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by: Branson Paucek

Moderns ACS1001

Branson Paucek
GPA 3.88


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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Branson Paucek on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ACS1001 at Villanova University taught by AndrewBove in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/230593/acs1001-villanova-university in OTHER at Villanova University.


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Date Created: 10/28/15
Notes on John Locke as America s philosopher presented by Michael Zukert What is the basis of Locke being given that kind of credit for a whole society Presence of ideas in documents of political actors in founding period of America and in general political culture most cited author of revolutionary period other than the Bible if the cited presence of Locke is so great the uncited presence is greater plagiarism was common 9 Declaration of Independence Jefferson claimed to express the American mind thus Locke s ideas no longer belonged to Locke Formation of government by contract to secure what became insecure There to ensure what happened in England doesn t happen in American s political system people have inalienable rights social contract consent created to secure these rights to avoid state of war government that fails to secure rights should be altered or abolished quotLocke lurks behind the Declaration s every phrase nearly identical ex quotall men are created equal quotto secure these rights quotright ofpeople to alter or remove government 9 Bill of Rights was more similar to Declaration of Independence as Declared by George Mason of Virginia quotThose rights which do pertain to men and their posterity as the basis and foundation of government all men have certain inherent natural rights among which are the enjoyment of life and liberty with the means of acquiring and possessing property and pursuing and maintaining happiness sound familiar PADE VT est similar phrasing NY whatever they deem best to keep rights intact Mass to secure existence allow to enjoy in safety and tranquility their natural rights etc 9 Federalist 10 by James Madison problem would be major of tyranny similar to King of England intended to be ruled by majority inherent ability to deal with threats to come with minorities what about mechanism to deal with majority quotThe diversity in the faculties of men from which the rights of property arise is an insuperable obstacle to a uniformity of interest the protection of these faculties is the first object of governmentquot Inequality of property 9 provides constant occasions to interfere with property ex redistribute and equalize Protection of property leads to more than just protecting individual rights but also toward greater wealth Was it a theoretical error then a practical error to adapt his philosophy Ex why people can claim parking spaces on the basis of mixing their labor with shoveling snow challenges to Locke s theories 9 Era leading to Civil War expected since Locke proclaimed equality what about slavery John C Calhoun said people aren t equal tojustify slavery Southern forces proclaimed it as a quotselfevident lie Gettysburg by Lincoln reaffirmed Locke s ideals 9 Late 19 h century Populism and Progressivism during Gilded Age since the ideals stood in the way of reforms Charles Beard s theory argued that the document was simply a quotconcerted effort to thwart the popular will for the sake of protecting the property interests of class to which the founders themselves belonged to Progressive era attacked the following themes 1 idea of state of nature as baseline of political life that the individual is the ultimate reality and society is a construct in the service of the individual individual freedom is the appropriate standard 2 natural right to property set boundaries to reform the economy substantive due process was created seen as nuisance to those trying to change it TEAIIING DoWN the state of nature Lockean ideas a origin of government was criticized as nonsense theoretically defective as philosophy human beings are thoroughly social beings cannot be in a state without society without government 0 require much aide from each other to survive ex Infant is fragile requires more social support story of Prometheus notices various gifts of nature man is vulnerable compared to other animals I gifts given in compensation reason amp speech 9 develop arts work only in social settings 0 inherently social language as defining feature unthinkable without society I even animals are social 0 society produces individuals individuals do not produce society DEFENDING the state of nature Locke means his ideas to be a historical account describes the state of nature as the quotcondition of men living together without a common superior on Earthquot is common I Princes on Earth in relation to one another I unconnected men who meet in a desert island I Swiss and Indian meet in America ex survivors of the plane crash on LOST but DOES NOT address the main issue of all men starting in state of nature since all of the above were all exceptions of how men normally live Thus arises the conceptual account to capture the actual use of the ideal natural rights include life liberty and property the pursuit of happiness right to give shape to their own lives such as they believe might lead them to happiness Parking space analysis Mr David Thunder has the exclusive right to control his car Others are obliged not to interfere with our actions through physical power or coercion Political power is the right to apply physical power or coercion So there cannot be natural authority Locke does not mention society and only describes where authority comes from Neither God nor nature creates authority Authority is artificial manmade There is no authority to rule by nature but there are rights by nature Moral reality political power must be conceived to be artificial Humans can only consent to certain authority must be devoted to securing these rights Liberal democracy of America Learn ayinueuscendud But Experlerlce gtlezmlng Statesmanship defined as instruction amp inducement Inducemenl imparting moral urgeng Whoeverguvems by mmmend dues nutguvern by sieiesmensbib HutU created uppununlty m penpletu guvem themselves Arts uf states manshlp Nu pulltlczl accumpllshmem wunhy lf ll duesnut transfurmthe suulsuf utherslrl such zwzythzt lrlsplresmurzl urgency George Washington Purpuse u cemem unlurl and bulld nztlunzl character Bellaed lrl lmltztlu Chrlsllquot mural analyslsznd understandlrg t eke lt m im e m urethzn Mural encuuragement Tudzy EXlSISDlV 9 er y rldmemllrled murallty 2H relztlve etc But Washlngtun understu ud ii an daermlnzte terms Passages We are good diey an evil The sense of his smtemcm is misleading in intended by pose World War II morallsrs who discovered collcclivc r spansibiliry Nor can it be due in die sense of hose wlib ascribe some he c 39 39 39 39 Nnr 39 H l rtlanvcly mic in die sense that ilie sralcmcm is me for all and hence only 11 minnlly exclusivc Noneilieless die burd prove rh t the s atemcnr can be true 5 ow For what hinges on that proof 39e ihe p opcr understanding of 3 ins secuiiiy policy in a iepiiblicee regime Andlusllcefur all passzg Cnrldltlurlfur successful furelgn belicy unimmlusiice suslzlrls healthy bublic ebinien be stable Rule of necessary act in selfdefense Moral selfrestraint Washington understanding 9 A community that self governs is one that imitates Christ under imitation dei 9 induces to achieve justice consistently 9 if virtue is complete in that soul then that soul will accomplish justice 9 not exclusively Christian still believed in separation of church and state that imitating Christ may be done by anyone Washington amp Hamilton defense of ghost writing Came up with Ideas 9 given to ghost writers such as hamilton Washington is still the author do not depreciate Washington Washington advice Avoid party attachments to avoid division Don t try to live without religion Do not have permanent friends or enemies guide self by justice and humanity Ex France neutrality broken since France was being aggressive Ideas for Response Private morality must agree with aim of state possible example Business allowing employers allowing company members to create their own goals rather than giving them goals ALLUSION treatment of rental car vs own car You do not wash the rental car or vacuum its carpet you do not care about it since it is not yours but take good care of your own car trying to instill good treatment of car good treatment of laws regardless of private goal and national goal Private morality must agree with national aim for self government of people to work Used Israel as example 9 testing US tolerance for nuclear arms against Iran what Washington echoed Machiavelli s The Prince 6 look up concepts


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