THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN CITY
THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN CITY URSP 315
Virginia Commonwealth University
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dillan Heidenreich Sr. on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to URSP 315 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Lee Householder in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/230598/ursp-315-virginia-commonwealth-university in Urban Studies at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
A Brief History of Human Settlement 120332009 45000 PM The Genographic Project a 5 year project that begins to track our origins and where we ve come from o Comes from DNA samples all over the world o Talks about the millions of years it took to travel across the globe o Can track DNA back to Mesopotamia see where ppl came from 6000BC to 700AD Human Settlement Time Line o Using cause and effect principle to explain eras and how they come after one another Carrying Capacity largest number of individuals of a particular species that can survive over long periods of time in a given environment o For the first time in human history we have to change the way we act not just move to the next place People went from Africa up to the Middle East needed to find water food fertile land found present day Iraq to the Red SeaMediterranean and the Fertile Crescent fed by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers FERTILE CRESCENT o It hadhas one of the most diverse and extensive food ecosystems in the world 0 Herding animals 0 Fish 0 Edible plants o Seasonal Settlements 10000BC first humans were hunters and gatherers they would migrate between areas and when they used them up they would switch 0 Populations survives on hunting fishing gathering living in temporary seasonal environments 0 From 10000 to 9000BC o Agriculture and Herding 9000BC 8000BC Mesopotamia was filled with everything you needed to live 0 Cause people developed ag and herding 0 Effect a steady supply of food was available o Storage Pits and Tokens 8000BC 7ZSOBC found clay pits where they would dig out and put clay that would dry in the sun in it and they would seal it so they could store food for later 0 They marked the kind of food they would find in the pits with rocks a rock with 3 dots means there would be 3 bushels of food in the pit o Storage Pottery 7ZSOBC 6000BC 0 Pottery basic simple handmade pottery used primarily for food storage Fire hardened clay a good way to store food You can TRANSPORT your food meaning you begin to see trading food Crucial Characteristic of ancient pottery Sealings like ties lids Mark the seals with what food was in it using rock markers 0 Pottery reaches a development milestone the pottery wheel 0 O Bowls cups large transportation jars faster bigger easy storage etc Cause a steady supply of food was available Effect development of permanent housing Housing can be warmer more permanent o Drought Trade and the Temple 6000BC 5000BC O O O 0 Around 6000BC a huge climate change in africa and the middle east Farmers were forced down from the hills and mountains into the river basins where water was more available As more people moved into closer proximity of one another trade became logistically more applicable and profitable As trade increased people begin to specialize in professions like craftsman farmers shop keepers etc As some river basins grew in population 300500 the local inhabitants began associating with the common local deity or religious practice until finally the area itself was directly linked with a specific diety 3 or 4 villages of 200 people would associate with the moon god have a good harvest connect on more than trade and begin worshipping the same deities As the inhabitants of a large settlement specialized in labor and religion flourished building types specialized as well Irrigation 5000BC 4000BC 0 Not safe because of flooding disease too many people they start spreading out but the rain is not hitting the people who have spread out 0 Farmers were forced to increase yields because Overcrowding in the river basin Drought Rivers unpredictable flooding patterns 0 So they start to take water out of the river to further reaching areas Writing 4000BC 3SOOBC o The clay tokens and seals are a root of money management trade bartering what people are getting for it Cuneiform first samples of writing they would mark markings on those things on the clay sealings they would stick them on the pots for writing Tablets most were just squashed pottery 0 Cause development of permanent housing 0 Effect beginnings of government THE CITY 3SOOBC O 0 WHAT DEFINES A CITY o Population stratification been there a long time o big business craft specialization o pro sports teams monumental architecture o high rises monumental architecture o airport transportation network o government above a tribal center o writing FIRST CITIES MESOPOTAMIA o Ur 4000BC writing priests shop keepers rivers o Ziggurat the temple for Ur o Uruk 37SOBC also had a ziggurat o Hamoukar Syria 3SOOBC o Jericho Israel 3000BC Athens Greece 1SOOBC Varanasi India 1ZOOBC Xi An China 11008C Rome Italy 753BC Ticul Mexico 7OOBC Paris France ZSOBC New York 1620 VIDEO ON NEW YORK Athens rome Babylon all influenced NY Colossus of Rhodes in Greece compared to the statue of liberty Producing enough water for people is challenge Water drilling plumbing baths sewage Aqueducts in rome January 27th 332009 45000 PM Imagine humankind s sojourn on Earth as a 24 our day o Settlements of more than a hundred people are only about half an hour old The first cities Urban hearth areas What features characterized the Urban Revolution The Greek City Western civilization and Western cities trace their roots to ancient Greece Cities spread throughout the Mediterranean to the north shore of Africa to Spain southern France and Italy The agora was the province of the citizens 0 Foot transportation people walking and interacting o The car changes everything disconnection in a way they ruined the city What was the most significant achievement of the Greeks 0 Social organization known as the polis or citystate government What else Small