BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS BIOL 101
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This 75 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alysha Quigley on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Adam Chupp in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/230647/biol-101-virginia-commonwealth-university in Biology at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Cellular Respiration 10142009 111000 AM Oxidation Stage 2 Pyruvate is oxidized in the mitochondria NAD is reduced to NADH Carbon dioxide is released Each of the two pyruvate molecules from glycolysis have become 2 carbon molecules Acety groups are carried to the Kreb s cycle by Coenzyme A forming AcetylCoA 0 Only the Acetyl group enters the Krebs cyceCoA is just a taxi cab Kreb s Cycle Citric Acid Cycle Glucose Begins with Acetyl and a 4 carbon molecule oxaloacetate Takes place in the mitochondrial matrix It consists of nine enzymecatalyzed reactions that can be divided into three stages 0 Stage 1 Acetyl binds to oxaloacetate 0 Stage 2 Two carbons are removed as C02 0 Stage 3 The fourcarbon starting material oxaloacetate is regenerated Remember Glucose creates 2 Acetyl therefore 2 turns of the cycle Summary 0 AcetylOxaoacetateCitric Acid Citrate 0 Carbon Dioxide released during cycle 0 1ATP 1 FADHZ and 3 NADH molecules produced from one Acetyl molecule 0 Result 2 ATP 2 FADHZ and 6 NADH from Krebs Glucose is consumed in the process of cellular respiration o For every glucose molecule 6 molecules of C02 are released 0 Its energy is preserved in 4 ATP molecules 10 NADH electron carriers 2 FADHZ electron carriers 10142009 111000 AM Membrane Transport 9162009 110700 AM Plasma Membrane o Functions 0 Isolate cytoplasm from external environment 0 Regulate Transport 0 Communicate with other cells 0 Mitigate possible threats o Phospholipid bilayer proteins and cholesterol are permanent structural components of the plasma membrane Membrane Transport o Cells consume water macromolecules and even other cells o Cells excrete waste o These materials must be able to cross the membrane boundary 0 Diffusion and osmosis Passive o Facilitated diffusion Passive 0 Active Transport Active 0 EndocytosisExocytosis Active o Simple Diffusion is the movement of a solute in solution from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached 0 Nonpolar hydrophobic molecules lipid soluble and small uncharged polar molecules H20 C02 0 Five Principles of Diffusion Down a concentration gradient The greater the concentration the faster the rate Continues until gradient is eliminated Does not work well over long distances Lighter weight substances diffuse faster 0 Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane until the concentration of water is equal Hypertonic solutioncauses water to leave the cell Hypotonic solutioncauses water to enter the cell Isotonic solutionequal Membrane Proteins o Receptor ProteinsMolecular triggers that set off cellular responses when specific molecules ie hormones in the extra cellular fluid bind to them Recognition ProteinsIdentification tags on the cell surface Recognize foreign of invading cells and destroy glycoproteins Transport Proteins Regulate the movement of most watersoluble molecules through the plasma membrane Channel amp Carrier proteins Facilitated Diffusion 0 Channel proteins allow the flow of charged ions across the plasma membrane down concentration gradients 0 Carrier proteins grab a specific molecule on one side and carry it to the other side amino acids sugars 9162009 110700 AM Cellular Reproduction 9212009 113900 AM Cell cycle o Eukaryotes have a complex cell cycle 0 Interphase Presynthesis growth DNA Replication Postsynthesis growth Majority of the cell s life cycle is spent in interphase Cell Division o Mitosis nuclear division 0 Only divides what is in the nucleus o Cytokinesis cytoplasmic division o Chromosomes o Composed of chromatin DNA carefully wound around histones proteins 0 Most organisms carry one trait gene from each parent diploid o Homologous pairs carry similar traits 0 Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes 0 Each member of a homologous pair is replicated prior to mitosisS phase Condensation 0 Cell division begins at the end of interphase after DNA replication 0 Chromosomes condense before division Mitosis 0 Purpose For tissue growth Produces identical diploid cells o Mitosis is nuclear division Karyokinesis o Prophase 0 Nuclear envelope breaks down 0 Mitotic spindle forms o Metaphase 0 Line up chromosomes on the equator end