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by: Emely McClure


Emely McClure
Virginia Commonwealth University
GPA 3.85

Marcus Messner

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Marcus Messner
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emely McClure on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MASC 151 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Marcus Messner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/230625/masc-151-virginia-commonwealth-university in Mass Media Communication at Virginia Commonwealth University.

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Date Created: 10/28/15
Chapter 1 Historical paths of global communication Key The Evol Pre Agri points Evolution of media Printingpress Internationalnetworks Electronic revolution impact on communication Information society in which were living today world is flat Tom Friedman Globalization 30 where were living today Technology is erasing national boundaries China India other countries now compete for jobs business main competitors of US ution of the media Preagricultural society Agricultural society Industrial society Information society agricultural society 6K yea rs ago Small groups Hunters and gathers Communication happened through oral tradition spoken words cultural society Starts around 4K BC More settled more complex Writing specialized function only performed by the elite Handcopied books Only elite can read and write Industrial society Gutenberg s press Mass production of books mass production of goods Literacy urbanization created a greater demand for literacy as people had to be able to function with complicated machinery and within a mass media environment Trickling effect Bibles democracy spreading of ideas bringing complex ideas to the common people Newspapers mass media Need to advertise business vehicle Information society Dominant medium computer also meaning cell phone Early 1980s with Apple Convergence of old media with new digital media Transformation of the mass media experience Question is what comes after the information society Part 2 Historical paths of global communication Prin Only few literate people in the Middle Ages Writing and recording information was an elite function Clerics drafted legal documents and letters Changed with printing press and postal service allowed literacy for common people 0 8 h century China 0 1450 Gutenberg s printing press changed how we communicate and keep information ting Press and Literacy Printer in Mainz Germany Attempted to print bibles for local churches Produced movable metal type for 50 characters Printing on both side of paper Farreaching social consequences of printing press 0 Encouraged common people to read 0 Sparked social and political changes ideas about democracy against ruling classes 0 Rise of quotpublic opinion common people were suddenly able to communicate across greater distances 0 Reformation of institution religion and gov t Development of printing 0 1450 o 1868 Linotype great advance in printing increased speed and efficiency 0 1946 offset printingwidely used in 20 century Postal service 0 Regulated delivery at accessible cost for growing middle class 0 Market for newspaper International networks Isolated countries merge into global networks in the mid19 h century 0 Telegraph telephone radio lead into the information age 0 Railroad and telegraph bring parts of the nation closer together Communication bt nations in 19 h century increases Development of international standards in order to communicate has to be standards Intergovernmental science ventures 1860 international usage of chemical symbols defined at meeting in Germany 1865 international telegraph union formed 1875 universal postal union 1889 91 international meetings at World Expo Networks needed to be established in order to be able to use telegraphs or send letters at an international level International meetings were used to regulate and make international communication possible 1879 International Regulation of Sea Routes 1884 Global time system 0 Meridian in Greenwich UK 0 In exchange metric system accepted as basis for international exchange Part 3 Electronic revolution Telegraph o Invented by Morse in 1844 o By 1859 connected coast to coast in US Telephone 0 Invented by Bell in 1876 0 Turned communication into an international business 0 Technology and business Not in text book Bell companies ATSLT Bell faced competition Vertical integration Used its power as a monopoly Universal service 1913 Antitrust actions by FCC Breakup and creation of RBOCs 1984 Couple of years ago Bell south and ATampT were allowed to merge so ATampT has become a bigger player in today s telecommunications market but it does not maintain a monopoly bc of other competitors Electronic revolution Scientific innovations launch industrial revolution 0 Steam powered boats and trains o 1866 transatlantic line operational I News travels in 48 hrs across Atlantic Guglielmo Marconi Italian 0 1896 wireless telegraph Radio Act of 1912 0 Regulation of the airwaves 0 Department of commerce Radio Corporation of America RCA 0 1919 development of radio business 0 Patent dispute leads to RCA Global immediacy Communication across distances is a power tools that can lead to social changes We spend most of our time using media 0 TV radio newspapers books magazines music home video video games the Internet Our information society Consuming media 39 Sleep 29 Work 23 Everything else 9 Time spent consuming and creating media Information workers dominant the work force Production of information is even a leisure activity blogs phone emails What s merging Technologies BUT there is a digital divide not necessarily available on all parts of the world Lecture 2 Ch 2 Global Communication Theories What is a theory Theorizing 0 Thinking carefully and with focus about something 0 Drawing explanations to problems to our field 0 What does media concentration mean I Eg News Corporation owned by Murdock effect of concentration process on freedom of expression media usage or globalization o What effect does media coverage have don t think about it in US as much bc it doesn t affect us as much American media companies dominant national media countries I Eg framing of African nations how are they portrayed Unrest revolution dictatorship famine etc no news stories that portrays normal life Normative theories Four theories of the press 1956 Siebert Initial attempt to drive normative theories describe the words media systems Separated world s media systems in 4 diff types 0 Authoritarian o Soviet 