HISTORY OF THE SOUTH
HISTORY OF THE SOUTH HIST 352
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There Was Never Any Payday For the Negroesquot Jourdon Anderson Demands Wages As slavery collapsed at the close of the Civil War former slaves quickly explored freedom s possibilities by establishing churches that were independent of white control seeking education in Freedmen s Bureau schools and even building and maintaining their own schools Many took to the roads as they sought opportunities to work and to reconstitute their families Securing their liberty meant nding the means of support to obtain land or otherwise bene t from their own labor as Jourdon Anderson made clear in this letter to his former owner He addressed Major Anderson from Ohio where he had secured good wages for himself and schooling for his children Many freedpeople argued that they were entitled to land in return for their years of unpaid labor and looked to the federal government to help achieve economic selfsufficiency Black southemers understood the value of their own labor and looked for economic independence and a free labor market in their battle over the meaning of emancipation in postCivil War America Dayton Ohio August 7 1865 To My Old Master Colonel PH Anderson Big Spring Tennessee Sir I got your letter and was glad to find you had not forgotten Jourdon and that you wanted me to come back and live with you again promising to do better for me than anybody else can I have often felt uneasy about you I thought the Yankees would have hung you long before this for harboring Rebs they found at your house I suppose they never heard about your going to Col Martin s to kill the Union soldier that was left by his company in their stable Although you shot at me twice before I left you I did not want to hear of your being hurt and am glad you are still living It would do me good to go back to the dear old home again and see Miss Mary and Miss Martha and Allen Esther Green and Lee Give my love to them all and tell them I hope we will meet in the better world if not in this I would have gone back to see you all when I was working in the Nashville Hospital but one of the neighbors told me Henry intended to shoot me if he ever got a chance I want to know particularly what the good chance is you propose to give me I am doing tolerably well here I get 25 a month with victuals and clothing have a comfortable home for Mandy ithe folks here call her Mrs Andersoniand the childreniMilly Jane and Grundyigo to school and are learning well the teacher says Grundy has a head for a preacher They go to Sunday School and Mandy and me attend church regularly We are kindly treated sometimes we overhear others saying Them colored people were slaves down in Tennessee The children feel hurt when they hear such remarks but Itell them it was no disgrace in Tennessee to belong to Col Anderson Many darkies would have been proud as I used to be to call you master Now if you will write and say what wages you will give me I will be better able to decide whether it would be to my advantage to move back again As to my freedom which you say I can have there is nothing to be gained on that score as I got my free papers in 1864 from the Provost Marshal General of the Department of Nashville Mandy says she would be afraid to go back without some proof that you are sincerely disposed to treat us justly and kindly and we have concluded to test your sincerity by asking you to send us our wages for the time we served you This will make us forget and forgive old scores and rely on your justice and friendship in the future I served you faithfully for thirtytwo years and Mandy twenty years At twentyfive dollars a month for me and two dollars a week for Mandy our earnings would amount to eleven thousand siX hundred and eighty dollars Add to this the interest for the time our wages has been kept back and deduct what you paid for our clothing and three doctor s visits to me and pulling a tooth for Mandy and the balance will show what we are in justice entitled to Please send the money by Adams Express in care of V Winters Esq Dayton Ohio If you fail to pay us for faithful labors in the past we can have little faith in your promises in the future We trust the good Maker has opened your eyes to the wrongs which you and your fathers have done to me and my fathers in making us toil for you for generations without recompense Here I draw my wages every Saturday night but in Tennessee there was never any payday for the Negroes any more than for the horses and cows Surely there will be a day of reckoning for those who defraud the laborer of his hire In answering this letter please state if there would be any safety for my Milly and Jane who are now grown up and both goodlooking girls You know how it was with Matilda and Catherine I would rather stay here and starve and die if it comes to that than have my girls brought to shame by the violence and wickedness of their young masters You will also please state if there has been any schools opened for the colored children in your neighborhood the great desire of my life now is to give my children an education and have them form virtuous habits PS iSay howdy to George Carter and thank him for taking the pistol from you when you were shooting at me From your old