to end o Anaphase 0 Sister Chromatids separate Telophase o The nuclear envelope is reconstructed Cytokinesis is the final step in cell reproduction Cytoplasmic division Daughter cells are identical to the parents Meiosis O 0 Nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes is halved Results in haploid sperm or egg cells gametes It is not mitosis somatic cells It is all about gonads germline cell Sets stage for fertilization Haploid 1n gametes Syngamy fertilization Diploid 2n zygote Meiosis has two rounds of cell division Meiosis 1 n Prophase 1 o Germline cell in the gonads o Homologous pairs become intertwined o The may exchange large sequences of DNA genes o Swapping genetic material crossing over results in recombination n Metaphase 1 o Alignment of homologous pairs on the equator is random and uninfluenced by other pairs o Independent Assortment adds another layer to genetic diversity n Anaphase 1 o Homologous pairs are separated o Sister chromatids remain intact n Telophase 1 o Haploid cells Meiosis 2 n n n n n n sister chromatids are separated Similar to Mitosis except Meiosis begins with 2 haploid cells and ends with 4 haploid cells Prophase 2 Metaphase 2 Anaphase 2 Telophase 2 9212009 113900 AM Chapter 2 8262009 112100 AM Atoms o The chemistry of life o Atomic Theory the concept of the atom 0 Born in Ancient Greece 500 BC 0 All matter is made up of tiny invisible particles they named atomos o Matter has mass and occupies space 0 Mattercomposed of chemical elements atoms 0 Elementhas quantifiable characteristics and cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions o Atomic Structure the nature of the atom o Atomsmallest unit which retains the physical and chemical properties of an element indivisible o Nucleus composed of protons and neutrons Surrounded by cloud of electrons Both protons and neutrons have roughly the same mass 1 Dalton o Elements 0 Atomic Number of protons 0 Atomic MassWeight Mass of protons and neutrons combined 0 All atoms of an element have the same atomic number and weight mass 0 Isotopeatoms must have a certain number of protons to retain the characteristics of a given element but the number of neutrons sometimes varies Are unstable and decay at a constant rate halflife Carob Dating tome for 50 of radioactive atoms in a sample to decay o Radiometric Dating 0 Similar to a carbon dating but uses isotopes of other elements which have much longer half lives After mineralization the radioactive atoms begin to decay All methods provide evidence for a very old earth Approximately 46 billion yrsold The oldest fossils are 35 billion yrsold o Electrons O O O Electrons orbit around nucleus drawn by positive charge of protons Number of electrons in the valence outermost shell dictates the reactivity of the atom Usually match the number of protons Chemical Bond 0 Atoms will accept donate or share electrons with other atoms to fill the valence shell and become stable Chemical Bondsattractive forces between atoms that result in the accepting donating and sharing of electrons Bonding Capacitynumber of bonds atoms will form Depends on valence shell want to fill Octet Rulevalence shell is full when it contains 8 electrons most stable Molecule two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds ex 03 NaCl Compoundsubstances composed of two or more different atoms ex NaCl Ionic Bonds 0 Ions are atoms in which the number of electrons does not equal that of protons Cationsif electron is lost the atom has a positive charge Anionif electron is gained the atom has a negative charge Ionic BondsAtoms held together by electrostatic attraction between cation and anion Involves complete transfer of electrons Ionic Bonding Na becomes Cl becomes Resulting compound neutral Bonds weak Covalent Bonds 0 Chemical bond formed between two atoms by the sharing of electrons Strength of bond increases a Strong n H2OZ n H20 n Molecule is neutral a Can be polar 0 Polar Covalent Bonds One atoms of a molecule attracts electrons more strongly than other atom unequal sharing Molecule still electrically neutral but has changed parts One end pole slightly negative vice versa o Hydrogen Bonds 0 Occur when the hydrogen atom of one polar molecule is attracted to the atom of another polar molecule 8262009 112100 AM Macromolecules 922009 110300 AM Monomera single molecule Polymer a chain of similar molecules polymers are macromolecules Cellular Structure a complete body of polymers with a specific function Dehydration Synthesis o Covalent bonds in organic molecules are formed H20 is released and energy stored