Introduction to Music
Introduction to Music MUSC 1100
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melody Borer DVM on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 1100 at Valdosta State University taught by Steven Taylor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/230527/musc-1100-valdosta-state-university in Music at Valdosta State University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Pythagoras 582 507 BC Observed the harmonic series Formulated the diatonic scale Established early rules of harmony Note a tone used in music with attributes of pitch length amplitude timbre etc Interval distance between two notes Melody a series of notes Melodic shape the general outline of a melody Phrase a subdivision of a melody Cadence feeling of finality at the end of a phrase or melody Rhythm pattern of when notes occur in time Meter organization of rhythm Beat a rhythmic pulse Upbeat occurring before the downbeat Downbeat first beat of the measure Offbeat occurring between strong beats Duple meter in 2 Triple meter in 3 Syncopation offset from the main beat Harmony rules for combining notes at the same time Tonality organization of harmony around a tonic or key Chord any set of notes sounded together Triad a chord of three notes Tonic l chord built on the lst note of the scale Sense of rest Subdominant IV chord built on the 4th of the scale Dominant V chord built on the 5th of the scale Usually followed by l Consonance pleasant sounding Dissonance clashing Scales terms Diatonic 7 notes scale Chromatic 12 note scale all half steps Pentatonic 5 note scale Major where the 3rd is higher Minor where the 3rd is lower Syllables do re mi fa so la ti Instrumental performance terms Staccato Short articulation of notes Vibrato Vibrating the pitch Pizzicato plucking the strings Col Legno hitting the bow stick on strings Mute Sordino device that muffles the sound Tremolo shaking sound Dynamics Loudest to softest fortissimo ff forte f mezzo forte mf mezzo piano mp piano p pianissimo pp Tempi Fastest to slowest Presto Vivace Allegro Allegretto Moderato Andante Adagio Largo Lento Voice female Soprano Mezzo Soprano Alto male Tenor Baritone Bass Strings upper Violin Viola lower Cello Double Bass woodwinds upper Flute Oboe Clarinet lower Bassoon Brass upper Trumpet French horn lower Trombone Tuba Percussion few registers to learn here timpani are lowy used the most in classical symphonies ENSEMBLES Bands have been around a very long time and definitions for a band are fairly loose Generally they consist of non strings Winds Brass Percussion Chorus know the term quota cappellaquot Symphony orchestras are more recent 1750s on and are distinguished from bands by the strings The 4 major families in the symphony orchestra are Strings woodwinds Brass and Percussion IMPORTANT CHAMBER ENSEMBLES String Quartet lst Violin 2nd Violin Viola Cello Piano Trio Violin Cello Biano woodwind Quintet Flute Oboe Clarinet Bassoon French horn Brass Quintet lst Trumpet 2nd Trumpet French horn Trombone Tuba The String Quartet is the most important of these Chamber orchestra not mentioned in the textbook has no strict definition in size but is generally smaller than 30 members with the same instrument groups as a symphony MUSICAL TEXTURES Monophonic a single part or line of music Best example is chant Polyphonic multiple parts each one being very independent Best example is from Renaissance or Barogue fugue Imitation is frequently a device used in polyphonic music Fugues Canons Rounds are all imitative forms Homophonic A melody set to a simple accompaniment Examples Recitativo Chorale 1450 Dark Ages SOOAD Fall of Rome to lOOOAD Progress in Middle Ages Mechanical Mills Clocks Rise of Trade Guilds Bourgeoisie Gradual decline of Feudalism and slavery Music Notation Dominant forces Church and Feudalism Generally the Church plays an important role as patron of the arts during the Middle Ages Also the main source preserving knowledge of the ancient world Musical settings of worship Mass Proper Ordinary Kyrie Gloria Credo Sanctus Agnus Dei Chant Monophonic rhythmically free usually religious Gregorian Melismatic Syllabic Music notation develops in the church Neumes Staff Guido of Arezzo 992 1033 The first music theorist in the Middle Ages to discuss music notation on