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by: Kaleb O'Connell


Kaleb O'Connell
Virginia Commonwealth University
GPA 3.81

Raj Rao

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Raj Rao
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaleb O'Connell on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLSE 101 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Raj Rao in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/230655/clse-101-virginia-commonwealth-university in Chemistry and Biochemistry at Virginia Commonwealth University.

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Date Created: 10/28/15
Sep08 Kenneth J Wynne Professor Chemical and Life Science Engineering Room 444 TA s Mr Souvik Chakrabarty Ms Xiaojuan Zhang Engineers take measurements and analyze data using quantitative models that facilitate decision making gt Requires an orderly procedure with careful note taking gt Requires a serious and observant approach gt Requires access to appropriate software In this week s experiment osmotic water absorption will be measured and data will be analyzed qualitatively Later in the semester the data will be quantitatively analyzed using Excel For the data analysis you must have Microsoft Office eg 2003 Activity 1 Observing the Process of Osmosis Using a Polymer to Model a Semipermeable Membrane Diffusion 1 Gas separation of the components of air coal gasification scrubbers separation of COZ CO 2 Liquid solute in solvent Osmosis Imagine is a sugar molecule could be salt or other solute At t to the water levels are equal Solute is too big to pass through membrane Water passes freely through membraneg driven entropically Water level rises in the right tube quotquotquot AP is the osmotic pressure httphyperphysicsphyastrgsueduhbasekineticospcalhtml ovll ea39itiotms that use waiter ow r dimzen lt9 em Osmosis Diapers Drug delivery osmotic pumps Dialysis removal of urea Living cells Reverse osmosis Water purification Remediation of industrial waste streams Reverse Osmosis Water ow JW as a function of applied pressure AP Feed eg sea water Permeate RO purified AP i1 M An L 0 lt2 JW AAP A7 A water permeability coef cient Polymer membranes critical controlling J flux ensuring durability Sw wm 31 x5quot mum F42 F42 EjZ C C CH C I I I O R y m g H2 C T C C Polarg 90 0 90 o 60 0 90 0 n Na 39 N214r Na Na o O I 39IIquot n Sw wm aw m g 6 I32 H2 3932 3932 C 10 Osmosis Imagine Ois a Na bound to the polyacrylate Water passes freely through membrane driven entropically Water level rises in the right tube AP is the osmotic pressure 1 1 httphyperphysicsphyastrgsueduhbasekineticospcalhtml Activity 2 Observing the Property of Water Absorbency in Polymers Polyethylene 1 commodity polymer Sodium polyacrylate 12 Alkanes to polyethylene quotL Hlt C C H H ethane bp 172 0C H H H H H H H c S ac C C39 butane bp 06 0C V H H H H CH3CH2CH2CH22CH2CH3 noctane Liquid gasoline CH3CH2CH2HCH2CH3 11 10 100 oil grease W3X HCH2CH2nH n 100 39 1000 low melting solid solid of increasing 3 6 HCH2CH2nH 11 10 10 strength Note melt for 106 is highly viscous 13 Polyethylene crystalline phase Rotation around the 00 bond has a barrier of 27 kcalmol Trans conformation permits close packing of chains Igt Relatively high Tm 135 0c Lamellar chainfolded crystallite Tie molecule j MajAmorphous phase 11 4 9 x Spherulites scatter visible light PE is white Schematic representation ofthe structure of a spherulite Callister after J C Coburn 15 A transmission photomicrograph using crosspolarized light showing the spherulites in polyethylene fairly sharp boundaries form between adjacent spherulites Note Maltese cross pattern 16


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