Popular in Art History Survey 1
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Art History Notes Week 10 Chapter 7 3/21/16 The late roman and Byzantine World (Map 7-1) These three religions arose in the Near East and still dominate today: Judaism, Christianity and Islam rd Ark of the Covenant and Menorahs: 3 Century Pg. 217 (Figure 7-2) First 5 books of bible and Hebrew Tora (book of exodus) Moses lead Hebrews out of canon. This is the visual image of the Arch of the Covenant from Moses’s time. There was a temple built in Jerusalem to hold the Arch of the Covenant. The temple was destroyed in King Nebuchadnezzar’s time and the arc was taken away by the Jews. When King Herod was king in 37-34 BCE the second temple was rebuilt. In the 2 ndCommon Era the temple was pulled down to the ground. This is a site that is still remembered in Islam and referred to as the Dome of the Arch, still today. There were cubiculum’s in the tunnels too. In the cubicula’s there were archways that were archways then there was caskets/graves that were there to remember the dead. There was a burial service and memorial service that were short because people could not stay down in the tunnels for long because of lack of air. Wall with Torah Niche: 244-245 CE Pg. 218 (Figure 7-3) Synagogues had long halls with benches along them. Most did not have narratives on the walls but in this one there are some narratives. This hall was used for communal social gatherings. The Crossing of the Red Sea: 244-245 CE Pg. 218 (Figure 7-4) Sometimes figures are repeated to show continuous narratives which were separated in time but not space. So in this picture Moses is appearing twice but it is representing two different times. The Egyptians are coming for the Israelites on the left. On the right the Israelites had run away through he split red sea and this image is the soldiers being drowned. This type of painting style was called Parthian style and you can see figures who are positioned frontal with their eyes wide open. They do have that classical weight shift but they are squatted with their figures statue. They also seem to be gesturing to something. The way Moses is presented is a symbol of the leader/pack. Moses is depicted in this way often too to look like he is a roman king like character. Picture that was shown and not in the book: Temple of Aaron, Dura-Europos Synagogue: can see this in the wall with Torah Niche. Aaron was appointed to build the temple and his four sons were the priests. A closer Look: the Mosaic Floor of the Beth Alpha Synagogue: 5 century CE Pg. 219 Structure for public worship. Along different provinces in Rome. This wall had 3 names. Discovered in 1920s by farmers. Simi circular raised platform at one end and it was facing Jerusalem. There was an atrium facing the other way. There are three different zones, almost like registers. Twelve designs of zodiac: ancient calendar adopted by the romans. Animals in side view and people in profile, important figures are larger. Reconstruction of Baptistery, with Fragments of Original Fresco Pg. 221 (Figure 7-5) This was a baptistery space and this room could sit about 60 people. Along the walls were images of Christ’s miracles and women visiting his tomb discovering his resurrection. Close up of the good Shepard Pg. 221 (Figure 7-6) This is a Lunette which is a semicircular wall section. This shows the good shepherd with his flock and Adam and Eve covering themselves in shame from sin. Cubiculum of Leonis, Cartacomb of Commodilla (at very beginning of the chapter) Pg. 214 (Figure 7-1) Leonis is the cubiculum owner. Jewish and Christian catacombs were separate. The Christian catacombs disappeared in the 50s. Christianity was taken up by a ruler and so it went above ground. The arch is called the parasol and the graves were side by side in the floor. Figure of Christ is above on the ceiling. He is the healer and promise of hope of eternal life in paradise. The first and end of the Greek lettering is there representing the beginning and end of time. Christ is a mature figure here. Looks like a Greek philosopher and has a halo for divinity. They were depicted on heads of emperors The good Shepherd, Orants, and the story of Jonah: late 3 century-early 4 th century Pg. 222 (Figure 7-7) Marcellinus was a well-known martyr of this time. The good shepherd was in the middle, the shepherd was mentioned in Psalms and in John. The story of Johana is seen here also. All the circles and rectangles linked together look like a cross. Hebrew letterings were shown here to represent Johana’s story. The good Shepherd: 3 Century Pg. 222 (Figure 7-8) Represents hope. th This is a rare sight to have a sculpture before the 4 century in Christian culture. Reconstruction drawing of