0 Liberal 0 Social responsibility Allows us to compare US media system to other nations Authoritarian model Dictatorial system formal fascist regimes in Germany and Italy No media messages are transmitted or printed without the consent of gov t Nationalistic ideology Media are state regulated and censored Soviet model Communist dictatorships formerly in Russia and Eastern Europe Communist ideology quotjust and equal society Media are state regulated and censored very little difference in how freedom of expression are treated bt authoritarian model and soviet model Liberal Model Not meant to describe left wing model but free market based United States and Europe Media are a business with moneymaking priorities Not state run or censored Eg Time Warner Disney there to make profit they are businesses based on free market successful because they found an audience that wanted to consume their products Social responsibility model more idealistic Media operations with capitalist dynamic committed to serve public s need Government and business watchdog Seen as the best model by the authors Eg BBC not run to make a profit not government controlled Part 2 Comparing media systems News and information are primary roles of media underlying assumption BUT 0 Not necessarily true news and info may be most important 0 Most of our time is spent consuming media but not most of the time for news 0 This view ignores the entertainment function of the media Social responsibility seen as democratic duty of media 0 Ethically inspired decisions for the public good 0 But questionable whether media companies actually follow these proposed guidelines I Time warner not for public good instead driven by profits and dividends for shareholders 0 Additional models developed Development model gt Media address poverty health care literacy and education in the Third WorldDeveloping Nations latin America asia etc b Responsibility for informing the public v eg Aids campaigns b Fostering sense of nationhoodsense of nationhood in countries that have many different ethnic groups Participatory model b Smallscale local media often more democratically organized selfgoverned v Community stations v Closely involved in life of community v No topdown leadership structure gt Some of these you find also in authoritarian media systems where they really give an alternative for the state run censored media entities Shortcomings of models gt Soviet and development model often intersected v Too often dominated by authoritarian regimes development media is not necessarily democratic but it helps countries to address health issues education literacy so these issues are addressed within a country but media entities are not necessarily free b Liberal model most dominant v No leveled playing field for media v Media giants dominate global media markets time warner Disney b Objectivity of media questionable v Objectivity Middle point between two opposing views if we were to demand objective media reporting in US then much of coverage would have to look different v Patriotism US in a war see reporting in standpoint of US no objectivity in global level national view always plays a role ex CNN at global level is not seen as objective but as a news entity that reports in view of US b Challenge of today s global media environment v Profitability vs social responsibility global media market dominated by profitability but some like BBC do not work under pressure of being profitable and can take on socially responsible standpoint and not be influenced by business and provide quality programming Part 3 Four theories of the press Developed in 1950s during height of cold war These theories do not take into account great media markets developing in Asia China India and they will have an influence in how global communication will shape in the next couple of decades Comparing and Contrasting media models gt Other media systems differ considerably from US v eg former Soviet Union government runcensored nothing is published without consent in US media functions as watchdog of government b Important to analyze the relationship of mainstream media to v Political power v Economic crisis v Dramatic social transitions v Smallscale alternative media Political Power gt Control and censorship in Soviet media 4 Close watch on opposing tendencies no press freedom v Media executives were party members v Interventions of the KGB secret service of soviet union 4 But difficulty to produce credible media PravdaPravda was main newspaper low credibility because it just reported on line of communist party v Samizdat pamphlets served as alternative to state run media very small scale though gt Are Western media s plausibility and credibility tougher to questionex do media in US or western Europe closely aligned to gov t do they have more freedom And how can their credibility be questioned They are held at fairly low credibility in the public eye journalists have low public standing Economic Crisis gt Daily experience for Russians since 1980s especially after fall of communism b Russian media were silent on causes of economic crises or pointed fingers at IMF international monetary fund gt Do Western media adequately report on economic crises2008 financial crisis did media report when economic crisis developed or were they intertwined with wall street and interests of financial market Dramatic social transitions gt Major transitions in Russia Part 4 4 Communist 1917 revolution Encouragement to free expression Stalin forced quotSoviet progress 194145 WWII Media constantly change tune under Stalin 1984 gave inspiration for the novel 1984 But also different framing in US media for example war US media falls in support behind US gov t then after war is over you see a lot of questioning of the motives and what went wrong Iraq 1980s Glasnost Media reform Challenge to status quo change in gov t that brought a lot of reform 1990s Economic chaos created by downfall of soviet union Free print sector enjoys more freedom than broadcasts Government controlled TV Still far from free democratic media system a lot ofjournalists are killed in Russia gt Do Western media report on their own dramatic transition does American media report on dramatic transitions not a lot of reporting on social transitions Smallscale alternative media b Samizdat media in Soviet Russia alternative to state run gov t small opposition V Selfpublished pamphlets essays novels audio cassettes banned by communist regime gt Western radio BBC Voice of America read samizdat on the air


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