Biodiversity and Sustainability
Biodiversity and Sustainability WATS 1200
Utah State University
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Mosciski Sr. on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WATS 1200 at Utah State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/230391/wats-1200-utah-state-university in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at Utah State University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Atmosphere Some rules of thumb and comparisons Density Pure water fresh 10 gcm3 sea water 1026 gcm3 Air at sea level 000122 gcm3 Crust of earth 522 gcm3 Pressure Air pressure at sea level 1000 g cm2 call 1 atmosphere Bottom of ocean is 380 atm Every 10 m of water depth add an Atm of pressure Air pressure halves every 5 kilometers in altitude Atmosphere extends to 500 km Very Dynamic Difference between weather and climate Energy is from the sun Bottom 10 km are troposphere Stratopshere 1050 km is where protective Ozone layer exists FIGURE 31 Incomingsoiarradianan x l Sunspoi mlmmum Temperature scale eci 500 450 Exosphere Themosvhere Heigm kilometers Mesosnhere Stratosphere Troposph ere 9 Weather Zon 6 The warm The tempera Ozone layer in troposphere depends on O2 O2 is derived from Photosynthesis High energy radiation changes O2 to single Oxygen produces heat O2 O gt O3 Ozone protects us from high energy radiation Problem if chemical break down Ozone Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs Electromagnetic Spectrum Solar Radiation BOX 34 ENERGY The Electromagnetic Spectrum Energy on Earth has led to the evolution of life It is Vital for the existence of our planet and ourselves The major source of energy for the surface of the planet is radiant energy that reaches Earth from the sun The sun runs on atomic energy the source is the fusion of hydrogen in the stellar interior High energy Wavelength in micrometers urn Low energy 110 910 810 7 IIO 510395110 4103931039210 1 1 10 102103 194105 106 107 108199 1010111 I I I I I I I I I l I I I I Gamma rays I Ultraviolet I I InfraredI Radio waves gt Xrays J L Microwaves 04um 07um Violet Indigo Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Visible light spectrum After Johnson 1990 What you need to know abou solar radiation Visible light is narrow range of wavelengths 04 to 07 micrometers Photos nthesis and vision use similar wavelengths UV and smaller wavelengths are damaging lnfared and longer wavelengths wu t have enough energy to cause chemical reactions What happens to incoming solar radiation 100 incoming solar radiation 30 is reflected by Atm albedo 25 absorbed by Atm and reradiated as heat 45 is absorbed by land and water used for photosynthesis 25 Reflected b the atmosphere 25 Absorbed by the atmosphere 12 Greenhou se effect he heat fro s e a m 3 m m evaporate water Re ected by surface Drive weather systems T quotloane Photosynthesis FIGURE 33 I I I Earth s radiation bud el Incoming solar radiation is shortwave ultraviolet and Vislble radia lion outgoing Earth radlalion is long wave infrared radiation Eventually reradiated back Green house gases Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Water vapor Absorbs the infared radiation and traps it in Troposphere Greenhouse Vases increase earth s surface tern erature by 33 degrees C Warms us to 15 degrees C Composition of air Mostly N2 02 Other important components 002 03 H20 variable but small overall Table 3 Gaseous compo n of dry air Constituent Chemical symbol Mole percent Nilmgen N 78084 Oxygen 02 20947 Argon Ar 0934 Carbon dioxide CO 00370 Neon Ne 0 00181 Helium He 0000524 Methane CHi 000017 Krypton Kr 0 000114 Hydmgen H I 000053 Nitrous oxide N20 0000031 Xenon Xe 00000087 Ozone39 03 trace to 00003 Carbon monoxide CO trace to 000005 Sulfur dioxide 50 trace to 000001 Nirrogm dioxide N01 Inca 0 0000002 Ammonia NH trace to 000000 03 W r at m 40km above Earth39s surface in the equatorial region After Warneck 1988 Anderson 1989 Wayne 1991 1 Stratosphere 12 48 km above surface of earth Ozone layer Protects planet from UV radiation UV light breaks down 02 creates O3 O3 is broken down by N20 and CFCs Aerosols from volcanoes reach Stratosphere and cool the planet Troposphere 012 km above earth s surface Weather systems occur More energy from sun provided to the tropics Sun s rays are more perpendicular to surface Creates patterns of temperature moisture wind pressure 84 Chapter 3 The Fluid Earth Atmosphere In July northern lattitudes are warmer IUI39dI sunlight at north pole no sunlight in Antarctica In January southern lattitudes are warmer Total sunlight at soutl 39 b pole Air has weight and presses down on earth called air pressure Air pressure decreases about 50 with every 5 km Warm air is lighter less dense and creates low pressure Cool air is heavier and creates high pressure Winds blow from high to low pressure warm air holds more water humidity as warm light air rises it cools and water condenses may be seen as clouds or precipitation Differential heating creates high and low pressure creates wind and precipitati s Stratosphere N equator TropgSEhere Jet stream 135m Basiag Jet stream Air cools near 30 and 1 600 x I I I N smks back down I ses moist tro ics f Cau p 39 I k OW I I lt lt gt and dry deserts at 30 W 3E 39 lt lt Coriolis effect causes 39 winds to move w I Clockwise in Northern weswes Hemisphere Jet stream 39 Jet stream FIGURE 38 A view of the planet and atmosphere showing locations of major zonal wind directions and jet streams The jet streams meander from mid to high latitudes in both hemispheres and flow predominater from west to east The Earth revolves west to east making one full anticlockwise revolution about its N S axis in 24 hours After Schneider and Lender 1939 Low and high Pressure cells Low pressure cells lif1 air and cause convergence spin counterclockwise Hi39h ressure cells sink and cause divergence spin clockwise Low pressure at equator and high at 30 n 1005 mi 1004 mb al A Low 77QVERGENCEru 777 7CONVERGEN9E777 r b RISlNGT AIR SINKING 1 NH r l u r r A v A DIVERGENCE Low HIGH FIGURE 39 The morrun 0 air m a low low prewre cell and a high luglrpressure cell in me lower r me munrerclockwrse and slightly Inward momquot 01 Winds In a low and me elockwrse and 39 39 39 I H W 39 l k quot ABiI1alna A 39439 39 hlnh r alratlowar elevcruomI k k l v A drrnearn r mullon al higher elevarrom ln the Southern Hemisphere rmauonal motions in lughs and low are reversed lrorn that in L H w J U 7 genre are the same After Trewartha and Horn 1930 Clouds and precip Water evaporates based on temperature Cooling air leads to a condensation clouds w 0 1o 20 so 40 so 60 Precip is rain or snow V iv i 1 wf k i wm vx 397 b Clouds have heating and coolin effects 1 l g frigidfquot 7 W39 zw 439 P ipnaiion in a July 1983 and b January 1984 Alter Darnell el al 1992 Clouds WIII i change with climate change is Why Summary of Atmosphere Different strata Chemical composition of atmosphere Greenhouse gases m rn f zn Heat transport and dynamics Low and high pressure Winds Precipitation Questions 12356710
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