New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Mrs. Alexis Emmerich


Mrs. Alexis Emmerich
Utah State University
GPA 3.53


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Education and Teacher Studies

This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Alexis Emmerich on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDUC 7670 at Utah State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/230514/educ-7670-utah-state-university in Education and Teacher Studies at Utah State University.

Similar to EDUC 7670 at Utah State University

Popular in Education and Teacher Studies


Reviews for LIT REVIEW IN ED & PSY


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/28/15
Week 4 Psy Educ 7670 Professor Write up that you did Almost all of you worked way too hard Female Student I spent way too much time Professor The two things I noticed when read them was you worked too hard in a way that prevented you from seeing the most important information When you see complex regression strategies and such it generally doesn39t help you see what39s going on Sometimes it does But one nice thing about doing a systematic integrative review in which you code outcomes is it does make any statistical technique available so you can sort and organize and figure out what was happening For a small data set you get increased freedom and start seeing nonexistent relationships Keep in mind what you39re trying to accomplish that you really arejust counting Almost all of you got the younger children did better than the older Not many of you looked atjust the better studies with younger children to see what would happen Then some of you would make too much of a single study So there would be one study with a three year old and a lot of orangejuice and you can39t trust that But if it39s just a single study you may want to take it cautiously We39ll talk about problem statements most of today Before that we39ll talk about the Slavin article you read Who wants tojump in first Were you convinced that best evidence synthesis as proposed by Slavin is superior to meta analysis as proposed by glass Female Student Yeah Male Student With questions Professor Tell me more Male Student There39s not much more to say I39d say with a shortage of literature as opposed to an abundance of literature you may want to go Slavin39s route No need to include poor studies A lot of primary studies and more than needed to be done by some people because of the poor quality of studies I can see weeding those out I think he does a good job saying you should express how you go about deciding what is good and bad Be very specific Professor Anyone want to agree or disagree Female Student I agree work in a field where few studies have been done I need to include everything good or bad But where you39re doing something with a lot that39s been done you can go through and exclude all that Professor What would you say are the critical differences between Slavin39s best evidence approach and Glass39s meta analysis approach If there were a written final in this class and I said compare and contrast Female Student One is qualitative and one is quantitive Professor Which is which Female Student The second one is can39t hearcan39t understand Professor Hmm In what way Female Student It deals more with validity And rating according to content The other started off by saying we begin with qualitative then use different techniques to analyze Professor So would you all agree that the Slavin approach is more qualitative Melynda says no I don39t think so I wouldn39t say it that way I have a bias against using that word We39ll talk about that in another class What are the key differences between Slavin39s and glass39s approach Male Student The key is Slavin wants you to make ajudgment call as to which studies should be given a greater voice in the work Female Student Very clearly articulate why you should decide those different things Professor If you look at the Slavin article he says there are about six different steps He says you need to look at criteria for which studies are included He makes the point that you should only include those that include the best evidence You should do an exhaustive literary review so that only on the face of it he says that is very different from Glass39s approach He says you do an exhaustive lit review which is what Glass says for studies meeting that criteria He then says do effect sizes Come up with a table of study characteristics and howthat compares to effect sizes Pool effect sizes You should only have one effect size per study according to him Then do an effective lit review So most steps are the same as what Glass recommends The key differences are according to how he presents it you should only include best evidence and you should only include one effect size per study Wouldn39t expect you to pick this out but if you go back and read Glass39s original psychotherapy analysis what studies did he include He only included those that had what he included to be best evidence He threw out all the pre post studies He only included those with control group and had evidence that could be quantitatively studied in some way So he was already doing what Slavin suggests for best evidence In many ways Slavin has coined a new term for doing the same thing On that part of it So if someone were to ask about differences I39d say except for pooling of effect sizes nothing Glass talks about whether or not you want to pool effect sizes He concludes in the psychotherapy lit it doesn39t make sense I thinkthere are some areas where pooling effect sizes makes sense That relates to our orangejuice and IQ example You don39t want to get wound up in rules that you can39t sit down and say what makes sense and how am I going to interpret this literature So if I had the orange juice and IQ example I have a study about whether orange juice increases IQ One study shows where someone measured IQ in six ways Stanford binet whisk lighter Reasonably good IQ tests One measured only with Stanford binet Does it make sense to give six times the weight to the first one because ofthe six kinds of effect sizes Probably