plates Continental Drift Continental Drift allows for movement of continents relative to position of the planet Spreading of the plates Plate Subduction zone Lithosphere Continenta 39 39 gt Lithosphere crust 39 Lithosphere Cross section of outer layers of Earth showing two continental crusts located on separate lithospheric plates Movement of the lithosphere away from its source at rnidocean ridges leads to continental drift FlGURE 213 J The rock cycle keeps lithosphere in balance QuickTimeTM and a TIFF Uncompressed decompressor are needed to see this picture Continental plates are reconfigured at new hot spots develop into midoceanic ridges Current rates of continental drift lead to different geography of world i FIGURE 214 A possible configuration of continenu in the future resulting from plate motion and concur rent continental drift Note how Australia has moved northward to an equatorial position After Christensen 1991 Continents are part of lithosphere that floats up Ocean basins are thin Rock cycle important connections between surface and interior of planet Erosion Sedimentation Burial Uplift Metamorphism Volcano Seafloor spreading Summary Rock Cycle Erosion of sediments 7 x 109 Questions 345 Cycling of oceanic crust 9 0X10 FIGURE 218 Ocean floor Recycling of crystalline rocks 13 x 109 Metamorphism 9 x 10 Sedimenats Crust 3 X X 1018 Erosion of crystalline rocks 2 x 109 Mantle A generalized diagram fer the steady state rock cycle Sediments and continental crystalline crust masses are in units of metric tons Erosion of sediments metamorphism erosion of crys talline rocks recycling of crystalline rocks and cycling of oceanic crust are fluxes in units of tons per year Total sedimentation rate is 9 X 109 tons annually After Gregor 1988
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