servant Jourdon Anderson Source Reprinted in Lydia Maria Child The F reedmen 3 Book Boston Tickenor and Fields 1865 26547 A New Birth of Freedom Reconstruction During the Civil War The Civil War in the words of President Abraham Lincoln brought to America quota new birth of freedomquot And during the war began the nation39s efforts to come to terms with the destruction of slavery and to define the meaning of freedom By the war39s end it was already clear that Reconstruction would bring far reaching changes in Southern society and a redefinition of the place of blacks in American life The Civil War did not begin as a total war but it soon became one a struggle that pitted society against society Never before had mass armies confronted each other on the battlefield with the deadly weapons created by the industrial revolution The resulting casualties dwarfed anything in the American experience Some 650000 men died in the war including 260000 Confederates over one fifth of the South39s adult white male population At the war39s outset the Lincoln administration insisted that restoring the Union was its only purpose But as slaves by the thousands abandoned the plantations and headed for Union lines and military victory eluded the North the president made the destruction of slavery a war aim a decision announced in the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 The Proclamation also authorized the enlistment of black soldiers By the end of the Civil War some 200000 black soldiers had served in the Union army and navy staking a claim to citizenship in the postwar nation At the war39s outset the Lincoln administration insisted that restoring the Union was its only purpose But as slaves by the thousands abandoned the plantations and headed for Union lines and military victory eluded the North the president made the destruction of slavery a war aim a decision announced in the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 The Proclamation also authorized the enlistment of black soldiers By the end of the Civil War some 200000 black soldiers had served in the Union army and navy staking a claim to citizenship in the postwar nation In addition a group of young Northern reformers came to the islands to educate the freedpeople and assist in the transition from slavery to freedom The conflicts among these groups offered a preview of the national debate over Reconstruction Emancipation The destruction of slavery powerfully shaped the course of the Civil War and the debate over Reconstruction The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 infused the Union war effort with a new moral spirit and ensured that Northern victory would produce a social revolution in the South Two years later Congress enacted and the states ratified the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery throughout the nation Although the Lincoln administration at first insisted that the preservation of the Union not the abolition of slavery was its objective slaves quickly seized the opportunity to strike for their freedom As the Union army occupied Southern territory slaves by the thousands abandoned the plantations Their actions forced a reluctant Lincoln administration down the road to emancipation The disintegration of slavery was one among several considerations that led President Lincoln on January 1 1863 to issue the Emancipation Proclamation Lack of military success pressure from antislavery Northerners the need to forestall British recognition of the Confederacy and the desire to tap Southern black manpower for the Union army also contributed to the decision The Proclamation which applied only to areas outside Union control did not immediately abolish slavery But it made emancipation an irrevocable war aim profoundly changing the character of the Civil War Even before Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation thousands of slaves fled to freedom behind the lines of the Union army as it advanced into Confederate territory In 1862 Union General Benjamin F Butler designated three escaped slaves as quotcontrabands of warquot or property of military value subject to confiscation Northern newspapers picked up the term and thereafter slaves who came into Union lines were known as contrabands African Americans seeking freedom behind enemy lines included families with young children Note the women with traditional African style headwraps Sculpted to commemorate the ratification of the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery in the United States the idealized figures of quotForever Freequot convey a message of triumph over adversity and hope for the future Artist Mary Edmonia Lewis the daughter of a Chippewa Indian mother and an African American father created the tableau while studying classical art in Rome she originally entitled her work quotThe Morning of Liberty Issued on January 1 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation transformed the character of the Civil War by making the destruction of slavery an object of the Union war effort It also authorized the enlistment of African Americans in the Union armed forces By placing slavery on the road to complete abolition it made a postwar reconstruction of southern society inevitable On December 8 1863 President Lincoln offered a preliminary