Principles of Chemistry II
Principles of Chemistry II CHEM 1220
Utah State University
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ansel Ankunding PhD on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1220 at Utah State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/230510/chem-1220-utah-state-university in Chemistry and Biochemistry at Utah State University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
CJmW Sum ckkm 35 c3 8222623 3638 m 44696 7372 328975 EKRM 1 Mequ 397quot S39Mbev 5 We 00 Low H a g I39 n K 39 Em LEEr 7quot Hag quot394 O 3 5m if diSSOU SJQz m 39 WQK mgrm 6 iswsea a f CH c lt39 Cum quot ew H cw 3 02 w quot53 in Kev Wmquot 1 M Hm quot IMZHQ M cr 2quot quot 0 1quot I PHz J 39l IOM Rm pH Q ch Cm be neya v 6quot we Sh 603 Soiu h oas H Kw 9 wm39o 5 Km W quot TH Jlmr General Characteristics of Organic Molecules The Stab ties of Organic Molecules r on forms very strong bonds between H o N and halogens Carbon also forms strong bonds with itself Therefore C can form stable long chain or ring structures Bond strength increases from single to double to triple bond Carbon and drogen have very similar electronegativitr39es so the CH bond is essentially on olar n p Adding functional groups eg COH introduces K General Characteristics of Organic Molecules Solubility and AcidBase Properties of Organic Substances Compounds with only CC or CH bonds are nonpolar and are soluble in nonpolar solvents and not very soluble in water Water soluble organic molecules have polar funcaonal groups Surfactants have long nonpolar poraons of the molecule With a small ionic or polartip The most important organic acids are carboxyllc acids With the COOH funcaonal group Basic organic molecules are usually amines Mr VN39HR or s N39lz2 fun ca onal groups Introduction to Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are compounds with only C and H There are four classes 7 alkanes o bonds no nbondsionly single bonds 7 alkenes amiirture of o and nbonds butno triple bonds 7 alkynes contains mplebonds e aromaucs ave planar ring structures With alternatrng single and double bonds Saturated compounds have only is bonds Unsaturated compounds have both 6 andn bonds Introduction to Hydrocarbons Alkanes Structural lsomers Straight chain hydrocarbons have each c atom joined in a continuous chain In a straight chain hydrocaer no one c atom may be attached to more than two other c atoms Straight chain hydrocarbons are not linear Each c atom is tetirahe a so the hains are bent Branched chain hydrocarbons are possible for four or more C atoms which give rise to structural isomers structural isomers have different physical properties Alkanes Structural lsomers Alkanes Naming Alkanes To name alkanes e Find the longest eharn and use it as the name of the eompound Number the earbon atoms stamng wrth the end elosest to the substrtuent Name andglve the loeaaon ofeach substltuent When two or more substituents are present list them in alphabetical order Alkanes Cycloalkanes Alkanes that form rings are called cycloalkanes CHCIiZC CH 2 H2 2 H l CH2 CH2 C 2 C112 CH2 CH2 CHECHZ Cl IziCH2 Cycloliexane Cyclopentane Cyclopmpane Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes Alkenes contain C H atoms and single and double bonds The simplest alkenes are HZCCH2 ethene and CHZCHCH propene 7 their tnvlal names are ethylene andpropylene Alkenes are named in the same way as alkanes with the suf x ene replacing the ane in alkanes The location ofthe doub1e bondis indicated by a number Un saturated Hydrocarbon s Alkynes Alkynes are hydrocarbons with one or more cEc bond Therefore alkynes have one o and two 7 bonds between two 3 atoms Ethyne acetylene is a reactive alkyne HCECH When ace lene is burnedin the presence of oxygen oxyacetylene torch the temperature