Hydrolysis o Covalent bonds in organic molecules are broken H20 is consumed and energy is released Organisms are primarily made of four kinds organic macromolecules o Nucleic Acids 0 Serve three functions Genetic Code DNA Reading Genetic Code RNA Cellular Energy ATP 0 Composed of Nucleotides 5 carbon sugar phosphate group Nitrogenous base 0 Four types of nitrogenous bases and therefore there are four types of nucleotides Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine The genetic code IS the basenucleotide sequence Deoxyribose sugar and phosphate make the backbone RNA is similar to DNA with 3 exceptions Ribose is the sugar instead of deoxyribose RNA is a single strand Uracil replaces Thymine 0 Flow of Genetic Information Nucleus transcribed into RNA 9 RNA Cytoplasm translated into a protein Cellular Energy 0 O O O Used for the transfer of energy ADPeeATP Energy currency in all organisms 0 Summary Proteins Greek word proteios mean first place Complex molecules that have a wide variety of functions Instrumental in almost everything organisms do Most abundant biomolecule Rubisco 100000 proteins are assembled from 20 amino acids 0 0 Nucleic Acids are composed of nucleotides DNA Sequence is used to construct amino acid sequence aka protein ATPenergy Amino Acids peptide consist of a carbon an amino group a carboxyl a hydrogen and a functional group Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds Long chains of amino acids are called polypeptides several make a protein The shape of the protein structure determines its function Primary structure amino acid sequence Secondary structure hydrogen bonding between amino acids Tertiary structure 3D structure of one polypeptide Quaternary structure several polypeptides together in a single protein Contractile MotionActin Myosin Biological Catalyst Enzymes MetabolicLysozyme Transport other substancesChannel and carrier proteins IMPs Hemoglobin DefenseAntibodies AntigensIsotypes Ig RegulatoryHormonalInsulinGlucagon Extreme changes in pH and temp can cause proteins to denature Break Hydrogen bonds Summary Made of amino acids Carbo O O O O Lipids O O Shapefunction Lots of functions hydrates Short Term Energy Storage Structural framework of cells Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharides and disaccharides a Short term energy storage between cells and tissues n More important energy source a Food broken down into these Complex Carbohydrates Two types a Storage polysaccharides o Intermediate duration energy storage storage glycogen n Structural polysaccharides o Protective and structural elements cellulose chitin Not Water Soluble Summary Carbohydrates are derived from food originally plants They can be altered by enzymes to store or release energy Structural carbohydrates are not digestable Made from fatty acids which are composed of hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group at one end Lipids are nonpolar and insoluable in water There are three types of lipids Fats triglycerides n Saturated animal o 2 hydrogens at every carbon n Unsaturated plant o Most are unsaturated o At least one double bond between carbons Reduces number of hydrogens a Long Term Energy storage o Consist of 3 faqtty acids covalently bonded to a glycerol backbone Phospholipids diglycerides a Cell Membranes n Glycerol backbone n 2 nonpolar fatty acids n Phospholipid bilayer o Polar head is hydrophilic o Non polar tail is hydrophobic o In aqueous solution two layers will form with the tails facing together Steroids n Hydrocarbons with carbon rings instead of a linear arrangement o Cholesterol o Hormones o Testosterone o Estrogen o Progesterone n Binding of steroid hormone to receptor a Translocation of steroidreceptor complex to nucleus n Binding of complex to DNA regulatory site a Transcription n Translation 0 Summary Long Term energy storage triglycerides Basis for cell membranes diglycerides Some function as hormones ie steroids 922009 110300 AM Evolution 1192009 30600 PM Alfred Wallace o Developed and communicated ideas from thousands of miles away o Darwin and Wallace were both naturalists Observing the morphological dietary reproductive and social characteristics of organisms o A generation younger than Darwin Nichewhat you do on a daily basis your habits Voyages c From 18311836 Darwin served as naturalist aboard the HMS Beagle o Wallace voyaged through Malaysia and Indonesia from 1854 to 1862 Influences o Darwin and Wallace were both influenced by Thomas Malthus 1798 Essay on the principles of Population Observations o Island Biogeaography 0 Observed