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by: Ellis Stamm Sr.


Marketplace > Utah State University > Psychlogy > PSY 7670 > LIT REVIEW IN ED PSY
Ellis Stamm Sr.
Utah State University
GPA 3.66


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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellis Stamm Sr. on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 7670 at Utah State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/230468/psy-7670-utah-state-university in Psychlogy at Utah State University.


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Date Created: 10/28/15
Week 1 7670 Sherry sent all of you a copy of the syllabus If you have questions now would be a good time to ask All of the readings are on electronic resene There are instructions When you go on for right now look under summer It39s the same readings The home work assignments when they39re due can confuse people The homework assignment due next week is in this column Those exercises are due January fourteenth The college research committee has asked me to pass out these guidelines for doctorate dissertations l thinkthey39re pretty straight fonvard Nothing surprising there I know most of you except Jason and Jud You might not know each other Let39s introduce who you are and what program you39re in Anything you like to tell us about your self Student My name is Jason can39t hearcan39t understand Student l39m Chad Also from can39t hearcan39t understand Student can39t hearcan39t understand I39m doing a dissertation on can39t hearcan39t understand Student l39m deck Petersen I39m in my twenty ninth year I39ve enjoyed it Professor Some of you have been in the 6570 There are a lot of similarities Like the literary review talk about in that class is the same I talk about in this class And even a few examples will be the same I sometimes can39t remember which I use where Stop me if you39ve heard it I would hope most of you who have been exposed to the rules and procedures I talked about it would be on a different level because ofthe different level It39s kind of like peeling an onion As you get through different layers we have different ways of doing it Secondly come in You39ll want that chair over there Partly you bring a different experience which I hope will provide different information Ryan We39ve all introduced ourselves I39ve asked if there are any questions on the syllabus Are there First of all I want to talk about threat to internal validity Part ofthe literary review will be to critically analyze the literature you39re talking about Not just a matter of copying information It39s not a matter of summarizing someone else39s conclusions You need to critically review it You need to decide if it39s credible or not Just because it39s published doesn39t mean it39s credible What is a threat to internal validity What are we threatened when we talk about threats Male Student can39t hearcan39t understand Professor You shouldn39t have said statistical conclusions When you draw conclusions from a study you are saying this caused this or this is associated with this A threat to validity is are there threats that would give an alterative explanation for that result besides the one that you gave for it So if it39s an experimental study you want to know if giving them orange juice increases their IQ you give one group orange juice the other one not At the end of the study the one that drank orangejuice has higher lQ39s You say drinking orangejuice causes kids to have higher lQ39s Athreat to validity says is there an alternative explanation for why those kids have higher lQ39s So it39s not questioning that they do it39s just saying what caused that what caused those higher lq39s Was it the treatment or is there an alternative explanation The example from 6570 but I think it39s a great example is skip in the recording So what39s the conclusion they want you to draw from that Male Student can39t hearcan39t understand Professor Yeah That they39re reliable They39re durable good solid cars A threat to validity is not questioning the accuracy of the statement You accept the fact that ninety nine percent of volvos are still on the road but you question the reason The threat to internal validity is that even though there are ninety nine percent still on the road they are not reliable durable cars Or at least that fact shouldn39t be convincing that they are If that fact is true what are alternative explanations Male Student can39t hearcan39t understand Professor Those guys are right there I had a dell repairman meet me at the woods cross exit to replace my mother board one day I got so tired of meeting him so I said I39d never get one ofthese again I got a gateway The warranty read the same But when it broke the first time it took me six weeks to get it repaired So those explanations might be it Male Student People who are inclined to drive volvos are also inclined to drive less Professor Okay One ofthe things thinking about a threat to internal validity is how plausible is it You can always say it might have happened in this way but if it might have happened this way it39s not much of a threat to internal validity So if you say people who drive volvos don39t drive them very much it39s not impossible but this other explanation sounds more possible To be a critical thinker brainstorm It39s possible but doesn39t convince me Female Student They39re still on the road because they39re owned by car dealerships They39re still parked on the road