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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Warren on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3221 at East Carolina University taught by Kendell Thornton in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Social Psychology 3/21/16 Chapter 9 Pro-social behavior Example: Emergency Helping Behavior: 1964 in Q gardens in Queens Kiddy Genevieve: Was going to show a woman getting murdered and then 38 people were witnesses. No one came to help her. He was stabbing her and then he left because people were watching, he then came back to stab her again, then left again. She made it to a stairwell and he found her again, he was in a disguise this time. So then when the people who witnessed it were called in, they admitted that they saw her. This was like a 90 minute incident and no one called for help. In the stairwell someone actually did call and the police were slow getting there like about 20 minutes, they were too late. People didn’t call because they thought others had called and they were scared and didn’t get involved. There is safety in numbers: not true in emergency situations! The more people in emergency situations the less likely it is that anyone will help. Daolley and Latane study (1970) they had put a bystander cognitive model for helping. Series of 5 cognitive steps you have to move through before help will be coming. 1. Notice the situation a. New York City: a lot of homeless people are just laying around and so others become desensitizes and stop paying attention to the homeless so when they are in really bad shape the still don’t notice the situation. 2. Interpret the situation as an emergency 3. Assume Responsibility 4. Decide upon intervention 5. Intervene ******Paradigm: Different ways of doing things******** End conclusion: group inhibition effect: With more people at an emergency situation then the less likely they will help. Bystander intervention. 3 Reasons: 1. Social Comparison or (Pluralistic Ignorance): why would there be less people helping in a large group. Very informing activity. Do this to find out what is going on and this comes from everyone standing around where everyone is acting as if it is not an emergency then you will assume it is not also. a. Paradigm: stage an emergency and you have different amounts of people present. Then you see how long it takes for the real subject to offer up assistance. Confederates are helpers of the incident who are present. Naive participants are those who are being tested and see how long it takes them to interact. i. Example: falling woman paradigm: Late 1960s 1. When there was someone alone 70 percent of the time people got up to participate and help the woman. They were in a psychological experiment. They could have been scared or suspicious. Social comparison. 2. When here were 2 strangers then the helping goes down to 20 percent 3. When there was a naive participant with a nonreactive confederate then it went down to 5 percent ii. Example: Epileptic seizure paradigm: Individuals in a Paradigm and there were separate individuals on the phone in a booth. Confederate was always the communicator and so the person in the booth was studied to see how long it took them to respond. 1. When alone 85% of people would help the person 2. Two participants receiving this info then helping went back to 62% 3. With four people it goes down to 40%. They are in their own booths. No social comparison. So that is the first reason but not the only culprit. They also met before the scenario started so they all knew other people were there. a. Diffusion of responsibility iii. Example: Smoke in the room Told to fill out forms in a room and someone would be back for them. So then smoke started billowing into the room under the door. a. One naive participant: 75% sought out help b. 3 naive participants: 38% looking for help and they don’t even leave c. Evaluation apprehension: with other people you are sitting there. And then you don’t want to overreact because you don’t want to look like an idiot. You are afraid of what others think. Pluralistic ignorance: if others are acting as if there is no problem, then there isn’t! d. Not social comparison or diffusion of responsibility. Why do we get this group apprehension effect? Why? Wednesday 3/23/16 iv. Reapplication of: smoke in the room and falling woman a. There were two adults in either of these two studies then 16% reacted. b. 4-6 year olds and an adult (no confederates) about 50% i. Effect still in place with the kids. c. Overall this is the group inhibition effect. With one person interacting then everyone will take action. Piliavin and Piliavin: staged emergencies in a subway that was moving. They didn’t find group inhibition effect. People reacted. Bystander calculus model: o Two Costs: 1. Cost of helping 2. Cost of not helping: you don’t help and then they die, you would feel bad for the rest of your life. Helping Table Cost of helping High Low High Indirect help Very direct Cost of not Low No help: Escape Variable: up for helping debate Clean vs. Dirty: people will be more likely to stop and help you if you are clean. *****All studies done in America, mostly New York. Factors: 1. Degree of ambiguity 2. The relationship to the victim: the closer you are to them the more likely you are to help 3. Dependency of the victim: children associate more dependency than adults. 4. Justification: when you give a reason behind what you want, give a good justification than you are more likely to get it.
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