the interior of old St. Peter’s, Rome: 320-327 Pg. 222 (Figure 7-9) Showing a cross section of the whole church. Most of the people who would gather here were not full Christians but studying they had to leave the service sometimes such as at communion time, because they were not allowed to partake in such ceremonies. Full members could participate in everything. Only full members of the church could take communion. Alter was in the apps and in front of that was what they called a crossing which was 2 hallways crossing under a dome. In front of this was a shrine to Peter the Apostle. There were 4 spiral columns and there was curtains that could be shut. The grave of Peter: memorial to Peter’s grave was here, the actual grave was below the floor level. Interior, Church of Santa Sabina 422-432 Pg. 223 (Figure 7-10) These kinds of churches were kept up by rich families and there were many of these churches within the walls of Rome. Columns were Spolia, taken from other buildings that were abandoned. Clerestory: rows of tall windows and they are on both sides of the naïve. All congregational churches had archaic or stately row of arches in the churches. Chalices and paten is above the arches and two very important symbols below the arches. Harvesting of Grapes: 350 Pg. 224 (Figure 7-12) This is decoration of a church. One of many mosaics all along a barrel vault. This is the mausoleum of Constantina who was daughter of Constaintine. There were rotundas and ambulatories: for walking around the rotundas. ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE: LONGITUDINAL-PLAN AND CENTRAL-PLAN CHURCHES -Plan and Reconstruction drawing of old St. Peter’s 320-327 Pg. 225 (Figure 7-13) Longitudinal-plan which characterizes churches with a forecourt or atrium which leads up to the entrance. -Plan (a) and Reconstruction Drawing (b) of Old St. Peter’s Pg. 225 (Figure 7-13b) Concept of Christianity changed over time There were aisles on both sides of the Nave which was the large inner room. -Plan (A) and Section (B) of the Santa Costanza, Rome: 350 Pg. 225(Figure 7-14) This building is a central planned building and they have a more vertiacla axis from the center of the dome. This dome could symbolize an entrance to heaven. -Church of Santa Costanza, Rome: 350 Pg. 225 (Figure 7-15) Most of these buildings became shrines for their dead and also baptisteries. Sarcophagus of Constantina: 350 Pg. 226 (Figure 7-16) Was reserved for royalty: porphyry There were vine references, dove, and other Christian symbols. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus: 359 Pg. 227 (Figure 7-17) Made of stone or some sort of marble This casket is usually carved on the front. Roman pagan and Christian religious ideas are presented on this sarcophagus. Junius was the person in here and around the year 359 Inscription on the lid is in Latin and identifies this person who was a prefect of Rome There are two registers on here. The different compartments are separated by columns. o Top: The Christ is a young figure in the center and Christ is between Peter and Paul and surrounded by them, he is a teacher here and younger. o Bottom Middle: Jesus coming into town on a donkey to be recognized. o Top left: Sacrifice of Jacob o Lower right: Daniel in the lion’s den Chapter 8 3/23/16 The late Roman and Byzantine World (Map 8-1) Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus Church of Hagia Sophia, Constantinople 532-537 Pg. 235 (Figure 8-2) Was turned into an imperial Mosk and then many other different traditions were also held here over time. This structure was constructed by three very talented men named: Justinian, Anthemius and Isidorus Plan (a) and Isometric Drawing (b) of the Church of Hagia Sophia Pg. 236 (Figure 8-3a) Stretched on the right to add a narthex for extra seating. There was a large courtyard and also an atrium. Also people who were not part of the Christian church could go and join in for part of the worship. The naos: large room in a great temple (Greek word) in this time it was called the naïve. Interior of the Church of Hagia Sophia: 532-537 Pg. 237 (Figure 8-4) This was the largest dome of the time (Pantheon was 144 feet tall) and this dome is at least 165 feet tall. Mosaics were inside here made of glass which would make it shinny and reflective Dome referred to the gold canopy of heaven: with the right light coming into the windows then the lower part of the dome was de- materialized, like the sky was breaking open. Squinches: beam sitting at angle on dome. A sort of lentil. Cut into the form of an arch, helps to send out weight from the corners In the EMEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE: Pg. 238 o Pendentive: triangular section (very important) at top of dome area