not However if I want to know I have a study that instead of measures IQ increase wants to know about increase to academic achievement One study they just give you a metropolitan achievement test grade score for the entire test For the other score they give you all the sub tests Should I break out those sub tests Well maybe because maybe orange juice increases verbal skills but not math skills lfl collapse those into one effect size I lose the ability to do this It depends on what question you39re asking lf being able to sort out different constructs is important to you in some theoretical or practical basis I would never collapse those into a single effect size used the example here about test wise how collapsing them into one hit the differences that were there So it depends on what you39re looking at One of the first studies I did was looking at socioeconomic status and academic achievement Of the six hundred effect sizes we computed a whole bunch came from Coleman39s quality of education study I quoted all ofthe effect sizes I said a third of these all came from the same study so you have to be a little careful So really I only have a hundred studies lfl excluded Coleman and it changed my results dramatically I better be careful Really it didn39t changethem But having the Coleman article in there allowed me to look at things in a fine grade way that was really important One of the correlations between the data set was that over time the correlation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement got weaker and weaker That could be because school is having its desired effect if schools are doing what we hope then school would be the great equalizer That39s one explanation What39s another Female Student Kids are dropping out Professor The kids are dropping out so the correlation goes down because you are restricting the range The Coleman is different because they had the same subjects measured in the same way at various grades That39s why it had so many effect sizes lfthat were really true that school is beginning to equalize students you39d expect to see it in the Coleman data set as well as in the larger one and we did Another interesting issue in the larger data set was socioeconomic status correlated more highly with measures of verbal ability language reading than with measures of math Or quantitive ability lfthat39s really true you39d expect to see it in the Coleman data set where you39ve got forty effect sizes So you have enough effect sizes from the one study to test some of those trends so that if you had collapsed them into one effect size all would have been lost It depends on the question The question of whether or not you should pool effect sizes is it depends But generally it doesn39t make sense unless you39re pooling it to get rid of multiple measures in the same construct So if I had six measures of IQ and I39m only interested in IQ l39d pool them or pick the best one It would probably be best to have a study that says when faced with a study with these three different effect sizes which should I pick based on some theoretical or conceptual basis for which is best Come back to the issue of which studies to include He39s not doing anything different from Glass But sometimes having 39weak39 studies in your pool can answer certain questions For example I want to know if early intervention helps kids ls earlier better or not is a question If I have a bunch of pre post measures they wouldn39t be very useful to me in terms of drawing conclusions about whether early intervention works or not because I have a lot of maturation issues in there So I would expect that pre post measures would way overestimate the effects of early intervention But ifl found that for children that found intenention at age one the average pre post was 8 and children that started at age four the average pre post difference was point four I39d say hmmm That looks like earlier is better even if I don39t trust the magnitude ofthe results If I then had some experimental control studies that were well done and children that started at age one it was point four and those starting at age four it was zero I39d say hey I have got the same difference of early versus late in the 39weak39 and 39good39 studies But there39s nothing about those weak studies unless I had other threats to validity that would affect difference of pre to post I could say that information helps me be more secure that earlier is better So it depends on what question you39re asking And what constitutes the best evidence for some questions is very difference than what constitutes best evidence for others And you don39t know that until you get into the study The real problem if you take Slavin39s approach too far you exclude some studies that could help you untangle what39s going on For example in the SES academic achievement analysis that I did there were a bunch of studies that defined socio economic status in strange ways Religion Ethnicity Black people were low SES White were high That39s not a good way to do it Those were weak studies Keeping them in the data set and coding them as poor studies turned out to be very useful The prevailing opinion is there is a strong feeling that there is a major correlation between socioeconomic class and academic achievement When I looked at the studies where it was being reported most often it was generally with those that had defined socioeconomic in very bad ways Eitherthe bad ways I gave you or defined it as home atmosphere Which is a good measure but not SES Some people looked at how often do parents read to their kids how many books in the home what kinds of trips do they take them on And found there was a strong relationship to that and academic achievement They made thejump that low SES families and high ones do That39s a bad assumption By keeping them in the data set I could show why there39s a perception that socioeconomic status and academic achievement are strongly related whereas those studies that did it well and defined socioeconomic status well found low correlation So that39s the Slavin article It does make some great points But I don39t think