plan to reunite Confederate states with the Union Known as the 10 Percent Plan Lincoln39s proposal offered lenient terms of pardon and amnesty to Confederates who swore allegiance to the United States but it did not give former slaves any citizenship rights A medal struck in France illustrates how Abraham Lincoln quotthe honest man who abolished slavery restored the Union and saved the Republicquot became an international symbol of liberty after the Civil War The medal39s imagery also includes a black soldier and a ballot box In January 1865 the US Congress approved the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution irrevocably abolishing slavery throughout the nation To commemorate the occasion members of the House and Senate along with Speaker of the House Schuyler Colfax Vice President Hannibal Hamlin and President Abraham Lincoln signed several copies of the document For the next several years commercial printers sold souvenir copies of the historic document Of the Emancipation Proclamation39s provisions few were more radical in their implications than the enrollment of African Americans into the Union army By fighting and dying for the Union black soldiers staked a claim to citizenship in the reconstructed nation that would emerge from the Civil War Before the war blacks had been excluded from the regular army and militia In 1861 and 1862 the Lincoln administration had rejected black volunteers fearing that white soldiers would refuse to serve alongside them With the Proclamation the enlistment of blacks began in earnest By the year39s end some 200000 African Americans had served in the Union army and navy the large majority of them former slaves Within the army black soldiers were anything but equal to whites Organized into segregated regiments under white officers they initially received less pay than whites Nonetheless black soldiers played a crucial role not only in winning the Civil War but in defining the war39s consequences The army moreover was a major source of postwar black leadership Of the African Americans who served in Congress state legislatures and other posts during Reconstruction many had fought as soldiers and sailors during the war In his last public speech shortly before his death in April 1865 President Lincoln endorsed the idea of limited black suffrage singling out army veterans along with the educated as most worthy When the Union Army began to recruit black men into its ranks it used imagery that conveyed the dignity of military service As Frederick Douglass said once black men fought for the Union quotno power on earthquot could deny that they had quotearned the rig ht to citizenship in the United Statesquot The presence of blacks in the Union Army inspired an unknown maker to inscribe the image of a black soldier on a whale39s tooth During the war black soldiers received the same type of equipment as white solders Commissioned by Union Army General Benjamin F Butler an early proponent of using black combatants the Army of the James medal honored black Union troops who fought at the battle of New Market Heights Virginia on September 29 1864 The medal portrays two black soldiers under a Latin inscription quotFreedom Comes Through the Swordquot These photographs of a black sergeant seated and an infantryman standing with an officer39s sword portray two of the nearly 180000 black Americans who served with the Union army during the Civil War A large majority were former slaves Nearly 40000 lost their lives during the conflict Members of the 2nd U S Colored Artillery posed for this photograph while drilling with a 12 pound Napoleon howitzer the primary artillery weapon for the Union Army Black soldiers formed the load team while a white corporal standing beside the cannon served as the gunner and aimed the weapon Rehearsal for Reconstruction As the Union army occupied Southern territory it began to devise policies to deal with the transition from slavery to freedom and the interrelated questions of access to land and the organization of free labor Many of the issues central to Reconstruction were fought out on the Sea Islands of South Carolina even as the Civil War continued The most famous quotrehearsal for Reconstructionquot took place on the Sea Islands just off the coast of South Carolina When the Union navy occupied the area in November 1861 the white population fled leaving behind a community of some 10000 slaves who believed freedom meant access to land and the ability to direct their own labor Their aspirations soon brought them into conflict with new arrivals from the North Treasury agents hoping to restore cotton production investors seeking to acquire Sea Island land and a group of young reformers known as Gideon39s Band who sought to assist the freedpeople by providing education and preparing them for the competitive world of free labor Laura M Towne 1825 1901 who devoted nearly forty years to educating the freedpeople epitomized the spirit of New England reform after the Civil War Born to a prosperous Pittsburgh family Towne grew up in Boston and Philadelphia As a young woman she became an abolitionist In April 1862 under the auspices of the Port Royal Relief Committee of Philadelphia Towne set out for the South Carolina Sea Islands where nearly 10000 slaves were now within