patterns in species characteristics and distribution 0 Island species are more similar in composition to the nearest mainland than they are to distant islands 0 Island populations were founded by small numbers of mainland species which then evolved into distinct species in distinctly different habitats Sumatran Tiger 0 Adaptive Radiation the evolution of species into a diversity of previously unoccupied habitats or niches 0 Species from distinct geographic area are similar because they share a recent common ancestor but differ according to local environmental conditions Species characteristics depend upon ancestry and the environment Conclusion o Preservation of favorable variations is called natural selection 0 Darwin previously believed that all things had existed in perpetuity in accordance with the common romanticized Victorian thought On the Origin of Species challenged the concept of humanity and religious authority The theory of evolution by natural selection was accepted by the scientific community after a century of cross examination o Evidence for Evolution 0 Biogeographical evidence 0 Fossil Evidence Radioisotope dating 0 Anatomical evidence 0 Molecular evidence o Fossil Record 0 Mineralized bones that provide an incomplete record of past fauna Changes in phenotype are documented 0 Transitional species demonstrate common ancestry Radioisotopic decay facilitates accurate dating o Anatomical Record 0 Homologous structures 9 divergent evolution 0 Analogous structures 9 convergent evolution 0 Vestigial structures express ancestral traits o Molecular evidence 0 Amino acid substitutions in a given protein reflect the distance of time since divergence Change through Natural Selection o Genertic variation among individuals o Life is a struggle limiting resources etc o Some phenotypes are favored o Successful phenotypes reproduce o Populations exhibit the successful traits Evolution o Descent with modification 0 Lamarck inheritance of acquired traits individual level Evolving Populations o Variation is introduced by 0 Mutation 0 Gene Flow immigration amp emigration O O 0 Genetic Drift due to chance Lose Traits Rare traits might become common a Bottleneck Effect n Founder Effect 0 Non Random Mating Inbreeding Sexual selection 1192009 30600 PM Elgatgd by Patrick Dierschke 2001 Ph ym nlt HH R p wa m agd wam ag R p wa wy i Patrick Dierschke quot Ema Created by Patrick Dierschke 2001 Column One 100 This electron acceptor molecule accepts the excited electron I What is Chlorophyll 1 m l PM Mi 394ng E mail Patrick Dierschke Column One 200 What is the ow of a photon molecule in the light rxn What is Photosystem II ETC 1 Photosystem I ETC 2 63992 M U willquot in NWT 39 Ml Email Patrick Dierschke Column One 300 What are three molecules that are yield from the light rxn I What is ATP I What is NADPH What is Oxygen 1 m l quot quotMiranquot3 ME JWM Email Patrick Dierschke Column One 400 What s the major purpose of the dark rxn What is To provide the organic molecule from C02 supported by ATP and NADPH l U m it Mary mm 394ng E mail Patrick Dierschke Column Two 100 What two locations are responsible for cell respiration I What is Cytosol What is Mitochondria l UV 39m ilquot lm 9 MINT ll l l E mail Patrick Dierschke Column Two 200 What s the net production of ATP I What is 36 H w t W Mam WU 39 WM Email Patrick Dierschke Column Two 300 Where is ETC located What is Inner Mitochondria H m i Twinquot Mm r 39 139 M Email Patrick Dierschke Column Two 400 This molecule is the ultimate recipient of cell respiration and without this it would go here What s this molecule and where would it go without it I What is 02 What is Fermentation 7 fwjgiclli kWh 3 Midi 39gll i lul E mail Patrick Dierschke Column Three 100 How many chambers do humans heart have What are they I What is 4 What is Atrium or Atria What is Ventricle It Uzfuuiuci UM Huh 394th Email Patrick Dierschke Column Three 200 Veins carry and arteries carry blood I What is deoxygenated What is Oxygenated 1 m t PM ME ywui E mail Patrick Dierschke Column Three 300 List ow of the blood I Superior Inferior vena cava gt right atrium gt tricuspid valve gt right ventricle gt pulmonary valve gt pulmonary artery gt lungs gt pulmonary vein gt left atrium gt bicuspid valve gt left ventricle gt aortic valve gt aorta gt body quota Cl Ug llmj lilli llwizw MINT Jll l ll E mail Patrick Dierschke Column Three 400 Where is the site of diffusion in the blood system and What is it connected by I What is Capillaries What is Arterioles What is Venules it Ur39wi39 Eu Midi NW E mail Patrick Dierschke