that it39s a different technique I disagree with pooling effect sizes and cutting off studies too strongly you include Katrina asked about a strong correlation and what it is Have I told you about the seventysix pontiac After Glass did his meta analysis he found there was an average of about two thirds of a standard deviation between those that got psychotherapy and those that didn39t This was done in the mid seventies So Jared will still get his degree here He said the average weight at which we pay psychotherapists at that time was about fifty dollars an hour The average amount of psychotherapy people got was ten hours He says for a cost of five hundred dollars and ten hours you can get two thirds of a standard deviation gained and a variety of psychological outcomes and I think it39s worth while A guy named gallows I had never heard of before or since wrote an insightful critique He said whether that standard deviation at a cost of five hundred dollars and ten hours depends on what you39re looking at He said I have a seventy six pontiac that gets ten miles per gallon With a standard deviation of one If you have a gizmo that costs me ten hours to install and five hundred dollars and get two thirds of a standard deviation gained in terms of gas mileage on my pontiac then I39m not interested It goes from ten miles a gallon to ten point six seven miles a gallon It39ll take me a long time even at gas prices today to make up that time On the other hand if you39re looking at life expectancy and the average male lives until they39re seventy seven with a standard deviation of ten and you39ve got some treatment that takes me ten hours to participate in and l have to pay five hundred dollars for and get two thirds of a standard deviation in life expectancy then he said I don39t want to be standing in front ofthe doors of that clinic when it opens because I39ll get overrun because that39s a huge benefit At the same time it39s two thirds of a standard deviation at the same cost So you can39t answer the question One problem with books like cohen39s power analysis book is he says effect sizes of point two to point three are small effect sizes Point three to point four are medium Point six to point eight large effect sizes In general that39s true But in gallows39 article it39s easy to find exceptions Too many people retreat to saying cohen said that this is moderate effect sizes You have to work hard to come up with competitors like gallows did to say what is two thirds of a standard deviation in this field worth You were looking at correlations If you look at a correlation of how well children do at reading tests in the third grade with their age it39s a weak correlation But over the year39s time they39ll gain a lot But there39s enough correlation with a particular age that it tends to be a weak correlation If you say to me l have a way to teach reading that will allow me to get as much gain as the year in school ofthird grade I39d say ifthat39s a cheap treatment like a pill I39d say wow that39s amazing You have to be thoughtful about what the effect size means in the context of what you39re doing That39s all about Slavin Any questions I gave you one two three four five We talked about Doug39s last week I want to take three minutes and read through this and we39ll critique it You should have input when you leave here on your problem stage Then you39ll use that to continue that to find literature to support your assertions So we39ll read Ryan39s first Silent reading One to ten Ten is perfect One is what39s he doing Female Student Wordy Female Student A nine lt39s clearwhere he started from and where he39s going Professor Okay You didn39t give it a number Katrina Female Student Eight He39s got a lot of points but you can get there more directly MaleStudent Seven MaleStudent Seven can39t hearcan39t understand Professor I think it39s pretty wordy Ryan with out looking at the sheet give me one sentence bullets for why you want to do this Male Student There39s a lot of computer assisted instruction in public education It39s becoming more common to Professor One sentence CAI is more common Male Student But it has changed recently to where it can be more stimulating for the at risk learner and can reach a broader learning status But there39s not a lot of research that specifically looks at how video instruction coupled with text in a computer based program can help a student Professor You39ve given me three bullets and introduced two new concepts Male Student Crap Professor I think it39s becoming more common in education I think that39s new And the fact that it39s changing Different now than five years ago It might be important I got we know computer assisted instruction works but we don39t know why Therefore we need to do a study why video and audio lead to better instruction That39s what I got out of it But there are real leaps in that That39s not a good problem statement But those are the essential points Female Student On the topic area I39m in instructional technology I spent a long time learning about this Look for studies on we don39t call it computer assisted learning anymore What do we call it Magic There39s a lot of research that has been done Professor lthinkthis is an important point We aren39t trying to critique whether there39s any validity to these sentences or not Female Student I39m just saying that as you go fonvard I know one of the points there39s not a lot of research done I know there has The problem statement wouldn39t be a very good one Professor Well it would actually it could still be a perfectly structured problem statement which is all we want right now When he goes to support the premises your point would save him a lot of time Because he39d get out there and find there39s a lot and he has to rework the problem statement The point is to get the logic down If you have a good friend like Melynda who could say good structure but you39re wrong on this Rememberthe point I used the first day in class All animals that live in the sea are fish Whales live in the sea therefore whales are fish Perfectly structured But when I try to support the first one get in