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by: Junius Dicki Jr.


Junius Dicki Jr.
Virginia Commonwealth University
GPA 3.88

Michelle Peace

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About this Document

Michelle Peace
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Junius Dicki Jr. on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FRSC 202 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Michelle Peace in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/230656/frsc-202-virginia-commonwealth-university in Forensic Science at Virginia Commonwealth University.

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Popular in Forensic Science




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Date Created: 10/28/15
962011 National academy science report FRSC lab two responsibility analyze physical evidence and quality assurance Evidence is factual and irrefutable test Q Quality assurance prevention of error QA process oriented activity to ensure quality oversees all processes in the lab QC is making sure individual reports are valid by running standards Management practices is the lab guidelines Staff management background checks supervisions evaluation Contamination control don t want to contaminate from one sample to the next Productivity you don t want someone that is overly productive reckless work Reasonably productive so back logs don t get backed up Equipment Education Peer review Safety Facilities Security IT backing up computer systems Courtroom testimony Legal department deals with issues Fiscal lab budgets right now congress has to deal with the low budgets for FRSC labs Research no research Corrective actions review in labs what and how the wrong report got issue long evaluation with EOP and staff has to be retrained SOP Integrity Quality assurance chart who sets the standards test question FBI hears about issues tells congress and put together technical working group TWIG responsibility review new technologies recommend changes in methods and procedures and develop consensus SWG scientific working group monitor and maintains the discipline Quality assurance is a program that is strictly maintained are designed to 1 ensure that the reported results are scienti cally valid and 2 that opinions are based upon reliable results response to standards and accreditation 9202011 Locards exchange principle lltransmission of evidence Not possible for evidence to be incorrect Quality Assurance program oversees operations of a lab such as security and proficiency testing Quality Control standards are used to make sure an instrument to being used properly In specific instances it is reasonable to violate an individual s privacy for the purposes of evidence collection Technical working group TWG they review new technology recommend changes in methods and procedures and develop consensus SWG maintain the discipline evaluating new methods ISO international standards org provide oversight to communities in terms of proper standards Quality assurance designed to insure that reported results are scientifically valid and opinions are based upon reliable results Accreditation and certification PROGRAMMATIC 0 all labs are soon to be accreditiated by ASCLDLAB o SAM HSAdrug accred o NFSTC credit DNA accred I Independent impartial objective system of review 0 SOP staff facilities training records proficiency test INDIVIDUAL 0 ABC 0 ABFT o IAI I Provides public way to identify standards and which laboratories are meeting them Quality control limits of the instruments 0 Accuracy 0 Precision o Robustness are there impacts on evidence reliable 0 Limit of detection how high can you test 0 Interferences products interfering with the product that is needed to be tested Certification accreditation standardization to have a good lab National academy of sciences report 0 Congress mandated report 0 Found serious deficiencies and called for major reform 0 Overall labs are underfunded and understaffed o Disparity in labs in funding access to instrumentation skilledwelltrained personnel certification accreditation and oversight NAS recommendations 0 Creation of national institute of FRSC O O O O 0000 I Lead research I Establish and enforce standards I Oversee education standards Independence from policeprosecutors office Certification mandatory I Written exams I Supervised practice I Proficiency tests I Adherence to a code of ethics Accreditation mandatory Establish QC procedures I Confirm validity and reliability of procedures I Identify mistakes fraud and bias I Every method should include the level of uncertainty in the measurement and in human error Courtroom testimony I Discipline must be grounded in reliable scientific methodology AFIS database for fingerprints Improve accurately perpetrators and exclude falsely accused Reduce likelihood of conviction based on inaccurate data Improve nations ability to respond to attribute and prosecute threats to homeland security Landmark Admissibility Cases FRYE vs US Scientific evidence is allowed if it is generally accepted by the scientific community Evidence is presented and jury decides if it is worthy of use DAUBERT vs DOW Admissibility is determined by O 0000 Whether the theory can be tested Peer review status Acceptable rate of error Widespread acceptance Relevance Judge decides if evidence can be entered into trial 92211 Dead men do tell tales Atlanta child murders Wayne Williams was the convicted murderer Physical evidence can change evidence is always degrading Physical evidence is tangible and requires interpretation Physical evidence any evidence has size shape and dimension Evidence has to PROBATIVE Evidence must be relevant and material Circumstantial evidence series of facts other than the facts being proved that requires you to presume a connection between the two The value of physical evidence prove link establish exonerate corroborate compel and reliable Locard39s exchange principle whenever 2 object come in contact with each other a transfer or material will occur Therefore evidence can be used to associate people places and objects Significance of physical evidence 1 associate evidence 2 indentify specific evidence 0 Class characteristics places an object into a group not evidence of similar objects It helps narrow the search 0 Individual characteristics identifies and item or person from a single source Challenges to Locards principle 1 transfer is so small as to be undetectable 2 rate of loss of the material after the transfer is too great Analyzing physical evidence 0 What do you need Exemplars and controls 0 Physical evidence CANNOT be wrong You need all connections to crime scene to object to victim