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Psychological and Educational Consultation

by: Joany Mitchell

Psychological and Educational Consultation PSY 6340

Marketplace > Utah State University > Psychlogy > PSY 6340 > Psychological and Educational Consultation
Joany Mitchell
Utah State University
GPA 3.7


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Class Notes
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joany Mitchell on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 6340 at Utah State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/230469/psy-6340-utah-state-university in Psychlogy at Utah State University.


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Date Created: 10/28/15
Objectives Behavioral Model A vantages and disadvantages Direct verses in 39rect Collaboration verses expert Designing a Behavior Measurement system School Case entry Learn ng about the s stem Methods that may influence change Interview tips Behavioral Model Good points An empirically based Technology to change behavior that works Provides strategies to directly evaluate behavior change Clear objective treatment goals Adaptable to wide range of different situations l off modulo D Problem Identification Q Problem Analysis 0 Plan Implementation 0 Plan Evaluation BehaVIoral Model 0 Assumptions 1 Behavior is learned 2 There are functional interactions between person and ce x the environment in uen 3 Based on basic principals of behavior ABC 4 Measures overt behaviors that can be quanti ed 5 Idiosyncratic process since larning historis vary 6 Requires change in agent in change client behavior 7 Consultee has some power to control and adjust reinforcing contingencies to change behavior for child 8 Data driven decision making Behavioral Model Problems Time consuming Acceptability issue hreat resistance effort reuctivityjurgon contradicts common beliefs intrinsically motivated bribery child ntrinsic problem reported that often hard to implement need support resource PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION INTERVIEW Kratochwill and Bergan 90 Goals Define the problem in behavioral terms Provide atentative identification of behavior in term of antecedent situation an consequent conditions Provide a tentative strength of behavior frequency severit Establish a procedure for collection of baseline data PROBLEM ANALYISIS INTERVIEW PLAN IMPLEMENTATION Goals I 39 EvaluaTe and obTain agreemenT in The Goals39 sufficiency and adequacy of The baseline daTa DirecT Teacher To use The plan 39 Discussion of AnTecedenTs consequenT and Review inferven on Progress weekly sequenTial condiTions 39 SeT The goal for behavior change 39 Design TreaTmenT plan 39 Reaffirm measuremenT procedure fame a problem evaluaTion inTerview Revise a non working plan wiTh The Teacher pLAN EVALUATION AdvanTages 0f model INTERVIEW wiTh a reliance on self reporT Purpose 39 DeTermine if The goals have been obTained 39 EvaluaTe The effecTiveness of plan 39 Saves consulTanT Time 39 Discuss sTraTegies and TacTic regarding 39 Increases Teacher inpuT The conTinuaTion modificaTion or TerminaTion of The plan 39 Schedule addiTional inTerviews if needed PoTenTial barriers To good child ouTcomes gt outcome barrier 0 Focus on problem behavior verss behavior gt Measurement barrier t o Reliance on tacher perceptions memo replacemen 0 Focus on satis ing tacher which often lads 0 Decisions are based on subjective dala to unrealistic goals which in turn leads to failure 0 Lacks direct integrity masures o Lacks direct masurement of problem Contingency barriers oasking teacher to increase work load olack of adequate contingencies to ensure treatment gets done olack of consultant39s control for ensuring contingencis that promotes teacher integrity Incorporating fundamental principle to make BC more behavioral 1 Use hybn39d for direct objectiverneasurernents less selfrepo 2 Assess and intervene in child s environrnent Direct 3 Train in child s environment Direct 4 quot 39 39 r 39 consultee 9indirect and direct 5 Add consequences to increasemaintain consultee s behavio 9direct Various types of consultation models Direct Consultation Definition School psychologist provides services to a child refm39al Tmtmenl Teucher Psychologist Student Goal To change the child provide skills 39 System barrier told can39t do steps Lack of administration backing Lack of accountability Lack of training finances support and resources Perceptions weak child problem a S usu al ll Data based decision making 1 Problem Identification Does data show a behavlol i academlc or classwide problem Dld we observe why is child not learning or behaving and collect data that shows a way that the problem changes 3 Plan HOW do We get a ll ealmel llwe hav SHOWN Works used ll l lie classroom el Sliuallol ls Indirect Consultation Definition School psychologist works with a third party who will implement a treatment for a student I Refaral Tmtmenl Psychologist 4 Teacher Student Cmsuliau Goal changing teacher skills or environment to increase child appropriate behaviors skills while decreasing inappropriate bxerrors AcTiviTy OpTions For example Indirect Teach 39 DirecT You Assess child xAssess child Record review xAssess in class xImplemenT inTervenTion xCollecT daTa ConducT Thera y Child Skill Training Train Teac er