trouble and have to rearrange Let39s work on the first part Male Student Your first premise and minor premise They seem to be contradictory a little bit You start out saying computer aided instruction is not as effective as traditional instruction and then the premise of it is it is effective I guess I was a little confused Female Student There39s a lot that could be cut Sometimes possibly It doesn39t add a lot to your argument can39t hearcan39t understand Professor It is wordy But I39d set that aside until you get the logic Male Student If you look at your conclusion you39re trying to compare computer instruction to traditional classroom Am I putting words in your mouth Male Student That39s the whole idea Professor Hold that thought I39m not sure that39s what you want to do It39s what you say you39re going to do If you want to look at relatively recent video and audio features lead to better assisted instruction I39m not sure if a traditional classroom is where you want to be looking But I39m not sure that39s what you want to do Figure out what you want to do I would guess there39s a lot of research on what features of CAI lead to better instruction This has been around a while But that39s not very relevant if what you want to do is look at recently available technologies and howthat changes learning If there are some discrete audio and visual enhancements that are possible on a cost efficient basis and that39s what you want to look at I would guess that the better competitor is existing computer assisted instruction vs computer assisted instruction with souped up audio visual features It makes it a cleaner study Then it gets a lot easier l39m promising something I would say computer assisted instruction if used properly has proven to be effective Unfortunately what39s out there for computer assisted instruction doesn39t take advantage of recent audio and visual enhancements that would lead to better learning The use of computer assisted instruction with these new enhancements has never been tested Because it has a good chance of even better learning we need to do a study in which these two are compared Male Student Unless you39re more interested in the diverse learner which is one thing you have in here Professor Good point You have to decide what you want to do I can make another problem statement here That says something like knowing little about this here say something like research shows that computer assisted instruction is very effective in general but there isn39t research say computer assisted instruction is shown to be very useful with the general population It39s less effective with ethnic populations and low English speaking people But we don39t know why Recent video and audio enhancements might make it more effective with those students for these reasons Therefore we need to do a study with low English language competency to determine if these new enhancements do better with these people It39s a little different take on this You have to determine which you want to do Either could lead to a fine study You might even combine them into one but that39s dangerous I think what you want to do as you narrow down your topic you want to pick something that is as simple as possible and is still important I tell people that the best dissertation is a thin dissertation A lot of dissertations never got this Is that helpful Male Student Yeah The heart of my question is I don39t know how to simplify it Part ofthe issue is population is something else It could be minority or socio economic Professor Pick one Pick one notjust by drawing number out of a hat but because you39re researching and getting ideas on this area You have some feelings about who your accessible research population is Saying that the literature says something about English as second language kids that the real issue is with Asian English as second language kids It39s somewhat of a problem with hispanics You have a lot more access to hispanics than Asians You don39t want to fudge your data or lie about it but you want to focus on the data that will lead you to to the conclusion that will lead you to do the population that you have accessible to you Nothing wrong with doing that unless you fudge data to do that When you get done you want to be able to Male Student You want to bring the population back up but the problem is accessibility It seems like the pressure is to put them on a computer based learning system that will bring them up with everybody else But when the kid gets there it39sjust read this I answer this So for them it39s not education just torture Professor So you39ve suggested a slightly different formulation You could say computer assisted instruction has been touted as a magical cure all for all kids However point two is research shows that it is typically not very effective with English as a second language kids l39d expand point two Because in most applications it turns out to be drill and practice that can39t capture their attention Point three recent features that are available for computer assisted instruction but seldom used with English as a second language kids could make it much more interesting and effective and tailored to their needs This has never been researched Therefore we need to do a study Okay So what you do is sit at a kitchen table with a lot of white paper and outlinejust like I did with out trying to word them well Just thoughts Even if you can39t figure it out Look at the possibilities and say which makes sense Which works best with what I39m trying to do Okay Male Student Yeah Thanks Professor Let39s go to Elaina39s Remember we said we39d stay until six tonight Okay Read it Silent reading Okay How many points do you give it Male Student Seven Female Student I39d say it39s closer to ten Professor Rachel39s the nice one Male Student Eight Professor Rachel Give me staccato bullet points for what she39s saying Female Student There39s a lot of research They39re concerned about the quality of research in the studies Three This is one I had concerns about Sophisticated reviews would be critical of whether or not they have high quality research Four Most dissertations