Column Four 100 List the air pathway I What is Nares gt Nasal Cavity gt PharynX gt LarynX gt Trachea gt Bronchii gt Bronchioles gt Alveoli gt Lung at UV 39MC ini39i MW Mm i 39N39WJ Email Patrick Dierschke Column Four 200 What are three major components of vertebrate gas exchange I What is Moist What is Large in surface area What is Surrounded by capillaries l li39 39llf r lli En Mi 39gll i lul Email Patrick Dierschke Column Four 300 Inhalation and exhalation and the diaphragm movement is called What is Negative Pressure System M UV F39mf lfli39i 179 mm JH H J Email Patrick Dierschke Column Four 400 What are respiratory principles I What is Oxygen containing medium to the moist membrane of the blood gt diffusion of oxygen into the blood gt transport of the oxygen gt diffusion of oxygen from the blood to cells gt C02 is just reverse quota Cl Ew39g39llmj lv ll39i Humquot MINT Jll ill ll E mail Patrick Dierschke W w E mail Patrick Dierschke Final Jeopardy Category Any questions on digestion I What is What is What is H w i Mir W33 39 139 M Email Patrick Dierschke DNA Replication 9212009 105400 AM Semi conservative replication o Occurs during Sphase of interphase o DNA Helicase unzips helix o DNA Polymerase facilitates nucleotide base pair 0 New nucleotides are assembled in 5 to 3 direction RNA Transcription o DNA never leaves the nucleus o RNA facilitates gene DNA expression 0 TranscriptionemRNA ll ll tilel lrilgli l39i wlralllw is n Ribose sugar replaces deoxyribose sugar in the backbone l7 ll quot jlllll quot 39 Th l l39ll HE D M3 nucleotidesbase sequence on mRNA 5 to 3 direction 0 Translation Occurs in the ribosome in ll J 2 n tRNA anticodons pair with mRNA codons to place amino acids in proper sequence o Anticodon3 nucleotidebase sequence on tRNA n The different RNA molecules work together to form the polypeptide chain of amino acids iii llquot u n o Genesegment of DNA that ultimately becomes a specific protein DNA ReplicationMetaphor o Helicase is like a zipper pull and unzips the DNA strand o DNA polymerase is the second zipper pull coming up behind filling in the DNA strand with new DNA DNA TranscriptionMetaphor o Step 1 see above o Base pairing with free floating nucleotides 9212009 105400 AM Reproduction 1142009 110400 AM Asexual Reproduction o Binary fission prokaryotes mostly o Fragmentation or budding o Vegetative propagation o Parthenogenesis 0 Eggs develops without fertilization 0 Polar bodies come together 0 No male gamete needed o Rapid production possiblebut minimizes genetic diversity Sexual Reproduction o Evolved in the sea o Oviparousegg layers o Ovoviviparousegg or live birth o Viviparouslive birth o External fertilization of eggs 0 Most fish and amphibians o Oviparous only o Internal Fertilization 0 Some fish ie sharks 0 All reptiles birds and mammals o Oviparous Ovoviviparous Viviparous Fish o Reproductive Strategy of most fish 0 Overabundance of effs Offspring precocious Little parental investment Few offspring survive to maturity O O O Amphibians o Reproductive strategy of amphibians 0 Similar to most fish Dependent on water Independent larval stage Larvae metamorphose into adults 0 O O Reptiles o Internal Fertilization o Copulatory organs o Oviparous and Ovoviviparous species o Watertight egg shell o Precocious o More parental investment Birds o Reproductive Strategy of Birds 0 O O O O O Mammals Cloacal kiss Similar to egg laying reptiles but Fewer eggs More parental investment More durable shell More altricial o Prototherian Egg Layers o Metatherian Marsupials o Eutherian Placental 0 Large variation in the reproductive strategies of mammals 1142009 110400 AM SI Leader Myung Study Guide Exam 2 DO NOT fully relying on this study guide sheet for this exam use this as a reference guide 0 Membrane Transport Plasma Transport Functions 1 Isolate cytoplasm from external environments 2Communicate with other cells 3Mitigate possible threats 4Regulate Transport 0 Diffusion Five Principles of Diffusion 1 Down a concentration gradient 2 The greater the concentration the faster the diffusion rate 3 Continues until the gradient is eliminated 4 Does not work well over long distances 5 Lighter weight substances diffuse faster HypeItonic Hypotonic Isotonic Causes water to leave the Causes water to enter the Equal gradient on both sides cell cell ofthe cell 0 Know 3 types of membrane proteins from the lecture what they are and their functions Receptor Recognition Transport 0 Receptormolecular triggers that set off cellular responses when specific molecules ie hormones in the extra cellular uid bind to them 0 