and these allow the dome to be lifted up. Made dome seem more lifted. o Colonnades were separating the spaces here. The entire surface was covered with porphyry (purple rock, beautiful and hard) and marble (greens, whites, blues and greys) created polychrome surfaces David Battling Goliath: 629-630 Pg. 232 (Figure 8-1) This was an individual plate from a collection of plates Heraclius was emperor at this time. 620s he defeated his enemy. This plate was made of sterling silver, and has three registers. o Top: David on one side and there was a riverbed where he got stones, on other side the huge goliath. o Revival of earlier Greek or Hellenistic style o Bottom Registe: David cutting off Goliath’s head Plan (a) and Cutaway Drawing (b) of the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna: 520 Pg. 238 (Figure 8-5) This has 8 niches around the center. Circled and straight walls. This church is a Martyrium which means that it was built over the grave of a Martyr. Church of San Vitale: 547 Pg. 240 (Figure 8-6) Founded by bishop Ecclesius. The highest ruler let the local rulers rule for themselves, mostly in simple practices. Thrown of Maximianus is also places inside of this structure, and this was a large chair for him. Christ Enthroned, Flanked by Angles, St. Vitalis, and Bishop Ecclesius: 547 Pg. 241 (Figure 8-7) Was a symbol of paradise and referred to as Christ at the end of time Flowers are fertilizing this barren land. Has 7 scrolls in one hand and holding a crown out to the church to show freedom. Man on right is offering Christ the church This is mosaic art. Emperor Justinian and His attendants, North Wall of the Apse 547 Pg. 241 (Figure 8-8) Emperor is king (head ruler and spiritual ruler)co-rules with patriarch Empress Theodora and Her attendants, South Wall of the Apse: 547 Pg. 241 (Figure8-9) All ritual objects are made of fine medals and stored in a special place in the vestry Seems to have a halo: she is a co-ruler with Justinian had a divine status The Monastery of St. Catherine, Sinai in Egypt: 548-566 Pg. 243 (Figure 8-10) Built in time of Justinian Fortress was built, there were guards and troops Early type of castle, very high fortress and still there today. Some of the finest works of mosaics and paints can still be seen today but it is hard to get into. The Transfiguration of Christ: 565 Pg. 243 (Figure 8-11) Transfiguration is what this was called, first time Christ reveled himself as divine. o Theophany is another name for this. Very fine mosaic and it is in the apps on mount Cyanide Real transfiguration took place close to this location. Justinian dedicated the church to the virgin Figures were very round, solid and gestures seemed natural, it was an Early style Byzantine hat is similar to the late roman style Moses and Elijah appeared during this and voice of God. Christ in a mandala: shows there is a spiritual essence around him Virgin, and Child with Saints and Angles: 6 century Pg. 246 (Figure 8-14) Virgin enthroned: Simi-divine status: Theotokos Mary is pointing to Christ and indicating the way. He is instructing with one of his hands. Icon is a holy image of usually central figures in Christianity. Major and minor saints, apostles. Icon is a small painting, in mosaic or wooden, replaced relic representation. Icon represented a special experience the figure of icon communicates with viewer in a special way, usually had “special powers, lead the way or protection.” Icon could lead the way. Made of mosaic, if was wood it would be like a temperate painting. Acoustic pointing: wax. Wax (usually bees wax) would seal and mixed with paint. Angles in background look 3-deminsional With icons there is much outlines and intense expressions. th Archangel Michael: 6 Century Pg. 244 (Figure 8-12) Looks like arch angle Michael. There was usually an inscription for praise to be inscribed. The diptych were made for kingship or for rituals. This was probably ivory for commission, remembrance of a parent or good friend who died. Two panels were hinged with iron. Was specifically made for a church. Style is classical of portraiture, look similar to classic Greek or roman figures. th Rebecca at the well: 6 century Pg. 245 (Figure 8-13) Codex were parchment pages instead of scrolls Parchment was skin of a sheep and there were two sheets like in a book, they would be sewn together in a gathering. Similar to a book. Early edition of bibles were just the first 5 books of bible This is Rebecca at the well and would be wife of Isaac. Figures rounded and proportionate. Written on Vellum, died purple: means it was very important and this is why they died the vellum different colors, to distinguish their importance. The paint was egg based. There was also metal leaf used, silver and gold.