don39t meet requirements to be publishable Five This kind of study has been conducted with education but not specifically assisted technology And the last one She39s going to do a study Professor Is that convincing Male Student I39d give it a two No It39s pretty convincing She hones on to instructional technology She has to focus on one area It sounds like a system wide problem It sounds hard to do a replication study when no such study has been done Female Student lt39sjust in the field of instructional technology specifically when looked at the field of education When looking at literature reviews across the field of education And the study I39d get to read I did a replication study of that to see what we could improve on that work That39s later Male Student How many ofthose studies have been done Female Student Two Two out of three Male Student l39d approach it differently I think I would say one everybody agrees that research reviews are important However one large study Comprehensive study I39ll not worry about the words yet One large study done recently shows they39re not typically well done Three lfthat39s true we have a problem Four Basing such important decisions on one study is dangerous Five Therefore needs to be replicated with an independent research with a new sampling What39s different about that than you said You said most research showed research dissertations aren39t publishable I39m not interested in dissertations being publishable I39m just worried about the review of literature portion I don39t think IT is critical to the problem statement except for where you end up You could do this anywhere You39rejust picking one The way science moves fonvard is through replicating in various areas overtime You don39t make a strong case for IT The case you need to make is this large apparently well done study found troubling results about the way research reviews are done Research reviews are done for every dissertation lfthey39re poorly done that39s a problem Before we go about remedying it we need to find out if it is a problem through replicating it It seems there39s a lot of other stuff here I don39t care about That may come out in the support of the assertion but not in the problem statement With Ryan39s example think how you39ll get to the end from the beginning When we said computer assisted instruction needs to get out you39ll find that there have been a lot of studies and reviews done lfthey39re good you cite the findings of those reviews lfthere have been a lot of studies and bad reviews you have to do your own review lfthere have been lots of studies done and no reviews you have to do your own review If there39re no studies done base it on something else That39s the winnowing process you go through If Melynda were to start by saying everybody is saying this research is important there are not going to be studies on that We have to find another way to support it It39s still addressing the four critical attributes of a good review Female Student That39s where I39ve been running into problems because there are not lots of studies forthis so how do Professor Think of your self as an investigative reporter and say I want to make the point that even though everyone agrees reviews of research are important no one does them well There are two different things here Even though everybody agrees One way would be to look at the ten highest selling text books in colleges of education and what they include in their text books All ten say reviews of research are critical All ten say you should take these steps I don39t know That39s some evidence What other ideas do you have Male Student The sheer fact that there is a review of literature in every single article published ls somewhat telling Professor Or if you looked at articles on the scientific method If you identify fifteen articles or text books I39d try articles how many say that reviews of research are important I39ll bet all will It39s similar to Doug39s point Other ideas The point I want to make is you don39t have to cite experimental studies There are lots of ways to support assertions Male Student Can I ask about the word can39t hearcan39t understand reviews Female Student That39s the same thing as a thorough and integrative review That39s what they mean by sophisticated Professor It39s a loaded term I39d say well done reviews ofthe literature Whether it delves into other problems or not is relevant I39d say well done reviews are critical I39m at point three before you start Okay Ready to move on Let39s look at Katrina39s Skip the question at the top Go to the bullet points Read it first Silent reading Tell me in as few words as possible what journaling is Female Student can39t hearcan39t understand Professor Activities as good as the word tasks Female Student Personal journaling Professor What39s meta cognitive journaling Female Student That39s self awareness journaling It says right after a kind ofjournaling that increases self awareness Professor So if I39m in this class and my name is Rachel and ljournaled about what we did in this class I39d say we talked about the orangejuice and IQ tests and I realized I was putting too much time into it and looking at intricate statistical designs instead of looking at the broader picture Following that we talked about the Slavin article Is that meta cognitive journaling or not Female Student No That39s just a journal Professor What would she have had to do to make it meta cognitive Female Student She would have had to address how ifthere39s five journaling questions you have to ask Where did you do it how did you do it why did you do it and that way What would you do differently if you had to do it again What steps would you have had to take to do it Professor And that makes it meta cognitive Female Student The prediction process involves evaluating what you39ve done asking how did you do what you did That39s why it39s specifically for tasks or for reading Professor We39re talking about she39s keeping ajournal for this task today Female Student She would talk about what did you do today I listened to a lecture Professor I listened to a discussion