RecognitionIdentification tags on the cell surface TransportRegulate the movement of most watersoluble molecules through the plasma membrane Channel amp Carrier 0 Passive Active Types Diffusion and Osmosis Active Transport Facilitated Diffusion EndoExocytosis Functions Energy Required no yes How are they regulated Different types 0 DNA Replication RNA Transcription Protein Translation Know the difference between DNA and RNA structures 0 DNA has 2 strands Double Helix RNA Uracil substituted for Thymine Complimentary Pairs AT CG Chargaff s rule James Watson Francis Crick who are they 0 Discovered double helix shape ofDNA Why is it known as semiconservative replication Helicase Pmerase Liggse Primase Unzips helix Facilitates nucleotide base pair when m mummy yuu understand what s g g an n this diagram then yuu are pretty much setlur yuur transcrlptlun and translatiun ll nut teach yuursell aver and aver where they uccur and huwthey uccur r7vvn Function Type of Reproduction Cellular reproduction Sex cell reproduction Creates Diploid cells Haploid sex cells Genetically Chromosome Produces Know all the genetic terms Alleles Genes Locus Chromosome Chromatid Genotype Phenotype Homozygous Heterozygous Dominant Recessive Traits Incomplete Dominance Codominance Testcross Polygenic Pleiotropic Monohybrid Dihybrid Examples Jeopardy SI Session Mendelian Laws 1 Law of Segregation 2 Law of Independent Assortment Energy What is Energy 4 Types of Energy What is Potential Energy What is Kinetic Energy Thermodynamics Laws Digestion 10282009 110200 AM Digestion 4 stages o Ingestion o Digestion Mechanical and Chemical o Absorption o Elimination Digestion Incomplete o Some invertebrates o One digestive cavity o One opening used for both ingestion and elimination Digestion Complete o One way tract has evolvedalimentary canal o Mouth 0 Gut o Anus o Specialized regions allow nutrition to be extracted from more complex foods Mastication o Digestion of starch o Saliva contains amylase Saliva also important for buffering and moistening bolus o Epiglottis flap of tissue located between the pharynx and the larynx Stomach o StomachMuscular sac o Parietal cells pump H acidity o Eliminates Pathogens o Chief cells secrete pepsin 0 Protein digestion Absorption o Small Intestines 0 Tissue Layers serosa muscularis submucosa rich in blood vessels mucosa villi folds microvilli hair like projections o Duodenum secretion jejunum most nutrients are absorbed here ileum Consolidation o Large intestine colon o Collects undigested material while absorbing water and minerals o Vestigial Appendix 10282009 110200 AM Heredity 9282009 111000 AM Heredity o Gregor Mendel o Deduces heredity correctly 0 Unaware of chromosomes Chromosomes carry genes Genes produce traits Genes occupy a specific space locus Alternate versions of traits are alleles 0 Experimental system Pisum sativum Self fertilizing n Until they bred true Gametes are easily manipulated True breeding strains expressed only one trait in their offspring Parental P Generation F1 generation expressed the dominant trait Self Fertilization of F1 n 14 F2 true dominant n 14 F2 true recessive n 12 F2 mixed disguised 121 genetic ratio 2 purple flowers hold potential for recessive traits white flowers To calculate the probabilities of a particular phenotype being expressed Mendel used Punnett squares to perform monohybrid crosses onetrait inheritance Heterozygote test cross a The genotype identity of a dominant phenotype can be determined by crossing with the recessive phenotype which is always homozygous recessive o Mendel s laws for heredity 0 1st Law During the production of gametes meiosis each gamete receives only one copy allele of a gene 0 2nd Law Independent assortment Genes located on different chromosomes are inherited independently o Mendel s Hypotheses 0 Each parent carries 2 copies alleles of each trait and these are separated during meiosis law of segregation Segregation occurs at random law of independent assortment If present the dominant version allele of that trait will always be expressed o Dihybrid cross exemplifies Mendel s Laws 0 O 0 How 0 O O O 0 Two trait inheritance 4 different possible phenotypes genes influence traits Mutationintroduces change Alternate phenotypes Polygenic traits Influenced by a variety of contributing genes continuous phenotypic variation Also called quantitative or multifactorial inheritance Pleiotropic traits Have more than one effect mutation which leads to a group of symptomsphenotypes Incomplete dominance Heterozygous phenotype Codominance More than 2 alleles