Fade plan Others target behavior change obtain baseline ize materials design intervention steps with valuation plan pretest the treatment reinforcer survey graph data evaluate andrnoolify DisadvanTages for DirecT 39 NoT enough school psychologists 39 Lack of generalizaTion To classroom 39 Teacher may conTinue To have The problem wiTh oTher children my DisadvanTages for IndirecT DependenT on Third parTy To implemenT 7 May et high qualitative assessmem accurate problem diagnosis no service To C ild M 2 am 3 2 2 33 g g a Overcoming resisTance Time changing adulT behavior as well as child behavior Lack of resources supporT Need To change beliefs H39s mag c vrs hard work the child has an nlernal problem InTerference from sysTem demands AdvanTages of D ir ecT 39 DirecT observaTion of skill abiliTy By doing iT iT geTs done 39 ImmediaTe services for problem 39 Low childadulT raTio Decrease Teacher Time ValidaTe a TreaTmenTs before Training adulTspeers AdvanTages of IndirecT AdulTs conTrol child39s daily environmenT Assess in environmenT ThaT The child is funcTioning wiThin Increases generalizaTion since TreaTmenT is provided in naTural environmenTal conTexT Provides appropriaTe consequences immediaTe promst and feedback Teach skills To solve oTher problems More Time To assisT more children ReaIiTy in schools Need boTh direcT and indirecT services buT Presenle in pracTice 80 is spenT on direcT rvices 23 of The Time is relaTed To acTiviTies for classificaTion A need for consulTaTion services has increased buT indirecT acTiviTies slowly increasing in schools Collaboration non hierarchical mutual res ect shared responsibilities co equa freedom to reject and accept pen communication confidentia Expert vrs Collaboratio Tough to operationally define collaborative construct hence tough to study Research findings Teachers rat ngs show high satisfaction With the process Most favorable consultation outcomes occur when the consultee follows the lead of the consultant Martins Stud es that meusur number of t mes consultant controlled lio were less ed conversa ions gt teacher prefer consultants w collaborative Ercliul Consultation that is directive and prescr ptivequot facilitated ctive classroom interventions Fuchs Is consultation voluntary 39 if rejection is an option then consultation that fails to reduce intervention implementation has little merit ignores student39s legal rights to instructional modifications Expert imparts specialized knowledge to relative novice hierarchical relationship Train skills to treatment agent needed to increase student outcome Expert vrs Collaboratio Research findings Expert preferred 9consultant gave expert advice and specific statements and questions collaborative preferred 9consultant roblem solved wit teac er with vague guiding sta ements question graham Level of participation in consultation did not predict reported pre erence between the two models McKee Overall studies to not demonstrate that collaborative is superior to quotexpertquot model Determining Target behavior measurement system What to record When how often you need to record record under what conditions Who will record How to store the recorded data Deciding on WHAT to measure Target behavior will serve as the standard for judging whether or not improvemen t has occurred Do you Want to measure a decrease in bad beha Do Want to measure an increase in good replac vim ement behavior arge nl aPPfop ate 5 new full Wll museiul tulhe mew Wll mime mmver ucenma Wll 011135 reward to swimman is ths m easy to u and in NS Slmdestfum mm a Evuld SDHEHWWQ umawse ml mt do ll Evan test mm male gum cursauuemes acmv a a ta 59 male suve mlld ml gen anmnan m to nd a manual turrmm m that 011135 use m uaakm ltdtwv iutha want to make ll easy to leam and lmlE e ut 3rd rule Making it COUNT Objective is to see dots go up or down Benefits of counting my unbiased matters to people easily understood T reliable and valid results in low inference 1 15 RULE Consider treatment goal Decide on what the child SHOULD be doing oDiscuss the appropriate replacement behaviors oDiscuss a mastery level or acceptable level of performance othat results in an incrmse in oacaa eml39c progress iv Cir7d tura pas ve rehbrcement iv chid opos ve social interac 39ons iv Cir7d Deciding on WHAT to measure 2nd RULE Making it OBSERVABLEs Op erau39ouauy defining the behavior to be measured Vague Objective Student will understand the value of coins Behavioral Objective Student will point to a quarter dime nickel enny and say it s value with 100 accuracy Deciding on WHAT to measure For a a useful measurable target behavior you will 1 See what child should be doing 2 Count it 3 count the it the same way as the teacher replicate 4 do it freguently 5 Easily do it 6 use produce some type of permanent products Deciding WHEN to count Across the day During problem subjects or places Morning or afternoons Several 15 minute sessions across Y the da During specific activities such as lecture independent seatwork group k IF teacher collects data What are some considerations What a teacher or student can do easily SCGHBV lol ABC charls Lickerl scales fre Llan COLlN egn give pulnls each lime raise hand check each lime bulher cil ers behavlurcharls collect Eermunent products such cis work samples time eg give pulnls each lime fulluw direcllunswllhln 