Statistics for Scientists
Statistics for Scientists STAT 3000
Utah State University
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geovanny Lakin on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to STAT 3000 at Utah State University taught by Christopher Corcoran in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/230488/stat-3000-utah-state-university in Statistics at Utah State University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Stat SEIEIEI 7 Statws ucs fur SE EHUSIS and Engmeers ta Dr Cumuran Summer zuua 0 Introduction You can prove anything with statistics butit s much easier to prove something without statistics John Tukey II t h s V W Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers ta 1 Dr Corcoran Summer2009 Why bother with this class Why are you here What this course will give you A familiarity with the logic and vocabulary of statistics An understanding of how statistical methods are applied to research a greater appreciation of the scienti c method An awareness of how statistics and statistical methods are properly applied and increased ability to think critically about the assumptions evidence and conclusions of others A foundation for additional coursework in research methods and statistics u i h s v Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m I i Dr Corcoran Summer2009 Why bother with this class Why are you here What this course will not give you The ability to gather and analyze data independently Without previous andor additional supervision and experience You won t be hired as an analyst based upon this course alone A comprehensive list of formulas and arcane mathematical details completely committed to your memory u t h s Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m 1 Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 What do statisticians do A statistician one who is good with numbers but lacks the personality to be an accountant Unknown Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers i i i Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 What elds employ statisticians and analysts Agriculture Insurance Astronomy Law Biology Manufacturing Chemistry Marketing Computer Science Medicine Demography Pharmacology Ecology Physics Economics Political Science Education Psychology Engineering Public Health Epidemiology Safety Finance Sociology Forestry Sports Genetics Telecommunications Health Science Zoology II t h s v W Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers ta 1 l Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Incarnations of a Statistician Econometricians analyze the economy and finance Biometricians biostatisticians epidemiologists or medical statisticians use statistics to solving all sorts of biological problems They can work in genetics agriculture epidemiology toxicology and ecology They monitor health and disease establish causes of disease work to detect disease or evaluate treatments for disease Environmental statisticians apply their knowledge of statistics to the environment They tackle problems in climatology oceanography extreme event assessment or develop environmental impact assessments Agricultural statisticians provide information on the food supply They may conduct an agricultural census or compile commodity statistics l 39 1 Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers ta 1 Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Incarnations of a Statistician continued Business analysts work in private industry to help companies develop business plans Market research statisticians gather and analyze data on how consumers use various goods and services Actuaries analyze past events to make predictions about the future developing business strategies for insurance companies and others Pharmaceutical statisticians work with drug companies or the FDA developing and evaluating the results of clinical trials to determine the safety and effectiveness of new medications Forensic statisticians apply mathematically acceptable techniques to the interpretation and evaluation of forensic evidence u t h 5 Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m I Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Alternative job titles for statisticians Business Analyst Investigator Professor Environmental Scientist Economist Pharmaceutical Engineer Software Engineer Researcher Mathematician Data Analyst Risk Analyst Project Manager Quality Analyst Manager u t h 5 Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m i i Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Job and Salary Outlook Jobs are plentiful statistical applications are so broad it s not hard for statisticians to nd work although the job title may not always use the word statistician Salaries are moderate to competitive relative to other occupations recent surveys place median salary close to 50K Senior level statisticians with supervisory responsibility in some industries like pharmaceuticals earn in excess of 100K Job satisfaction and quality of life are high u h 5 Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m i i Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Why the demand Society is increasingly data driven Large volumes of consumer nancial and marketing data Need for better science in studying agriculture and the environment Regulation of food and drugs creation of the FDA Revolution in biomedical technology and modern wave of genetic research Rapid advances in mathematical statistics over the past 23 centuries u h 5 Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m I Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Maj or events in the history of food and drug regulation 1 Food and Drug Act of 1906 2 Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 3 KefauverHarris Drug Amendments 1962 More information at u h 5 Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m I Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Why the lack of supply Third International Math and Science Study 1999 Of 18 industrialized nations American 8th graders scored Eighteenth in mathematics Seventeenth in science Four years earlier these same students nished 12th and 4th in math and science respectively u t h s Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m 1 Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Why the lack of supply Math is hard Let s go shopping Barbie u h 5 Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m I j Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Undergrad Opportunities at USU Teaching secondary ed composite MathStat degree Actuarial Science Only Utah college program recognized by SA Dual Mathematics Statistics major Statistics Major or minor Statistics is an excellent minor for any major in science engineering social science agriculture education or natural resources u h 5 Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m I Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Graduate Opportunities at USU Only PhD program in the state of Utah Active faculty research programs in public health epidemiology bioinformatics natural resources ecology data mining physics and statistics education Strong Master s program Recent graduates from the MS program have found jobs in both research and industry Iliznh taite Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 Where are our undergraduates now Working in business or industry or attending graduate school at Harvard Purdue Johns Hopkins Michigan NC State Iowa Washington and elsewhere u i h s v Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m I Dr Corcoran Summer2009 Should the average citizen understand more about how data are gathered and reported Example 1 What does mar in of error re resent with res ect to surve sam lin g P P y P g The USA TodayGallup poll taken between May 2931 is based on a random sample of 1015 registered voters of Whom 680 67 indicated they have a favorable opinion of President Obama Does this provide evidence that a majority of Americans approve of Barack Obama Can we make a reliable judgment about general opinion using a sample of this size u i h s v Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers m I Dr Corcoran Summer2009 Should the average citizen understand more about how data are gathered and reported Example 2 Will skipping breakfast make you weigh more What kind of sample did these researchers study What were they measuring What s the estimated effect size What are some of the noted limitations of this study llizah taite Stat 3000 Statistics for Scientists and Engineers Dr Corcoran Summer 2009 II III IV VI VII VIII IX XI Topics We ll Cover Introduction Basic probability Random variables and distributions The binomial and Poisson distributions The normal distribution Exploring and summarizing data Connecting probability and descriptive statistics to statistical inference Inference for one population Comparing two populations Comparing several populations Assessing trends and associations the linear regression model Assessing correlation between categorical variables