CIVLANGUAGE AND IDENTIT (BHU)
CIVLANGUAGE AND IDENTIT (BHU) USU 1320
Utah State University
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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alva O'Conner on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to USU 1320 at Utah State University taught by Frances Titchener in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/230484/usu-1320-utah-state-university in University Studies at Utah State University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Todesfurcht page xiii fear of death German poet Rilke 1916 the human longing for life eternal A George Gilgamesh is also a study in the path to wisdom especially the proper duties of a king The Deluge xiii the gods attempt to destroy humanity the Flood story is found in at least three Ancient Near Eastern sources the Atramhasis epic The Epic of Gilgamesh Bible cuneiform tablets xv smooth cushionshaped rectangles of clay p xxix found in the ruins of many ancient Mesopotamian cities Akkadian language xv related to Hebrew and Arabic Akkadian texts appear in profusion in Mesopotamian sites from ca 2300 BCE rise of Sargon of Akkad the text of Chapter 1 of George s translation is the Akkadian text He who saw the Deep xvxvi the title of the epic as recorded in Chapter 1 of the translation we are reading the classical Epic of Gilgamesh in the Sumerian language originally but it is preserved best in an Akkadian translation which the Assyrians and Babylonians called by the same name Sumerian language xvi 0 without affinities to any known language George the medium of the earliest language coexists with Akkadian through the end of the third millennium 2000 BCE Sumerian language xvi the Sumerian language stops being used as a spoken language by the Old Babylonian period ca 1800 BCE Sumerian lives on as classical written language Mesopotamian proverb A scribe who knows no Sumerian what sort of scribe is he Shulgi xvii a Sumerian king who reigned during the Sumerian Renaissance of 20942047 BCE enthusiastic patron of the arts founded libraries at Ur and Nippur Gilgamesh was originally a song sung at Shulgi s court Tablet Houses xx Shulgi s scribal schools most of our cuneiform literary texts derive from Babylonian scribal exercises written in Sumerian Ashurbanipal xxi Assyrian king 668627 BCE had a great library at Nineveh ordered scribes in chains to copy old literature including Gilgamesh by Ashurbanipal s time 650 BCE the focus of attention is on Akkadian text of Gilgamesh not the Sumerian original by then the Sumerian original is long lost Surpassing all other kings xxv name for first known integrated version of the Gilgamesh epic cobbled together in the Old Babylonian penod became the basis of He who saw the Deep the text we are reading tablets xxviii traditional divisions of the Gilgamesh epic tabletdivisions go back to the Old Babylonian period Ninsun xxxi goddessmother of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh s father is unimportant to the story Anu xxxi SkyGod in general Anu is less important in Mesopotamian myth than Enlil the god of the air Ishtar xxxi Babylonian Venus the goddess of love and sex but also the goddess of war Enkidu xxxii the conventional wild man the Mesopotamian equivalent of Bigfoot Enkidu first lives in the hinterland north of Uruk but eventually comes to live in Uruk in Uruk Enkidu becomes Gilgamesh s close friend and traveling companion Humbaba xxxii an ogre that guards the Forest of Cedar northwest of Mesopotamia in modern Lebanon the Forest of Cedar is a sacred area where the gods dwell Shiduri xxxii a barmaid goddess who is full of sage advice and common sense she runs tavern at the edge of world along the shores of the impassable Ocean this Ocean leads to the waters of death Ur shanabi xxxii the ferryman who ferries Gilgamesh to the island in the Ocean where Uta napishti lives on this island the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers well up again Utanapishti xxxii the only Mesopotamian king to survive the Deluge he was spared death by the gods tells his story to Gilgamesh in Tablet XI plant of rejuvenation xlvxlvi shown by Utanapishti to Gilgamesh who pulls it up from the sea bottom but a snake steals the plant from Gilgamesh henceforth snakes shed their skin celestial bull Bull of Heaven xlviii sent by Ishtar to destroy Gilgamesh after he rejects and insults her a symbol of drought equated with the constellation Taurus which rises in spring droughts happen often in spring in Mesopotamia document of ancient humanism xxxiii quote from William Moran an Assyriologist Gilgamesh is celebrated for his human achievements and notjust his relationship with the gods the theme of Gilgamesh seems to center around our need to accept human limitations document of ancient humanism xxxiii Thorkild Jacobsen Assyriologist a story of learning to face reality a story of growing up Overview of The Epic of Gilgamesh on the next PreAssessment there will be fillintheblanks drawn directly from the text of Gilgamesh for example was his name from the day he was born twothirds of him god and one third human all answers will still be from the list of key terms in the Chapter 2 Tablet 1 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Introduction of Gilgamesh twothirds divine onethird mortal also physically imposing causes problems because he harries the young men of Uruk and lets no girl go free to her bridegroom the people of Uruk complain to the gods who summon the mothergoddess