and more than one allele can be fully expressed in a heterozygous individual Sex linked inheritance xlinked inheritance Gene not found on Y chromosome colorblindness o Key terms in Genetics 0 O O 0 Gene a sequence of DNA that results in a protein trait Allele alternate variations of a gene trait Genotype all the alleles present Heterozygous Homologous chromosomes carry two different alleles for the same gene o Homozygous homologous chromosomes carry two of the same alleles dominant or recessive o Recessive Allele masked by the presence of a dominant allele 9282009 111000 AM Vertebrate and Human Evolution 11182009 30200 PM 111809 Notes Age of Amphibians o 4 limbs o Lungs throat breathers o Evolved as an adaptation o Cutaneous respirtation o Pulmonary circuit o 3 chambered heart o aquatic reproduction o End of Paleozoic period c Lobe finned fishelung fisheamphibians Tetrapod Evolution o Homologous among fins and legs 0 Provides evidence for divergent evolution Inhabiting Dry Land o Reptiles become less dependent on water 0 Water tight skin 0 Amniotic eggs Moist pool surrounds embryo o Thoracic pulmonary breathing o Age of Reptiles o Mesozoic Era o Reptiles evolved to fill most ecological niches Earliest Mammals o Therapsid mammals evolved in the late Paleozoic era 0 Mammalian evolution was repressed by the already abundant reptiles o Tertiary period 0 Prototheria Monotreme o Metatheria Marsupials o Eutheriaplacental mammals o Mesozoic era 0 Triassic o Jurassic 0 Cretaceous o Cenozoic era 0 Tertiary Birds and mammals o Quarternary Humans Evolution of Flight o Jurassic Period 0 Feathers insulate and are adapted for flight 0 Bird Bones are light weight Pneumatic bones 0 Birds diversify in Tertiary Period 0 Closer in relationship to reptiles than mammals KT Boundary o Mass Extinction o 75 terrestrial plants 0 90 plankton o Trophic Collapse All large fauna dinosaurs perish leaving behind empty ecological niches Human Evolution Hominids o Apes and Humans shared a common ancestor 10 million years ago Hominins o Humans and their direct ancestors 67 million years ago 0 986 DNA share Humans and Chimpanzees The first upright walking mammals 45 million years ago were the Australopithecines The genus Homo arises 2mya giving rise to at least 3 species 0 Homo habilis o Homo erectus o Homo sapiens Oldest modern humans 130000ya First hominin capable of symbolic language transmission of accumulated information cultural evolution and wisdom o Corresponds with the appearance of stone tools o Civilization 0 Intentional burials with artifacts suggesting a belief in the after life are considered the first civilized acts of humans Homo neanderthalensis 80000 years ago a Shanidar Iraq a Teshiq Tash Iran a La Ferrassie France 11182009 30200 PM Photosynthesis 1052009 105300 AM Two series of reactions in photosynthesis o Light Reactions Producing chemical energy from light energy 0 Occur in thylakoid membrane 0 Primary Function Generate ATP amp NADPH chemical energy from electromagnetic energy 0 Plants and algae use Photosystems Photosystems capture light energy photons which excites electrons from pigment molecules Photosystem 29 Electron Transport Chain 19 PHotosystem 19 ETC 2 Reaction Centerchlorophyll a molecule Antenna moleculesother pigment molecules surrounding the reaction center 0 o Dark Reactions Uses the chemical energy to synthesize carbohydrates Calvin Cycle 0 Occur in the stroma o 6C0212H20lightC6H12066H20602 endergonic process The physics of Light o Electromagnetic radiation photons o Photons can excited electrons o Shorter wavelengths photons are stronger o Violet light is stronger than red light Pigments o Molecules that absorb light energy photons and become oxidized ie release excited electrons 0 Different pigments absorb different wavelengths of light 0 Why have many pigments All photosynthetic reactions occur in the chloroplast Photosystem 2 Antenna Molecules absorb energy from photons Antenna Molecules pass energy to the reaction center Chlorophyll a molecule reaction center releases excited electron to primary electron acceptor in ETC1 0 Primary electron acceptor reduced o Chlorophyll a oxidizedloses electron 0 Needs to replace electron o Enzyme extracts 2 electrons from water molecule and gives to chlorophyll a 0 Enzyme splits H20 milecule Result2H1 O atom O atom combines with other 0 atom02 o Each excited electron passes from primary reaction center to ETC 1 o Energy released along ETC1 is used to actively transport protons across thylakoid membrane o Protons transported from stroma to the inside of the thylakoid