Union lines Like others involved in the Port Royal Experiment she hoped to make the islands a showcase for freedom by demonstrating blacks39 capacity for education and productive free labor Towne shared the paternalistic attitudes toward blacks typical of the time but she genuinely wanted to assist in the transition from slavery to freedom In September 1862 Towne and her friend Ellen Murray established Penn School on St Helena Island The school offered a traditional New England curriculum of arithmetic reading and writing geography and classical languages After 1870 it also trained black teachers For several decades it was the Sea Islands39 only secondary school for blacks Towne who never married volunteered her services and supported the school with contributions from Northern supporters While many Northerners returned home after the end of Reconstruction Towne remained operating the Penn School until her death It continued in operation until the 19605 and survives today as a community center Penn School Sea Island School No 1 reflected the New England sensibilities of its founders and funders The school39s prefabricated structure included a tower for a cast iron bell donated by Laura Towne Published by the Pennsylvania Freedmen39s Relief Association this broadside is illustrated with a picture of quotSea island School No 1 St Helena Island South Carolina Established April 1862quot May 1863 letters from teachers at St Helena Island describe their young students as quotthe prettiest little things you ever saw with solemn little faces and eyes like starsquot Vacations seemed a hardship to these students who were so anxious to improve their reading and writing that they begged not to quotbe punished so againquot Voluntary contributions from various organizations aided fourteen hundred teachers in providing literacy and vocational education for 150000 freedmen Some of the black and white teachers and missionaries from the North known as Gideon39s Band who went to the Sea Islands to work with the freedpeople The first group arrived in March 1862 and included women such as Susan Walker a close friend of Salmon Chase 1808 1873 then Secretary of the Treasury These women taught the former slaves to read and sew and were responsible for distributing and selling the clothing sent to them by northern freedmen39s aid associations When federal forces occupied the Sea Islands in November 1861 almost all white inhabitants fled to the mainland leaving behind a community of nearly 10000 African Americans In the quotPort Royal Experimentquot the federal govenrment Northern investors missionaries teachers and the former slaves sought to determine the nature of this transition to freedom Questions that arose over land ownership and control of labor during this quotrehearsal for reconstructionquot became critical issues of the postwar era Freedmen living on the Sea Islands and throughout the Union occupied South labored for wages under terms of yearly contracts drawn up under army supervision Although the contract labor system allowed production to resume by stabilizing labor relations during the war it kept the vast majority of freedmen poor and landless In June 1862 the federal government authorized the sale of abandoned lands at public auction Although some former slaves pooled their resources to acquire land Northern investors purchased most of the property On January 16 1865 Union general William T Sherman shortly after capturing Savannah issued Special Field Order 15 setting aside land on the Sea Islands and along the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia for black settlement Intended to provide temporary refuge for the large number of former slaves following his army Sherman39s order nonetheless had the effect of raising blacks39 expectations that the land would belong to them permanently Later under President Andrew Johnson the land was restored to its prewar owners Taking advantage of President Lincoln39s order issued in September 1863 to sell twenty acre plots of land to black heads of family for not less than 125 per acre eighteen freed people seventeen men and one woman selected plots on the John F Chaplain plantation for purchase January 20 Reconstruction National Introduction Reconstruction was an era of unprecedented political conflict and of far reaching changes in the nature of American government At the national level new laws and constitutional amendments permanently altered the federal system and the definition of citizenship In the South a politically mobilized black community joined with white allies to bring the Republican party to power while excluding those accustomed to ruling the region The national debate over Reconstruction centered on three questions On what terms should the defeated Confederacy be reunited with the Union Who should establish these terms Congress or the President What should be the place of the former slaves in the political life of the South During the Civil War Abraham Lincoln announced a lenient plan with suffrage limited to whites to attract Southern Confederates back to the Union By the end of his life however Lincoln had come to favor extending the right to vote to educated blacks and former soldiers Lincoln39s successor Andrew Johnson in 1865 put into effect his own Reconstruction