populations How was Rome similar to Greece Social Organization Basic city planning functions 0 How were they different Rome was power Greece was 0 0 Roman cities o Adopted many urban traits form the Greeks and the Etruscans o City life diffused to areas that had not previously been urbanized o Most cities were established as military castra and trading outposts 0 Focal points for collection of local agriculture products 0 Supply centers for the military o Roman city landscapes o The forum a zone combining elements of the Greek acropolis and agora Placed at o Rome s most important legacy was the Roman method for choosing city sites 0 Remains applicable today Consistently chose sites with transportation in mind Empire held together by a complicated system of roads and highways o In choosing a new site for settlement Romans first considered access while other cultures places emphasis on defensive locations 0 Numerous old Roman town sites were refounded centuries later Paris London and Vienna o The Roman Empire was in major decline by the o What was the impact of the fall of Rome Localities became isolated Had to selfsufficient o What was the result Revival of towns O O The Medieval City o Medieval period lasted roughly from AD 1000 to 1500 0 Time of renewed urban expansion in Europe 0 Urban life spread north and east in Europe o Revival of local and longdistance trade resulted from a combination of factors 0 Population increases Political stability and unification 0 Trading networks required protected markets and supply centers functions that renewed life in cities 0 Longdistance trading led to the development of a new class of people the merchant class o Functional Zonation of medieval cities differed from that of modern cities 0 Divided into small quarters o What had a major impact on the expansion of urban development of the 14th century 0 The Black Plague The Renaissance and Baroque Periods o Form and function of the city o A national capital city rose to prominence in most countries 0 Provincial cities were subject to its tastes o Height of baroque planning between 1600 and 1800 o During the 18005 Napoleon III carried out a building plan in Paris 0 Cobblestone streets carefully paved to prevent loose ammunition for rioting Parisians o Streets were straightened and widened and culdesacs broken down to give army space to maneuver Western Civilization knew what to do when it got here because they could observe Greece and Rome and cultural amenities and stuff that s why America and other places got off to a great start February 3rd 332009 45000 PM 1 City Evolution Project Choose a major US City which the next 3 assignments will be based upon Pick a city that you are familiar with or interested in so finding information and data will be easier and more interesting a City Overview Essay Then prepare a 3page descriptive essay in which you describe your City Discuss important aspects such as geographic location history of your City important economic factors such as major employers andor noticeableprominent physical features such as parks and public transportation All written assignments should have the following 1 1 margins at top bottom left and right margins 2 15 line spacing 3 12 point font Images should be placed on reference pages and NOT used in the body of the text Assignment Due Date February 10th The City Beautiful 332009 45000 PM February 17 2009 Problem industrialization brought a bunch of people into the city which created a bunch of problems so now we have to overturn that PreMovement o Substandard housing not regulated by the government no sanitation running water o Street full of sewage trash and dead animals o Most valuable properties on the top floors fresh air noise smell o Created the tenementdumbbell building 0 Spawned one of the first serial killers in the US he was a census taker traveling on the rooftops 0 Book Devil in the White City Defining the Movement City is all of our Home people started looking at 2 big areas for improvement o Landscape Architecture 0 1873 Central Park finished Slums growing worse conditions desire to make an open nice environment 0 Monument Avenue w lots of trees o Architecture more technological o 1890 Rand McNally Building built with steel infrastructure 1St skyscraper It was really ugly they tore it down 0 1891 Rookery Building in Chicago steel but it was beautiful and very open on the inside fresh air light healthiness one of the most influential buildings World s Columbian Expo The first thing that culminated all the things going on around the world every country would host a fair o One of the first mass scale events o It was for countries to show off and exposition 0 Chicago and New York put together packages to appeal to the Expo and Chicago won so they could host the Expo They only gave them a year to build something amazing for the world to come see Put together Olmsted and Burnham who Olmsted did Central Park FL Wright Burnstam were on the team They could not throw together something like the Eiffel Tower so rather they put together what a city could look like No particular American design yet so they threw together a melting pot of architecture train stations waterworks Show the world what America is going to look like in the future a It works but the facades were totally fake Marble Stone steel buildings with nothing in the inside a Statues ferris wheel ponds and pools pretty outsides of buildings A lot of entertainment and art came out of it 0 0 Post Fair Effects o Everyone went home after the fair and they were all psyched about it engaged civic organizations to beautify everyone s city 0 Washington DC 1901 became really beautiful all these malls and monuments and open spaces and everything Built on a swamp started with slave labor then perfected o Bunch of civic organizations started Clean water of Richmond n Sanitary thing of Denver n Le Corbusier Tower in the Park 1930 o His concept was a big garden city where we all lived in boxes and walked outside into a green park perfection o Specialized professions and no wasted space for horse stables and stuff o All ended around 1930 which was start of WWII stopped that kind of thinking and we just had to build houses