Chemiosmosis o Protons diffuse back into stroma using ATP synthase o enzyme in thylakoid membrane o provides doorway for protein diffusion back into stroma down gradient o Energy Released ADPeATP Photosystem 1 o Electron continues to bottom of chain 0 Ends up in Photosystem 1 reaction center o Electrons excited from photosystem 1 reaction center chlorophyll a o Electron Transport Chain 2 0 Electron pass down ETC 2 0 Electron captured at the end of the chain by NADP to form NADPH Dark Reactions o Organic molecules from C02 0 Energy is provided by ATP Chemiosmosis o Electrons supplied by NADPH photosystem 1 c There are 3 forms of Photosynthesis 0 C3 0 C4 0 CAM o Alternate pathways of the dark reactions are adaptations to hot weather conditions that require closing stomata photosynthesistranspiration compromise 1052009 105300 AM Cardiovascular System 10212009 110700 AM 3 components o Blood or hemolymph is the medium Open system c Tissues and organs bathed in the hemolymph o Have heart but vessels are minimal or absent o Does not describe human cardiovascular system c Most invertebrates including mollusks and arthropod One Circuit System closed system c 2 chamber heart atrium ventricle 0 Fish Partially two circuit system closed system c 3 chamber hear left atrium right atrium ventricle o Separate circuit which goes between heart and lungs o Mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood Higher blood pressure o Amphibians Two Circuit System closed system c 4 chamber heart 2 atrium 2 ventricle o Pulmonary and Systemic Circuit o Birds and Mammals 10212009 110700 AM Enzymes amp Review 1022009 105300 AM Enzymes o Cells regulate chemical reactions through the use of protein catalysts called enzymes o Just a protein act like organisms respond to changes in the environment o Peptide bonds in a protein enzyme are sensitive to pH and temperature o Catalysts synthesized by living organisms almost all are proteins 0 Not consumed or permanently altered by reaction 0 Enzymes are often specific for one reaction o How cells regulate enzymes 0 Enzyme inhibitors competitive vs noncompetitive Competitive inhibitor interferes with active site of enzyme so substrate cannot bind Noncompetitive inhibitor changes shape of enzyme so it cannot bind to substrate o Allosteric sites can activate or inactivate enzymes 0 Repressor changes shape of enzyme so substrate cannot fit 0 Activator changes shape of enzyme so substrate can fit 0 Substrate o Reactant o The substrate sucrose consists of glucose and fructose bound together o The substrate binds to the enzyme at the active site forming an enzymesubstrate complex o The binding of the substrate and enzyme places stress on the glucosefructose bond and the bond breaks o Products are released diffuses away freeing the enzyme to work again Review Structure of Plasma membrane Membrane Transport Passive vs Active o Simple Diffusion principles o Facilitated Diffusion o Active Transport proton pump etc o Endocytosis and Exocytosis DNA amp RNA structure DNA Replication Transcription of DNA to mRNA Translation of mRNA into a protein Cell Cycle Interphase Mitosis Cytokinesis InterphaseDNA replication Cellular Division Mitosis nuclear division o Purpose Stages o What goes in What comes out Cytokinesis Cytoplasmic division Meiosis o Purpose Stages o Where does it occur o What goes in and what comes out Heredity o Simple Mendelian Genetics Vocab List o Monohybrid and Dihybrid Cross o Test Cross o Mendel s Laws o Nonmendelian traits Energy o Nuclear o Laws of Thermo o Potential energy o Electron transferEnergy Transfer o Enzymes and how they work 1022009 105300 AM Respiration 10262009 110200 AM 3 requirements for gas exchange in vertebrates Respiratory Surfaces o Moist o Large in surface area o Surrounded by capillaries Aquatic Respiration o Counter current exchange of oxygenated water over gill lamellae o Not in the book Terrestrial Respiratiion o Increasing complexity of the lung Mammalian Respiration o Nares Pharynx Epiblotuscovers the pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchii Bronchiole Alveoli Breathing is seated in the diaphragm separates thoracic from abdominal cavity Negative Pressure System 0 Diaphragm contracts moves down Chest Expands Inhalation 0 Volume of the thoracic cavity and lungs increases Pressure decreases below that of atmospheric pressureepulls air in inhalation o Exhalation occurs when diaphragm relaxes Gas Transport o Iron containing proteinhemoglobincarries oxygen in the erythrocytes 10262009 110200 AM
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