plan which gave the white South a free hand in establishing new governments Many Northerners became convinced that Johnson39s policy and the actions of the governments he established threatened to reduce African Americans to a condition similar to slavery while allowing former quotrebelsquot to regain political power in the South As a result Congress overturned Johnson39s program Between 1866 and 1869 Congress enacted new laws and the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments to the Constitution guaranteeing blacks39 civil rights and giving black men the right to vote These measures for the first time enshrined in American law the principle that the rights of citizens could not be abridged because of race And they led directly to the creation of new governments in the South elected by blacks as well as white America39s first experiment in interracial democracy Presidential Reconstruction In 1865 President Andrew Johnson implemented a plan of Reconstruction that gave the white South a free hand in regulating the transition from slavery to freedom and offered no role to blacks in the politics of the South The conduct of the governments he established turned many Northerners against the president39s policies The end of the Civil War found the nation without a settled Reconstruction policy In May 1865 President Andrew Johnson offered a pardon to all white Southerners except Confederate leaders and wealthy planters although most of these later received individual pardons and authorized them to create new governments Blacks were denied any role in the process Johnson also ordered nearly all the land in the hands of the government returned to its prewar owners dashing black hope for economic autonomy At the outset most Northerners believed Johnson39s plan deserved a chance to succeed The course followed by Southern state governments under Presidential Reconstruction however turned most of the North against Johnson39s policy Members of the old Southern elite including many who had served in the Confederate government and army returned to power The new legislatures passed the Black Codes severely limiting the former slaves39 legal rights and economic options so as to force them to return to the plantations as dependent laborers Some states limited the occupations open to blacks None allowed any blacks to vote or provided public funds for their education Read the Mississi i Black Code 1865 0Read the Louisiana Black Code 1865 The apparent inability of the South39s white leaders to accept the reality of emancipation undermined Northern support for Johnson39s policies Biographical Sidebar Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson 1808 1875 came from the humblest origins of any man who reached the White House Born in poverty in North Carolina he worked as a youth as a tailor39s apprentice After moving to Greenville Tennessee Johnson achieved success through politics Beginning as an alderman he rose to serve two terms as governor Although the owner of five slaves before the Civil War Johnson identified himself as the champion of his state39s quothonest yeomenquot and a foe of large planters who he described as a quotbloated corrupted aristocracyquot He strongly promoted public education and free land for Western settlers A fervent believer in states rights Johnson was also a strong defender of the Union He was the only Senator from a seceding state to remain at his post in 1861 and when Union forces occupied Tennessee Abraham Lincoln named him military governor In 1864 he was elected vice president Succeeding to the presidency after Lincoln39s death Johnson failed to provide the nation with enlightened leadership or deal effectively with Congress Racism prevented him from responding to black demands for civil rights and personal inflexibility rendered him unable to compromise with Congress Johnson39s vetoes of Reconstruction legislation and opposition to the Fourteenth Amendment alienated most Republicans In 1868 he came within one vote of being removed from office by impeachment He was returned to the US Senate in 1875 but died within a few months of taking office In 1851 Andrew Johnson then a US Congressman became a Mason Perhaps his lifelong devotion to the order reflected his aspirations to rise above his humble origins and the pride he took in doing so 12 The symbols on Johnson39s ceremonial apron indicate that he had attained a high rank in the fraternal order The Black Codes a series of laws passed by Southern states to define freedman39s rights and responsibilities imposed serious restrictions upon former slaves According to Florida39s Black Code blacks who violated broke labor contracts could be whipped pilloried and sold for up to one year39s labor The Black Codes created an uproar among many Northerners who considered them to be another form of slavery Learn more about the Southern Black Codesquot of 186566 Reconstructing the South became a divisive issue in national politics pitting President Johnson against the Republican majority in Congress Eventually Congress implemented its own plan of Reconstruction based on federal action protecting the rights of the former slaves Federal laws and two further Constitutional Amendments established the principle of equal rights for all citizens regardless of race