about orangejuice Then what Female Student Then the rest of it was you39d have to be assigned a task that was contained in thejournal That39s what thisjournal is based off So her task would be to go home and write a statement That39s a better example Professor But she39ll keep a journal of what we did in class today And if we spent the whole time talking about orangejuice could she not do meta cognitive journaling then Female Student That39s more of a what did you know vs how did you know it I39m dealing with tasks and activities not Professor I39m just saying turn herjournal into a meta cognitivejournal Or do you have to change my activity before she can do a meta cognitive journal Female Student lt can39tjust be a lecture Professor We discussed Female Student It has to be more than a discussion You have to do something A person has to do something to do a meta cognitive journaling That39s what these are For them it was the studies different It was an evaluation of reading comprehension To them it was what did you do in every chapter I read it very slowly over and over again If you had it to do again what would you do differently I would probably go back and do the main bullet points because it took too long to read So That39s a better example Professor Helps a little Any other terms you want to understand before you jump in Give me a rating Melynda Female Student I would say a six maybe a seven Male Student Seven Professor So make it better one of you Female Student I would start with engineering the goal of primary education instead of can39t hearcan39t understand Journaling has been used and proven effective l39d leave out that part about understanding and improving self awareness Then I39d jump down to the stuff about meta cognitivejournaling and make that clearer to someone in the elevator you39re trying to talkto That39s where I got stuck Professor I39m sort of approaching it the same way Engineers need to be able to blank blank blank And focusing on the kinds of things you think meta cognitive journaling does with out ever using those terms So maybe it39s engineers need to be able to analyze what they39ve been doing how they39ve been doing it and what difference it will make or whatever it is One engineers need to be able to blank Two a technique called meta cognitivejournaling that will be defined later because I don39t even care what it is has been shown to improve blank in other fields Female Student That39s the issue Professor If it hasn39t been used to improve it there your first statement is wrong Female Student Journaling has General journaling where you just say what you did That isjust a taskl had Meta cognitivejournaling hasn39t been developed Professor Oh then this is a completely different issue than what I understood Female Student There are hordes of literature about what is journaling Professor Don39t go there Female Student That39s why I was trying to understand where you guys were going Professor So if journaling has been proven effective why not use it Female Student It is In engineering they use engineering note books Professor So has journaling been used in engineering Female Student It has but not meta cognitive journaling Professor Has meta cognitivejournaling been used anywhere Female Student In two studies I saw It39s new Professor Is it more effective than journaling in those two studies Female Student Seems to be One in biology but it was done in reading comprehension Professor Let me make sure I39m understanding There39s lots of studies showing journaling is effective in all fields including engineering There39s a little literature showing meta cognitive journaling is even more effective but there is not much research You lead me to believe this was a task that could be useful to engineers but hasn39t been done with engineers Truth is hadn39t been done with anybody really This is sort of like the IT example You39re going to end up using it in engineers because they39re available to you not because it39s never been done with them or there39s something unique about them So I39d approach it by saying journaling has been used in many fields to do etc Whatever those outcomes are and there39s lots of research supporting those Two There39s a limited amount of research showing that a variation on journaling could be even more effective Three However this needs to be replicated and investigated more comprehensive to ensure that it39s as useful as it appears to be Therefore we39ll do a study where we39ll use this meta cognitive approach Is it expensive Female Student Uh uh Professor It39s just different Okay Because if it was harder or more expensive l39d work into the problem study by saying there39s two or three studies that show it can be effective but it costs more or is harder to do so people haven39t done it as much but we39ll find out if it39s Female Student It39s a bit more time consuming to finish than journaling Professor Well if it39s a bit more that39s howl would approach it Journaling has been shown effective in many fields Meta cognitive journaling might be more effective We need to replicate this so we39ll do a study It39s pretty straight fonvard When you do a review of literature if you find out there39s more than two there39s really forty seven you39ll need to change your problem statement or get a different study Then maybe it will become something like journaling is used widely Two Research shows that meta cognitive journaling is even more effective Three However hardly anyone uses it Four We need to find out why this more effective technique isn39t used as broadly as you39d think it should be Five We need to do a study showing why they don39t So you39re still working in the area but depending on what research shows yourjumping off point is this Does that make sense The reason is we39re taking time to work through this is not just so we can help Katrina write hers but hopefully so that you will be getting points that relate to you as well The jumping off point is important Let39s look at Jarod39s Silent reading Okay Katrina give me a rating Female Student There are only two bullets There are some words that I don39t