Depends on your definition of on the road Professor But if nine were on the lot and ten were sold it39s still pretty good Male Student How old39s the car How long have they been on the road Professor That39s the jackpot one That39s what actually happened They came out with this ad campaign when they39d only been importing volvos for a couple of months So it was true Ninety nine percent were still on the road They were only a week and a half old I saw this in a cartoon about statistics They showed here39s another explanation A guy pushing his dead volvo on the road He was pushing it It39s like Ford stands for found on road dead Laughter Fix or repair daily Recording skips can influence the outcome can39t hearcan39t understand But you also don39t want to set it up in a way that random events can influence events more than is absolutely necessary So Campbell and Stanly sp have talked about seven threat to internal validity Many have and have longer lists and Campbell is the most well known Campbell39s family did this fifty years ago It39s like a pilot check list Saying what are the things I should think about before I take off I39m not so concerned you get the right label about things I39m interested in if you find the causal relationship If you call it testing and I call it relation I don39t care As long as you understand what39s going on The threat to internal validity can you pick them out Selection This applies mostly to comparative studies but not only It can also go to correlational studies and ethnographies among others l39ll focus on comparative studies frame The ABC method of reading is betterthan the XYZ method of reading Put nine children into broth groups But itjust so happens that people in the ABC method of reading have to take English from Mrs Jones All the other kids take it from Mr Williams And Mrs Jones really focuses on reading requiring you to read two books a week and talk with your parents So she teaches children to read better even though the ABC method may be worse So history it39s something that wasn39t part of the treatment that worked You can always be hyper critical You can always say well something else may have happened I have no idea what it was So I don39t trust the result That wouldn39t be fair Another threat that came out if you have fifty percent drop out in the control group you don39t necessarily know what happened If you have fifty percent drop out in the experimental group and none drop out in the control group you may or may not have a problem You have problems if fifty percent drop out in the experimental group and none in the control group ifthose that drop out in the experimental group are the weakest to start with Okay So it39s now a differential So if half ofthe dumbest students don39t take the test what will happen to the scores Average scores will go up even if no one else learned anything You have to think about differential The same is true of history lt39s notjust that history happened but that it happened in ways that affected one group but not the other Selection history and mortality What else Students Maturation Professor Things happened simply at the passage oftime so the passage oftime children and adults get tireder Children develop motor skills Their muscles change in ways so it39s strictly at the passage of time So if you39re interested if whether a series of articulation errors improves children39s articulation errors you39re doing it with children who are two years old and the treatment lasts a year by the end of the year their articulation will be better So ifthere39s a pre post gap you39ll say wow this treatment works wonderfully But it39sjust that they got older and got better motor skills They have fewer articulation problems So that39s important What else Female Student Instrumentation Professor That we do major things differently in one group than another or from beginning to end So if I want to know if crime went down beginning to end of Giuliani39s time as mayor of new York I want to know how it was measured That39s an instrumentation issue I call instrumentation if there was a good chance of experimenter bias in some way That the person saw what they expected to see and that39s why it gets better Or got worse Some would call it testing I don39t know what you call it as long as you can test it Male Student Regression Professor Regression39s not a problem Kids in both ofthose groups are going to regress But the differences between the groups are what you used to draw conclusions In that case there39s no looking at regression as amma Now on the other hand if instead of doing it that way I had selected the hundred lowest scoring kids given them all Gitanic sp acid they would regress towards the mean So I would say they gained ten IQ points when they were predicted to gain ten IQ points The cleverest example was from gene glass He wanted to know if pennies were smart or dumb So he gave each person twenty pennies The way you see how smart they are is to see how many heads you get when you flip it a hundred times So if you get seventy heads that39s smarter than the one that gets fifty You pick the dumbest pennies You will have a few pennies that only have a few On average the dumbest might have thirty five heads Then I give you something to make those pennies smarter You can push them toward the mean You can predict how much it39s going to happen if you know what the selection is between the pretest and the selection test and the post test In this case