is about 3200 K Al nes named in th sam ay as alkenes with the suf x yne replacing the ene for alkenes Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Aromatic structures are formally related to benzene The delocalized 7r electrons are usually represented as a circle in the center ofthe ring Benzene is a planar symmetrical molecule ene is not reactive because ofthe stability associated with the delocalizedn electrons Most aromatic rings are given common names Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Benzene Naphthalene CH3 Anthratene Toluene melhylbenzene Functional Groups To get reactivity out of an organ39c molecule unctional groups have to be added Functional groups control how a molecule functions More complicated functional groups contain elements other than c or H heteroatomsio N s Functional group containing molecules can either be saturated alco ols ethers amines etc or unsaturated carboxylic acids esters amides e c We usually use R to represent alkyl groups Functional Groups s imam we slur mm rrmrmm arm Lulnmlr r x l L mm nun nu n i l l mm m Hullrluluhrl l l llulmlulw minimum l T l l 44 rm lricr rimmilquot l l I Alcohols Alcohols R OH Alcohols are derived from hydrocarbons and contain OH groups The names are derived from the hydrocarbon name with ol replacing the ane suf x Example ethane becomes ethanol Since the 0H bond is polar alcohols are more water soluble than alkanes CHZOH methanol is used as a gasoline additive and a fuel Alcohols H H OH H o H emu ltcHcHoH Methanui CHJOH OH OH lsnprnpannl CHJCHOHCHJ Rubbing alcuhul 0 95 Em CZHWO Garbo nyls Aldehydes and Ketones The carbonyl functional group is 0 Aldehydes must have at least one H atom attached to the carbonyl group o R H Ketones must have two 3 atoms attached to the carbonyl group Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids contain a carbonyl group with an OH attached The carboxyl functional group is COOH 0 i R 011 Carboxylic acids are weak acids Typical Carboxylic acids are spinach vinegar cleaners vitamin c aspirin and citrus fruits mirmr i Carboxylic Acids areal l i in H r r r Ki HHmm rind Arru um hz nu Hirl nu Hi i it rut not no rum in rum no Also known as fatty acids or fats W NitrogenF unctional Grou ps Amines and Amides Amines are organic bases with a nitrogen CH3 N H30 Just as alcohols can be thought of organic forms ofwater amines can be thought of organic forms of ammonia Amides are composites ofcarbonyl and amine funcaonalities C R Iii 12 H Biochemistry The chemistry ofliving organisms is called biochemistry Biochemical molecules tendto be very large and 39f cult to synthesize Living organisms are highly ordered Therefore living organisms have very low en ro Most biologically important molecules are polymers called biopolymers Biopolymers fall into three classes proteins polysaccharides carbohydrates and nucleic acids Proteins Amino Acids Proteins are large molecules present in all cells They are made up of oamino acids There are two forms of an amino acid one that is neutral with NH2 and0H groups nd one that is zwitten39onic with NH and O39 0 s A zvvittenon has both positive and negative charge in one molecule a u There are about 20 amino acids foundin most proteins Each amino acidis assigned a threeletter abbreviation Amino Acids is l iiieirir rim iris irii Peptides and Proteins Polypeptides and Proteins Proteins are polyamides When formed by amino acids each amide group is called a peptide bond Peptides are formed by condensation ofthe COOH amino acid and the NH group of another Polyp e formed with a large number of amino acids usually result in proteins with molecular weights between 6000 and 50 million amu e E Protein 5 a Protein Structure 39 k 39 Pitch is the distance between coil 5 The pitch and diameter ensure no