know what they are Professor Skip over it and say X Female Student Seven Professor Next Male Student Seven Female Student Nine Professor Ryan see what you can improve on it Male Student I think there39re two issues that come up in the second bullet You39re looking at the social norms then you39re talking about teaching social norms over the net then talk about low alcohol use environment You could probably scratch one ofthose Professor What is social norm intenention Male Student lntenention where you show people what the normative amount of alcohol use is then people compare it to their own use Then we find people believe everyone drinks more than they actually do So they drink less knowing the norm is actually less than they believe it to be Professor So ifl go out and get drunk two times a month because I believe everyone39s doing it four times a month then I find out people only do it once a quarter then I39m less likely to go out twice a month Male Student Yeah Professor There39s research out there showing when you help people understand the norm then they decrease their problematic behavior Are these interventions expensive to deliver Why do you want to use the net to deliver Male Student lthinkthat39s one of the points that needs to be made Most of them are multi media USU runs one It39s been expensive They hand out calendars and cups That39s what happens in a lot of places they spend a lot of money to do intenentions lfthe online one is as effective and it costs next to nothing I think I need to lose the whole alcohol statement Female Student Yeah That39s not an issue Male Student It39s a big issue Female Student But not in the problem statement Professor The problem statement for me becomes social norm interventions and I39d stick with alcohol if that39s what you want to do I39d start with an easier one Alcohol abuse is a big problem easy to support People are trying to find ways to reduce it Research shows social norm interventions are an effective way to reduce alcohol but they39re expensive to implement Three A limited amount of research shows or it39s been suggest that depending on what39s out there that this sort of intervention could be delivered overthe internet and reach more people Four Unfortunately this has never been investigated So this research is being done One of the key points to having a good problem statement isn39tjust to have five bullet points that are related to each other You have to create some sort of unfinished business or problem statements So if you say these first things about alcohol intenention being effective then what39s the issue But they39re expensive Do it much less expensively using the intervention This review needs to be done It goes from a seven to a ten Female Student You don39t ever review really bad Professor Not with this group Female Student I39m thinking on a scale of all I39ve read these are good Professor Good point Okay Arewe downtothe last one Good Rachel39s Reading silently Tell me what detracking is Female Student Restructuring the schools to get rid of stratefied track like an introductory vs honor course Detracking forces students to have more options that normally would be placed in those tracks Some programs have been designed to force students to take upper level courses instead of the intro courses they normally do Professor That would be tracking Female Student Detracking is the systematic break down of what39s there already Professor lsn39t tracking saying you get to take the AP course You take the normal So what39s detracking Female Student Detracking is the break down of that system Taking those that would normally be placed in the lower track and giving them the opportunity to get in a higher track Professor So it39s doing away with tracking Male Student lt39s affirmative act to tracking Professor Would it be the same as the elimination oftracking Female Student No because what happens is they tried to eliminate it yet it still occurs Now they39ve moved to the system called detracking They39re trying to force students to take higher level courses Professor So there are still tracks Detracking is an effort to help students who wouldn39t normally be in the uppertrack to be there Force students who would be in an upper track in a lower one Female Student No They remain in the highertrack Professor So then there will be only one track Female Student Well probably not but at least there wouldn39t then be all Latinos in the low track and white kids in the high track Professor White kids will still be in the high track Female Student We39ll try to get all the Latinos and all the white kids in the high track Professor But then there39s no more track I39m having a little trouble with what detracking is but I don39t think that39s central to this so let39s move on Give me four bullet points of what you want to do Female Student The first point is people thinkthat tracking is the norm Tracking is just a more subversive form of what happened before Professor Even though most people thinkthat tracking doesn39t exist it does Female Student Second Professor You39re looking at your paper Female Student I have to Professor Go ahead Female Student That Latino students are influenced by what track they39re in What courses they take influence their can39t hearcan39t understand Professor So even though most people don39t thinktracking exists it does A disproportionate number of Latinos end up in the lower tracks and therefore don39t achieve as well Female Student Right Professor Are you focusing on science Female Student Yes What forces are acting to put them in the low track Why are they being placed there Professor Then what Female Student I want to do a study as to what forces are keeping Latinos in those tracks Why they39re there Professor Which is different from your final bullet That39s not bad Now it39s saying it39s saying is it39s a correlation study about predicting where they are Now you39re saying what factors result in their placement Both of which are worth while What you39ve identified now is the precursor Female Student As the jumping off point for a correlational study Professor Let me give you