it39s zero because they39re independent events They will regress Yet ifthere39s perfect correlation between the select pretest and the post test And ifthere39s zero correlation then there will be complete regression If you know what the deviance is and you knowthe correlation you can predict how much of the observed effect is due to regression We39ve got six What39s the seventh Female Student Testing Professor Testing is either teaching to the test so you want to know whether your classrooms have achieved recording skips You have a pretty good idea of words in the English language you know how to spell Or I could take the twenty five words and give you a list of them and say next week I39m going to test you on these twenty five words You get a lot of money if you know how to spell all these words in the English language You39d do very well then because your sample just became your population That39s why teaching to the test is a problem The otherthing where teaching becomes a threat to internal validity is a practice attempt If I take an eight year old child and give them a test every Monday for three months their IQ will improve even though I don39t give them any feedback on their answers They get more accustomed to taking the tests they get more comfortable with you they figure some things out on their own Their lqs didn39t really go up but it39s a threat to internal validity an alternative explanation Okay so seven threats You39ve all heard them before On electronic resene there39s a homework assignment with twenty questions asking with brief scenarios for what39s the most plausible threat to internal validity We did the same thing in 5570 but this one39s different So if you memorized it it won39t work Laughter Any questions We39ll talk about a lit review What39s the question you39re trying to answer in the thesis or dissertation Many people can39t do this in one sentence I don39t want an explanation I just want to know what the central question is that you39re trying to answer If you39re not doing a thesis or dissertation you39re doing a lit review Tell me what the central question is you39re doing in the lit review So we39re going to review an article called 39is early intervention effective39 That39s the central question You have to know what he means by early intervention and what he means by effective But I just want to know what your central question is Now as you listen to these we39ll critique them a little Don39t be bashful Male Student ls experience as valuable as traditional can39t hearcan39t understand Male Student How well does an on line intenention can39t hearcan39t understand problematic for alcohol use Female Student can39t hearcan39t understand thought patterns in high school students enrolled in a base level drafting course Professor Okay Male Student I39m looking at what are the contexts of pro environmental behaviors in a pollution context Professor Pretty good in terms of being able to come up with a question You39re going to have to turn it in in a couple of weeks I39m always amazed at how out of a class often students get six questions asked Here l have eight questions asked That39s good Okay most of them I understand I didn39t quite get yours Katrina And I39m going to have to think about it One of the things I believe a good review of the literature is is it39s written to an educated lay person It should not use jargon sjargon good or bad recording skips Your committee says I didn39t need to do it that way Your committee the only people you need to satisfy is your committee But if you want a good grade in here you39ll have to do it my way lthinkthere39s a fair amount of rationale for me to do it this way It39s other39s way too Jargon is a bad thing You need to communicate your question and rationale in a lay person way It39s due next week It says on the syllabus Topic of dissertation proposal I don39t want a topic I want a question recording skips People use these security factors The way I would see research done on that is you39d do a survey of people who have equipment and aren39t using it So you say why don39t you use it It39s a legitimate question Unless what you want to answer is here are seven factors identified in the research as to why people won39t do it and I want to determine how frequently those factors are present So the question you ask determines the kind of research you end up doing Okay The heart of your literature review the way I think of it would be a problem statement which is a simple set of related concept that lead to the conclusion the study should be done The literature review is the support forthose premises or concepts Those of you who have been in my 6570 course it39s nothing new but it39s what students struggle with the most I39ll give you an example All men are mortal Kings are men Therefore kings are mortal It39s on the syllogise sp with a minor premise and a major premise and a conclusion The problem needs to be a true syllogise recording skips statement for your lit review could fall in one of those two categories You could have a perfect problem statement in the sense that it39s a set of premises that lead to a conclusion that this research should be done So that39s saying that ifthese premises are true this research study is an important study Your progress through this experience is the perfect problem statement Then to go to the library and see if you can support these premises of the statement You may find when you get to the library the research