bond angles and ca bonyl funct nal groups a e optimized for Hbondi r n structure ofthe protein Carbohydrates Carbohydrates have empirical formula 901205 Carbohydrate means hydrate of carbon Most abundant carbohydrate is glucose C Hno Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones Glucose is a 6 carbon aldehyde sugar and fructose 5 carbon ketone su ar The alcohol side of glucose can react with the aldehyde side to form a sixmembered ring Carbohydrates Most glueose molecules are m the ring form Note the sixemembered ot planar The 17 an 7 forms of glucose form very different quotumw compounds Frudnw Glucose chH H UHHH 39 Ell ll a i HoC r l l H on e Eugen iHloH c c in ii If g 39t 39l L LH iii i ig Run is n no 1c ii Ho CIgii i i I l H on II on cirrus u cumu Carbohydrates Disaccharides Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides Monosacchan39des simple su ars that cannot be broken down by hydrolysis with aqueous acids Disaccharides are sugars formed by the condensation o two monosaccharides Examples sucrose table sugar and lactose milk sugar Sucrose ls formed by the condensation of o glucose and fructose Carbohydrates Disaccharides Lactose ls formed from galactose and oglucose Sucrose ls about six times sweeter than lactose a little sweeter than glucose and about half as sweet as fructose Disaccharides can be converted into monosacchandes by treatment with acid in aqueous solution cum are if u rim u iwi i u 7 ago L ml gi i l Qii 4i i l i or ii i i lm l iigl g A i ll lH HG l l H m MUCH Nucleic Acnds Nucleic acids carry genetic information DNA deoxyribonucleic acids have molecular weights aroundG 16 x 106 am and are found inside the nucleus of the cell RNA ribonucleic acids have molecular weights around 20000 to 40000 amu and are found in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus ofthe cell Nucleic acids are made up ofnucleotides There are three important parts to a nucleic acid e ve earbon sugar 3 g deoiryribose and e nltxogen eontaining organiebase eg adenine RNA DN an Ve different sugars dexoyribose Vs Nucleic Acids xiluniriiirnii m minim ll U irnlnnu o7l7i 7ui o i in i Nucleic Acids There are only ve bases foundin DNA and RNA 7 adenine A 7 eytosine C 7 thymine I found in DNA only and 7 uraeil Ufoundln RNA only ndensing Nucleic acids ar formed by co nucleotides the phosphoric acid conden 0H group ofthe sugar two ses with the Nucleic Acnds DNA consists of two deoxynbonuclelc aeid strands wound together in a double helix The phosphate ehains are wrapped around the outside of theDNA moleeule Complementary base pairs are formed from bases whieh optimize H7bonding T andA and G 2 N WINquot 3 K r K 2 Moanquot Wilma h Now K P h KPH Wake ZcH3COLH3 l6 m 39M M 390 994 2H 3441109 CH3COZH Nita Kev CD 7 34433401 cd39al39g 6905 3 6 x wquot 3quot LGS wo 5 K 6 RVWV h 5 3 0 m 551 K 0 93quot 0 2 ms 5 04qu I 0 E cans1435 3 3 MCI 373M 37 Z39ZSML M Q4030 6 C406 023 K C0 Conccd vafo ous df solids or Iii0M ate mtg Dem Mow Mass K 1 3 noquot x2 4 UNK YK 1 loMIie I1xlo39s39 7 fswo m noquot Err39 7 L370 Q71xcamp9 H K 2 oNK O C o 7QXI6Is X 7 K2 Z 4 L71 xto rx 397 lm3quoto qa39 I l Quahci m QWNM Fm 43 6 I Q 15 Hon I g 037esal P105wa WA 13 16223253471556432 lt3 20 Nozfa Mafia 002321 El 91 2Nj I w m rs c I VIM Rb du Rea El hum aug s Cw so uk iw E10 Q quot3 2 2 50015 lt 01 99 Say 41 Add Bare K 39v c C 0quot 4Hquot 35 W5 lt LE 2 a w Cambrian K r C03 4 40quot q Mum exam M68 0G Equot uilibm CA 05 prob 2 a H 16 Is 7 38 44 51 s 61 sq AMOS 0462 0M 26 o 0 OZSMs 23mquot Ms L P hihopkho Q Heme hone pvx39 ro gkcuo fe us wader h cause we 431 your Q Huofme N5 munch alt wequot C a ke39hme log Q39Hu PvtUS kexam 0 uakr mdzksad ovx f2 andon 39hl39es AVW kb QC 4 M P e 9 C H C H CampGoe OH N Ao us d iwq39 0095 Qkolnol O H QWeke CAit Cow butch qua C 00 H