Aruru Tablet 1 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Aruru creates for Gilgamesh a friend named Enkidu who is nearly as powerful as Gilgamesh himself she puts Enkidu out in the wild where he lives in harmony with the animals Enkidu starts freeing his fellow animals which have become trapped in human snares the people of Uruk face starvation Tablet 1 of The Epic of Gilgamesh a hunter reports about Enkidu to Gilgamesh Gilgamesh sends a prostitute named Shamhat to seduce Enkidu and bring him to Uruk Gilgamesh dreams of Enkidu s impending arrival and his mother Ninsun interprets his dreams for him Tablet 2 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Shamhat seduces Enkidu after having sex with Shamhat Enkidu s animal companions reject him Enkidu can no longer run fast or live in the wild Shamhat feeds Enkidu human food and cleans him up Tablet 2 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Shamhat escorts Enkidu to Uruk in Uruk Enkidu finds Gilgamesh at a wedding where Gilgamesh is about to take the bride for himself Enkidu stops Gilgamesh from asserting his droit de seigneur and they fight then they become best friends Tablet 2 of The Epic of Gilgamesh there is a major gap in the text during which for some reason Gilgamesh has decided to fight Humbaba the dreadful ogre that guards the Forest of Cedar Enkidu tries to convince him not to go but does not succeed the elders of the high council of Uruk also try but fail to dissuade Gilgamesh Tablet 3 of The Epic of Gilgamesh a poorly preserved tablet Ninsun prays to Shamash the sun god to help Gilgamesh on his journey Gilgamesh and Enkidu make preparations for theirjourney to the Forest of Cedar Tablet 4 of The Epic of Gilgamesh another poorly preserved tablet Gilgamesh and Enkidu travel to the Forest of Cedar Gilgamesh seeks guidance from a series of dreams which Enkidu interprets at the end of the tablet Gilgamesh and Enkidu reach the Forest of Cedar Tablet 5 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh and Enkidu encounter Humbaba and with Shamash s assistance defeat him in battle though Humbaba begs for his life Enkidu encourages Gilgamesh to kill him which he does before Humbaba dies he curses both heroes Enkidu and Gilgamesh fell many trees in the Forest of Cedar Tablet 6 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Ishtar goddess of sex and war tries to seduce Gilgamesh but he insults and rejects her Ishtar is enraged and demands that her father Anu the sky god allow her to ravage the earth with the Bull of Heaven Gilgamesh and Enkidu fight together against the bull and destroy it Tablet 7 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Enkidu dreams that the gods have decreed he must die in Gilgamesh s place because they have killed the Bull of Heaven he curses his life and Shamhat who seduced him but at the bidding of Shamash he renounces his curse Enkidu dies most of this passage is still lost Tablet 8 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh holds an elaborate funeral for EnMdu Enkidu s death has made Gilgamesh see his own mortality he tries to repair his relations with the gods Tablet 9 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh wanders the world mourning the loss of his friend Enkidu and seeking eternal life for himself he encounters the scorpionmen who guard the boundaries of the world recognizing Gilgamesh s divine nature they let him cross the mountains at the edge of the world Tablet 10 of The Epic of Gilgamesh at the shores of the Waters of Death the great ocean which encircles the world Gilgamesh meets the barmaid goddess Shiduri Shiduri warns him about the dangers that lie ahead but he insists on continuing his journey to meet Utanapishti the one mortal who has escaped death Tablet 10 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh encounters the ferryman Urshanabi and kills many of his assistants the Stone Men Urshanabi tells him that he now has no one to row them across the Waters of Death Urshanabi orders Gilgamesh to cut down huge trees and hew punting poles out of them Tablet 10 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Gilgamesh cuts down the trees and makes many punting poles he and Urshanabi set out to cross the Waters of Death when Gilgamesh runs out of punting poles he and Urshanabi use their clothes as a sail and Gilgamesh s great frame as a mast Tablet 10 of The Epic of Gilgamesh they reach the other side and meet Utanapishti Gilgamesh explains to Utanapishti about Enkidu s death and his own fear of death Tablet 11 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Utanapishti explains how he survived the Deluge and was granted eternal life by the gods he then tells Gilgamesh he must conquer sleep before he can escape death and bids him stay awake for seven days Gilgamesh fails the test as Utanapishti proves with the bread test Tablet 11 of The Epic of Gilgamesh at the bidding of his kindly wife Utanapishti shows Gilgamesh a plant of rejuvenation which grows deep in the sea and gives the one who eats it new life Gilgamesh recovers it but a snake steals the plant of rejuvenation and eats it this explains why snakes shed their skin Tablet 11 of The Epic of Gilgamesh Urshanabi takes Gilgamesh back to Uruk in the closing lines of the epic Gilgamesh points out to Urshanabi the sturdy grandeur of the walls of Uruk the implication is that Uruk and its walls are Gilgamesh s true path to immortality
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