When Congress assembled in December 1865 Radical Republicans called for the overthrow of the governments established under President Johnson39s Reconstruction policy and the establishment of new ones with black men as well as white allowed to vote Moderate Republicans still hoping to work with the president rejected this plan Following their lead Congress adopted two bills one extending the life of the Freedmen39s Bureau the second the Civil Rights Act of 1866 guaranteeing blacks39 equality before the law short of the suffrage Find out more about the Freedman39s Bureau Johnson39s veto of these measures moved many moderates into the radical camp and inaugurated a bitter conflict over control of Reconstruction policy which culminated in 1868 when he was nearly removed from office by impeachment In 1866 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act over Johnson39s veto and proceeded to approve the Fourteenth Amendment which forbade states to deprive any citizen of the quotequal protection of the lawsquot the first Constitutional guarantee of the principle of equal civil rights regardless of race 0Read the 14th Amendment Read the Civil Ri hts Bill of 1866 Read the 15th Amendment tt ensure tederat brbteettbn Bf VDUHQ rtdnts Nevertnetess at a ttme wnen bnty seven nbrtnern states attbwed btaeks tb Vbte tne Ft eenth Amendment represented a stdntneant steb tbward tedat Equahty 14 This elaborate allegory with religious overtones embodies the lofty ideals associated with the early years of Reconstruction The United States depicted as a colossal pavillion is literally being reconstructed as the old columns of slavery are replaced with Justice Liberty and Education The heavens are filled with portraits of American heroes from the North and South including John C Calhoun Daniel Webster and Abraham Lincoln Below is a vignette with black and white infants sleeping beneath an American eagle holding a streamer that reads quotAll men are born free and equalquot Thaddeus Stevens The most prominent Radical Republican in Congress during Reconstruction Thaddeus Stevens 1792 1868 was born and educated in New England He moved as a young man to Pennsylvania where he practiced law became an iron manufacturer and entered politics Stevens served several terms in the legislature where he won renown as an advocate of free public education He also championed the rights of Pennsylvania39s black population A delegate to the Pennsylvania constitutional convention of 1838 he refused to sign the document because it limited voting to whites As a Congressman Stevens during the Civil War urged the administration to free and arm the slaves and by 1865 favored black suffrage in the South He became one of Andrew Johnson39s fiercest critics and an early advocate of his impeachment To Stevens Reconstruction offered an opportunity to create a quotperfect republicquot based on the principle of equal rights for all citizens As floor leader of House Republicans he helped to shepherd Reconstruction legislation through Congress although he thought much of it too moderate His plan for confiscating the land of Confederate planters and dividing it among Northern settlers and the former slaves failed to pass Thaddeus Stevens is buried in a small cemetery in Lancaster Pennsylvania His tombstone has this inscription I repose in this quiet and secluded spot Not from any natural preference for solitude But finding other Cemeteries limited as to Race by Charter Rules I have chosen this that I might illustrate in my death The Principles which I advocated Through a lon life EQUALITY OF MAN BEFORE HIS CREATOR Learn more about Thaddeus Stevens39 grave In 1865 Congress established the Freedmen39s Bureau to provide assistance to former slaves Union Army general Oliver 0 Howard was the Bureau39s Commissioner Among other responsibilities bureau agents negotiated labor contracts and settled disputes between black and white Southerners The Bureau39s jurisdiction in civil matters eventually became a point of controversy The National Debate Over Reconstruction Impeachment and the Election of Grant The breach between President and Congress inaugurated a period of bitter debate over Reconstruction Congress failed in 1868 to remove Johnson from office but the election of Ulysses S Grant as his successor guaranteed that Reconstruction as established by the Republican party would continue Despite strong appeals to racial prejudice and the principle of states rights by Johnson39s supporters the Northern electorate gave Republicans a resounding triumph in the elections of 1866 The following March Congress enacted the Reconstruction Act over Johnson39s veto placing the South under temporary military rule The law extended the vote to Southern black men while temporarily depriving many white leaders of the rights to vote and hold office The Reconstruction Act launched the period of Congressional or Radical Reconstruction which lasted until 1877 The conflict between President Johnson and Congress did not end with the passage of the Reconstruction Act When in February 1868 Johnson removed Secretary of War Edwin M Stanton in violation of the recently enacted Tenure of Office Act he was impeached by the House of Representatives The Senate failed by one vote to remove him from office Shortly after the