a staff lnvented solfeggio do re mi Organum Grows from chant earliest form of polyphony use of perfect intervals Hocet Conductus Rhythmic secular based text Motet Polyphonic based on a cantus firmus addition of secular text Motetus lines added to the cantus firmus in a motet Troubadours minstrels ltinerant on the road medieval musicians Chivalry Courtly Love Ars Nova The New Art 14th cen period of musical complexity In contrast to Ars Antigua Old Art Chanson A song Guillaume de Machaut l300 l377 Dominant composer of the ars nova Philippe de Vitry 1290 1361 medieval composer theoretician who created the term quotArs Novaquot Formes fixes fixed forms include ballade virelai rondeau WWW RENAISSANCE ERA 1450 1600 The golden age of quota cappellaquot singing Imitation and polyphonic texture the norm Gradual increased importance of purely instrumental and secular music Reformation Counter Reformation moving toward less complexity more understandable church music Chorale Four part homophonic music written in stanzas championed by Martin Luther perfected by Bach Madrigal Polphonic 3 or 4 voice set to secular poetry word Painting Music refects the lyrics Renaissance Motet Any sacred choral work set to Latin text not the Mass Whole Consort or quotfull consortquot the complete family of instrument Broken Consort An ensemble of full range of mixed instruments Docrine of the affections a philosophy of the emotional power of music Florentine Camerata invented opera as a revival of ancient Greek drama Elements of Opera Recitativo created as a type of singing narrative which in opera accelates the plot Arias Airs or songs mostly performed by soloists Chorus large voice ensemble Greek Dance Dance stage dance is especially important in opera in the Baroque Overture orchestral introduction to the opera Eurydice by Jacopo Peri lst opera Orfeo by Claudio Monteverdi lst public opera Oratorios and Cantatas share these same elements but not dance Ostinato A repeating pattern Basso Continuo accompanies Recitatives is the most characteristic feature of Baroque music Played by harpsichord cello bass organ Sonata originally a generic instrumental work p 120 Da Camera similar format as a suite Da Chiesa four movements each in binary form Trio sonata sonata for a trio develops into standard sonata 2 hands on keyboard and a featured instrument Concerto work for orchestra and soloist Concerto Grosso with multiple soloists ritornello form A B A CIA ripieno full group concertino group of soloists Suite Collection of dance movements p 128 AB binary AB A ternary p 105gt Fugue polyphonic imitative work for 3 4 voices Subject Countersubject Answer Episodes Stretto Pedal point Inversion Retrograde Augmentation Diminution J S Bach writes the archtype for fugue His freguently begin with a prelude Later in history fugue used in other works as a developmental idea fugato MMMHH CLASSICAL ERA 1750 1827 HMHHH New genres Symphony String Quartet Four movement configuration typical in Symphonies string guartets sonatas movement 1 Sonata Allegro Form movement 2 Slow movement typically Theme and Variations movement 3 Minuet and Trio movement 4 Fast typically Rondo or Sonata Rondo Form Sonata allegro form Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda Theme and variations Minuet and trio AB A Rondo AB AC A Main Characteristics Importance of personal expression Nationalism Greater role of Winds brass Program music Music set to a story Symphonic Poem Tone Poem One mvt symphonic programmatic piece Tdee fixe Leitmotif A recurring theme representing a character Ballet grows out of opera to be performed on its own Virtuoso a very skilled instrumentalist Composers Johannes Brahms Bedrich Smetana Antonin Dvorak Hector Berlioz Richard Wagner Petr Tchaikovsky Felix Mendelssohn Jazz and Impressionism Late 1800s Claude Debussy Inspired by display of Indonesian Gamelan music Main creator of musical impressionism with an emphasis on color and sound less emphasis on structure and developing musical content Scott Joplin Conservatory educated composer of classic Ragtime Jazz African American in origin Has beginnings in Ragtime and the Blues 7k7kkvk7k Century 7kkkvkvkkk NeoClassicism Bolytonality polychords Bolyrhythm Tone color effects Igor Stravinsky Sergei Prokofiev Dimitry Shostakovich Aaron Copland