5 seconds each lime sleirls WurkWilmn 10 seconds each lime cumplelee Wur k Wilmn l5mlnule imelimil momentary sumpli g n l limer when rings mark if we is erlng Wilm is talking Deciding on HOW to DISPLAY DATA Use a simple AB line graph Graphs verses charts often result in more changes in strategy by teachers Decide on a goal and time line Mark the goal and aim line on graph to show progress Record the dots as data is collected ild and teacher can record daily Deciding WHO counts 39 During assessment Consultant advantages can observe change in behavior during various antecedent conditions to predict when bx occurs can collect systematic descriptive FA data can collect peer comparison data can observe classroom management 39 During the intervention the teacher andor t nt will count o collect more consistently during problem times on a daily basis Did you meet the 6 WHAT to measure criteria Write an appropriate replacement targetbehaviorthat c a1 e i also be measured and ev uat Baseline Treatment P ercent correct School days Bene ts of this Eanhic display 1 0 going access to a complete record oi an individual s behavior under speci c conditions lore and investigate Variations ofbehavior under different conditions for that indiVi u 3 Helps to determine the signilicance oibehavior change level 4 Helps to determine the trend in change ofbehavior Rationale for Visual analysis Behavior gt Is an individual phenomena and we work with the student th is not performing like the others average gt 15 Continuous not static so need to measure over time gt variability is extrinsic due to the child s environment so we are interested ariability from the group Variability exists within a group but looking at di erences in an so we do not know how referred child is performing change occurs for the child through environmental manipulations Did a meaningful change in behavior take place Need stats to find sma 39l changes If you get 3 enough points then 3E increase chance will find significant 3 difference g Verses 3 ially significant ange that produces anges in environment What is Visual Analysis Inspecting the plotted data without reference to inferential statistics the response is derived from a 1 history of data analysis 2 clinical or scientific experience and 3 awareness of the significance of the data in relation to the experimental tion Distinguishing single subject experimental de rom typical group design Group study Single subject study l 1 A lot of data because of N size 1 A lot of data because of repeated measure on individual 2 39 39 39 is is between subje 239 4 t I cis within sub39ect control vs experimental J baseline vs treatment f 3 Replication with new experiment 3 Replication within or across subjects 4 Data analysis is statistical 4 Data analysis is visual for social significant change in level REVIEW OF SINGLE SUBJECT ANALYSIS 1 DATA poinm represent the behavior that you are intere in changing Also called the dependent variable This is wha are measuring to see how it is dependent on the environmental variables that are being manipulated with treatment 2 PHASE or CONDITION is your independent variable This is what YOU are manipulating or changing and is a p a ricum different treatments that you are trying out 3 BASELINE First phase in which no treatment is implemented 3 PHASE LABELS Baseline Peer Tutoring 4 PHASE CHANGE LINES 1 Current Easels performance Y 1 mm without treatment 2 DATA POINTS 5 DATA PATH More dam given more con dent an damning story told by the dam path Interpret graph using VISUAL ANALYSIS id a meaningiul change take place Analxsis of3 things 1 Variabilitxr extent data points in one dam path differ from one another The more stable the more believable the record oibehavior during a phase 3 Trend overall direction of the data path angSESESSS Why basel me 39 Indica res Occurrence of bx in currenl environmenl Comparison of sfandard level of behavior Whal reinforcemenl39 is occurring How frequenl39ly reinforcemenf is occurring Whal39 reinforcemenl39 schedule is occurring for well behaved peers 2 Level the value on the vertical axis scale around the data points converge within a phase Ie a mean level line showing the average value NOTE For purposes oithis class we are not showing experimenml control oibehavior We did not adequately that behavior changed and only changed when we applied p You do to oy o show thatbebavior goes down Then apply again to show behavior goes up with IV This is more oi a case study Setting a realistic aim A Increase in percentile at least I 25 that other children a BL Treatm ent Eg Target child is reading in Fall at 23 wurWrnr39rr irr Ind 25 percentile scare irr qzring 55 wunixper minute Gualfnr Spring 60 wunixper min B OR Use ranges given in iiteramre tor a rough estimate C OR For short term Expect to see increases within 577 data points Behavior example with appropria Deciding on how to storecoll and nonappropriate Bx data BL Treatment Use a folder to Collect class work Collect data observations sheetsnotes Decide on designated place to store for easy collection of data 12 Alt39lll1 Entry into the schools 2 Get to know the territorymeaning Leadership style of principal Effects of style of school Who functions as gatekeeper to resources Student makeu 1 Introduce yourself to the system a Meet with organization