trial the Republicans nominated Ulysses S Grant the North39s greatest war hero for president Grant defeated Democrat Horatio Seymour in the election of 1868 President Johnson39s ability to work with Congress and his public popularity ended as he followed a plan of Reconstruction that gave Southern whites a free hand in establishing new governments that threatened to reduce African Americans to a condition similar to slavery After Johnson vetoed several Reconstruction measures passed by Congress his opponents charged him with autocratic behavior One disgruntled citizen registered his opinion of Andrew Johnson by mocking him as quotking Read Johnson39s Veto of the Civil Rights Bill Read Johnson39s Veto of the First 39 Act The national debate over reconstruction and in particular the Freedman39s Bureau is evident in a campaign broadside from Pennsylvania39s gubernatorial campaign of 1866 This cartoon39s racist imagery played upon public fears that government assistance would benefit indolent freed men at the expense of white workers Much of the debate over Reconstruction swirled around the Freedman39s Bureau and efforts to extend suffrage to non whites Political cartoons used racist imagery to reflect Democratic charges that government assistance would benefit indolent freedman at the expense of whites and linking suffrage for blacks with the enfranchisement of Chinese immigrants and Native Americans shouldered by George C Gorham Republican candidate for governor of California in 1867 On February 25 1868 the House Managers of Impeachment led by Thaddeus Stevens and John A Bing ham of Ohio went before the US Senate to present eleven articles of impeachment against President Andrew Johnson The case rested on Johnson39s removal of Secretary of War Edwin M Stanton from office but in reality grew out of congressional disapproval of Johnson39s Reconstruction policies On May 26 1868 the Senate voted 35 19 to convict Johnson one vote short of the two thirds necessary to remove him from office The House Board of Managers for the impeachment of Andrew Johnson included standing from left to right James F Wilson Iowa George S Boutwell Massachusetts John Logan Illinois seated from left Benjamin F Butler Massachusetts Thaddeus Stevens Pennsylvania Thomas E Williams Pennsylvania and John A Bingham Ohio Tennessee voters reelected Andrew Johnson to the Senate in 1874 He died however within a few months of his return to Washington He was buried wrapped in the American flag with his head resting on a copy of the Constitution 17 Ulysses S Grant chose Schuyler Colfax former speaker of the House as his running mate in the 1868 presidential campaign quotLet us have peacequot the last line of Grant39s letter accepting the nomination became the Republicans39 campaign slogan The 1868 presidential campaign revolved around the issues of Reconstruction The Democrats39 nominee Horatio Seymour ran on a platform opposing Reconstruction quotThis Is A White Man39s Governmentquot became the slogan of a Democratic campaign that openly appealed to racial fears and prejudice Political cartoonist Thomas Nast ridiculed the Democratic party as a coalition of Irish immigrants left white supremacists like Nathan Bedford Forrest leader of the Ku Klux Klan center and Northern capitalists represented by Horatio Seymour right Nast39s cartoon depicted Democrats as the oppressors of the black race represented by a black Union soldier felled while carrying the American flag and a ballot box Reconstruction Government in the South Under the terms of the Reconstruction Act of 1867 Republican governments came to power throughout the South offering blacks for the first time in American history a genuine share of political power These governments established the region39s first public school systems enacted civil rights laws and sought to promote the region39s economic development The coming of black suffrage under the Reconstruction Act of 1867 produced a wave of political mobilization among African Americans in the South In Union Leagues and impromptu gatherings blacks organized to demand equality before the law and economic opportunity Blacks were joined by white newcomers from the North called quotcarpetbaggersquot by their political opponents And the Republican party in some states attracted a considerable number of white Southerners to whom Democrats applied the name quotscalawagquot mostly Unionist small farmers but including some prominent plantation owners By 1870 the former Confederate states had been readmitted to the Union under new constitutions that marked a striking departure in Southern government For the first time in the region39s history state funded public school systems were established as well as orphan asylums and other facilities The new governments passed the region39s first civil rights laws reformed the South39s antiquated tax system and embarked on ambitious and expensive programs of economic development hoping that railroad and factory development would produce a prosperity shared by both races Composed of slave ministers artisans and Civil War veterans and blacks who had been free before the Civil War a black political leadership emerged that pressed aggressively for an end to the South39s racial caste 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