my brief lecture on qualitative vs quantitive Female Student There39s no difference Professor She39s got it l have yet to see the qualitative study that didn39t draw conclusions like most teachers feel that most is quantitive If people divide the world into quantitive which uses standardized test results and qualitative that asks teachers39 opinions I39d say they39re both good things to do I don39t know what they mean qualitative If you say most teachers you39re still quantifying your result I wish we39d never created the dichotomy What we should do is create a dichotomy between good and bad research For some quantitive means good For some it means bad The same with qualitative It doesn39t answer the real question If you want to say why most Latinos end up on a lower track you39ve got to quantify that information Because you want to know why most end up there You can ask them questions or obsene actions orjournaling or participant observer study Tailor the method to the data you want to collect but don39t call it qualitative or quantitive because it39s not And when you define it as a good study you ought to say what you39ll do Good is defined by are the techniques you used appropriate to the question you wanted to answer If you wanted to find out why they ended up in these lower tracks and you looked at standardized achievement it won39t do that because it doesn39t answer the question you want to answer It won39t do that It would be a bad study So we39ve got our problem study now Repeats bullet list as stated above Four change it a bit If we did know what factors accounted for them being in a lower track which we don39t we could do something about getting them in the higher tracks Which would lead to better outcomes Therefore we need to do a study to find out why they39re in lower tracks But you can39t stop now Do you know what kind of study to do Female Student My belief is structural problems so they39re in a lower track because counselors place them there They give the illusion of doing it wrong Professor What you said second or third was so much better than structural problems That their counselors are directing them into lower tracks Female Student And science teachers Professor Much better than structural problem with the schools Soto find out if that is happening you talk to counselors and science teachers and students about what sorts of advice they gave or received You can39t talkto any one They might say different things Maybe you might not want to do self reporting Think broadly then figure out what you can afford Maybe you want to set up video cameras To see what counselors really tell them Now you hone in on one potential issue Are there others Female Student There are others but that39s the one I39m most interested in Professor Then you have to work something into your problem statement about why you39re going there I need to figure out as the funding agency why I39ll give you money to do this I think the problem is because their grades are so bad in earlier courses that they could never survive in higher and that39s where they ought to be And unless you39re doing rationale for why you think it39s important to figure out what counselors tell them I39ll say waste of time Grades tell it all See what I39m saying Give me some reason Some premise leads me If you can show that it39s true that the counselor gives them bad advice then your explanation could be it See what I39m saying So your nextjob is to rewrite your problem statement You don39t need to turn it in next week but you are working in the library trying to find things and so you39d better make sure your problem statement is structured in a way that it leads you to search for the research that you want to be looking for Homework due next week is it39s a coding of a meta analysis article So real quickly we39re a little over time Take one of these So on the electronic website there39s an article about integrated art education So contrary to the orangejuice example this is a real article that was included in a meta analysis The coding sheet ljust passed out though it39s on the web A student was doing a meta review An integrative analysis of whether integrating art into other curriculum areas like math reading etc would lead to better or worse outcomes across the board This is one of many studies he used in his meta analysis This is the coding sheet he used There are four columns on the coding sheet because one study could yield multiple effect sizes So if for example they integrated art into a reading program and the outcome was both comprehension and a decoding measure you39d use two columns With out knowing any more than what you see here I want you to take the article which is on the web and find code for a meta analysis We39ll talk next week about how well you did that Next week we don39t meet Monday We meet Tuesday Right here Okay Your classes that normally meet on Tuesday won39t meet that week Any questions Male Student So this is the article Professor Yes Male Student Can you give an example of what the study would be We39d read it Professor The study ID Maybe there39s only one effect size in this article so you39d only use the first column They study lds There39s a handwritten number Zero one one Year of publication 1992 You just go through and pull information in the articlejust like with the orange juice articles Female Student Then can39t hearcan39t understand Professor Let39s say this was our study about orange juice I gave it to fifty and not to the other fifty I broke them down about whether they were boys and girls And I measured them so StanfordBinet and Peabody Then I39d have one for boys on each and one for girls on each I39d have four I39d use all four columns Most information would be the same on each columns Year of publication would be the same but effect size would be different But percent male six would be a hundred related to boys and zero for that related to girls So when l was done I could sort out if there was a different effect size for boys vs girls Lets quit Female Student You answered my question end of class


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.