doesn39t support the premise So you may end up in a slightly different place Or you may decide to do a different study You may decide to change your premise in a way that would lead to the same conclusion The whole rationale was based on the idea that children with disabled siblings had more antisocial skills and so he went in to do an intervention for more social skills So when read his dissertation I said you know this part where you conclude that children with disabled siblings had more antisocial skills is not very convincing to me He had looked up other people39s reviews who were very well known in the field who had all concluded that He said it therefore must be true asked him to tell me about the review I said at the beginning to be a critical analyst of what you39re looking at When he was looking at reviews he was looking at others39 conclusions You have to sayjust because others had this in the review does the evidence in the review really lead to that conclusion or not So he showed me some of the reviews We talked about it I said you know I don39t think these are good reviews I don39t trust those conclusions I said I hate to do this with you but I think we need to go back and do a good review of that literature When he did that he found out that there was no good evidence at all that children who were siblings of those with disabilities had more antisocial behaviors than those with out disabled siblings He did finish the dissertation I didn39t make him start over It shows you that when you actually recording skips She was doing a study of whether you could teach math better with objects that could be manipulated to teach math to second and third graders And she did this study because she had a faculty advisor who had a grant to get a library out ofthese things It was handed to her It was all done And then after she got the study done they did the study before they did a careful review ofthe literature Then they did a careful review of the literature She did a very good review of the literature One of the things she found in the literature was most ofthe experiments in the past use a very short time period in which they do this that can be manipulated to teach math or arithmetic skills Because of this they didn39t find much The average length ofthese intenention sessions are four to six recording skips There was a paperturned in to this class and it was labeled major premise minor premise conclusion Put your hand over this and ignore it Read the stuff at the bottom ofthe page Silence for a several seconds You39ve got four premises and a conclusion Silence If those four premises are true does it lead you to the conclusion that it39s a worth while study to do Silence Male Student I39d say yes ifthey39re true Professor I agree thinkthis is a reasonably good problem statement I can understand it I know nothing about the topic but as an educated lay person I can read this can39tjudge whether they39re true recording skips There are lots of people that claim that But I can judge that they39re all very flawed studies and I don39t believe that conclusion any more I may still do work in the area of breast feeding But what I may decide to do is study to see if there are benefits related to breast feeding ratherthan looking at something related to the social support related to spouses and significant others So what you39re trying determine with the lit review is where the appropriate jumping off point is You know you39re interested in working in this area But what is the next logical study We talk about a test example I may not understand it but if indeed there had been a number of factors tentatively identified for what contributed to people not using it you39d do one sort of study But if you had no idea you39d do a different sort of study recording skips Because it takes a while to figure out How well these things can be supported And it39s a completely successful literature review if you have worked on it and you say boy l was headed in the wrong direction I need to do a very different kind of study than where l was headed before That39s good Much betterthan finishing the study and saying I should have made this study different Female Student I39ve been reviewing literature reviews and these are the best can39t hearcan39t understand in the field The representations of the best I can39t emphasize enough the importance of having a good problem statement at this point lfthere39s a problem I can recognize it39s generally well done It was surprising to me something you emphasize so much Professor And it39s such a simple concept That people say now there must be something more to it But doing a good lit review is a very simple thing to do if you keep focused on these principles So this handout will give you a couple of examples We39ll look at them a little more It will give you some concepts This has three examples They39re not equally good Whenever I give you something to critique you39ll read a review of literature No you don39t have to do that until next week Next week all you need to do is the internal validity exercises and write the question that you39re trying to answer with this lit review Then read readings one and two I39ll not lecture the content back to you Read and think about it lfthey raise issues you39d like to discuss bring them up Sometimes I39ll ask questions Sometimes I won39t say a word about those articles unless you say something end of class


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