administrators in Develop quotcontractquot c Discuss confidentiality d Introduction to staff a 52 up coma Procedures Structure of day problem times f ait out transition period for acceptance SCi OOI Climafzi bum mf 51390quot WiH 9 52 0 know ferrifory consultants principal support priorities h Conduct workshop P hysical layout knhNXLhU39D 3 Assess school39s readiness for change What resourcs are available People technical nancial programs What is the namre offactors pressing for or detracting from the integration of this program with other elements already in place at the school What is the perceived need for consultation W at rewards or bene ts are expected as a result of Entry for a new Case Introducing yourself when first working with teacher parent Discuss Roles expectations Get Agreement of action Meetin times Discuss Termination principal informed How do we get change Which of the following skills would people to do more w rk without consequencs Little research here Are there effective communication skills Body verbal ctions 4 Identify key school players counselors pn39npras special ed teaches lead teaches school level teams How do you View your school nevi7 Write Next List Why am you Eriij Wurklng With a coworker or supervisor7 Attending 50L ER mag7r fowaro s foler open pas fure lean fowaro s eye confacf relax Gaining acceptance Treat others with respect Giving credit for ideas and accomplishments to others Willing to share information and to learn from others Clear role definition Interpersonal skills Establishing rapport Conflict resolution Enthusiasm Encouragement Respect and accepting Optimistic st l as mswliila 39 9 Problem Identification Typically begins with interview 1 Problem Analysis 0 Plan Imple Nonver ba I Proximity 15 4 for casual conversations 412 ft for business impersonal Territory Teacher s classroom Temperature 68 to 75 lighting Time management Body language and affect language loudness speed pitch Vocal interferences okquot quotumquot Res ect property Empathy Assertiveness Operationally define Review book for assertive steps Problem Identification Inter TO DO LIST 1 Greet and Inform teacher of general consultation expectations and process 2 Begin interview 3 Define the problem behavior and replacement behavio 4 Begin deciding the treatment goal expected behavior 5 Start forming an hypothesis for function of the wor beha STep 1 The GreeTing Why spend Time on an iniTial greeTing To iniTiaTe a good relaTionship Explain raTionale for inTervenTion e the child behavior change Will occur through a teacher s fforl and that the Child is unlikely lo be removed from counsehng Inform Them of The general process whaT They can expecT and The goals ThaT will be accomplished ObTain a preliminary commiTmenT To This course of wiTh Are you readyquot STep 3 Defining The problem behavior 1 LisT problems To geT general objecTive of consulTaTion PrioriTize problems ApproximaTe frequency sTreng Th of problem behavior DeTermine problem seTTings people and Tasks TIP SmooTh inTerviews 39 Be early and find a place 39 Be prepared To be delayed 39 Be prepared wiTh maTerials 39 Explain your ro 39 Add raTionales and expecTaTions 39 GeT consenT if you are working on case 39 Be prepared To refocus off Task Times 39 WaTch Time STep 2 Begin inTerview Use interview format to help you 39 1 QuesTions abouT Type of problem 39 2 Begin To formulaTe behavioral operaTional definiTions ThaT can be observed an measured Lead Towards observable problem behaviors Begin anTecedenTs and consequences of I eauenT or severe STep 4 SeTTing a TreaTmenT goal Decide on what the child SHOULD be doing oDiscuss the appropriate replacement behaviors oDiscuss a mastery level or acceptable level of performance othat resulls in an incrmse in 0 academic progress iv cit7d tura pas ve rein vcement iv child 0 pas ve social in leraco39ons iv cit7d UP SignificanT concerns during inTerview Self reporT is Typically unreliable ConsulTeeConsulTanT Time and efforT MainTain a child ouTcome focus RealisTic goals TIP Maintaining a behavioral focus during the interview What will I in class that will tell me that there is a problem Show me permanent products What can this child DO strengths focus Summarize to clarify information given and to validate conclusions Delegate responsibilities with step by step procedures Managing Resistance Proactiv Enlist administrative support Actively involve teachers from onset with schoolwide programteams Id specific ways programs will help support teachers at onset Learn values of classroom teachers and design program Questioning to clarify SIVES 1 Specific a II J ll J ri 2 CheckInference It seems to meI hear 3 Validation of conclusions Can we conclude that We are n agreement that 4 Evaluation of perceptions How do you feel about what do you th nk 5 Summarizution of understanding 39 ev ew my understanding of what39s go ng on DID YOU Introduch 390 Esmblish clear roles responsibilities eiye rationale why steps are needed Interview USE slvEs 5 eat inference Valldate Evaluate Summarize Goal setting Deyelop positiye but real expectatlorls Dam Collection Develop a simple plan Adag to teacher needsSkills class Structure Discuss ow reduce effort Discuss other resources l E I Promise no follow through set date and do it


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