to suspect to physical evidence or it is circumstantial evidence THEORY CANNOT CONTRADICT THE FACTS Scientific method is about eliminating human error In the testing the question is is my analysis going to destroy my evidence and if it does who else should see it before I destroy it Slide what test do I do Macroscopic eyeing evidence Microscopic microscope review Presumptive is the evidence chemically similar and if so can you determine what it is detailed Confirmation what it is specifics Crime scene reconstruction is the scientific method ALIEN AUTOPSY Autopsies recover evidence Families can perform identification in autopsies because there is too much shock and they might go into denial Medical examiner has jurisdiction they can perform an autopsies whenever they want CSI 92911 Basic concept is a discovery process Methodical and systematic Defining the crime scene Traditional Others 0 Primarycar accident vs secondaryhit and run then car parked somewhere else quot2 crime scenes 0 Microscopicthings that can t be seen without special instruments littlequot vs macroscopicnaked eye bigquot 0 Type of crime 0 Location 0 Condition Information from physical evidence foundation a crime occurs CSI Linkage ocards exchange principle Supportingdisproving witness statements Identifications of suspectsvictims Providing for investigative leads Corpus deicti llbody of crime refers a crime has to be committed to actually be convicted for it Modus operandi llmode of operation describes someone habits and workings addresses methods and operations Definition complex process that includes the initial response evaluation processing and documentation of the scene and the preservation of the evidence It includes maintaining the integrity of the investigation through proper documentation Evidence is context vs content 3385 Predictable changes that occur with regularity Unpredictable changes that occur randomly or unexpectedly Transitory fleeting random Relational physically placed items in the scene Functionaloperating condition of items Investigation Scene protocol Safety Measurements Evidence collection Evidence preservation Photography Delegation Chain of custody Activities that help protect the integrity of the scene Crime scene is dynamic Area in which the majority of the physical evidence associated with the crime is obtained Provides investigators with a strong starting point to piece together the circumstances of what happened Activities procedural tactics overtime allowance duties of patrol officers at scene allocation of equipment notification caseofficer responsibility preparation of forms and reports confidential informant The real CSI First responders police officers reports Scene security Preliminary scene survey going around seeing what s going one Documentation Scene search Evidence collection Ultimate goal of FRSC crime scene reconstruction Three major players at the crime and their jurisdiction Law enforcement has the ultimate responsibility for the investigation The district attorney states attorney responsible for the ultimate prosecution of the crime Responsible for the search and arrest warrants grand jury presentations Medical examinercoroner determines cause manner and mode of death 1042011 Alien autopsies Crime scene processing 0 000 0 Preliminary scene survey Documentation Scene search Evidence collection packaging and documentation Final scene survey If you find another dead body you have to go through the process again from step 1 Transient evidence could be a smell Conditional evidence Trace evidence Points of entry and paths of travel There is no set way or rule to package evidence but there are suggestions and guidelines CSI goal preserve evidence aka reconstruction Not all coroners have medical degrees they are different to medical examiners Autopsies performed by a hospital and a medical examiner are for the same purpose FALSE What if two people die at the same time Survivors will who gets what Who died first Coroner do not need a medical degree 0 10 states that has coroner sx Medical examiner jurisdiction unattended accidental deaths Woman is found dead in her garage the car is running Cause and manner of death Can only be found through the autopsy so don t jump to conclusions Cause and manner is purely an American invention early 1900s dawn of medicine right after the civil war government decided to make statistics of why people were dying Because they thought if they knew the cause of death they could prevent it A person dies 10 years later after being shot intentionally by another person and the death arose from being shot Is the manner of death listed as a homicide TRUE As is photos picture of the at the moment no changes original photo Physical evidence recovery kit PERK rape and assault evidence kit 10611 Death Investigations Post mortem interval cannot be determined exactly There is currently no single accurate marker of the time of death The only accurate method determining the time is death is to be there when it happens How to determine the range of death establish a window of death use scene markers to allow some positioning of the time of death within the window and adjust the preliminary opinion with additional data Use considerable caution when estimating time of death Changes after death early late tissue changes Early changes cessation stop breathing circulations stops skin pallor paler muscle relaxation eye changes cornea and retina blood coagulation Late changes 0 algor mortis cooling of the body 0 livor mortis discoloration of the body 0 rigor mortis stiffening of the body algor mortis 0 body temp is a narrow range not a fixed temp activity illness decomposition OOO infection 0 absorption of heat bodies cool by radiation convection direct transfer scene clothing rate of cooling can sometimes warm up instead of getting colder 986measured rectal temp 15 hour since death On screen body temp should be taken from the armpit on scene officers should not collect the body cavities for body temp determination due to risk of destroying evidence Livor mortis o Begins at or very soon after death Mechanism settling Onset immediate Manifested 24 hours Maximum 812 hours 0 Eventually 1216 hours it disappears and decomposes O O O 0 Liver discoloration o Redpurple normal 0 Pink cyanide cold 0 Cherry red carbon monoxide o Brownnitrates Blanched area when the body has pressure on a certain side the blood pressures on a side due to gravity and shows as a whitish patch Liver can show if the body has been moved Tardieu s spots gravity causes capillaries in a small area to rupture resulting in circular areas of skin hemorrhage 0 Size is important 45mm Petechial hemorrhage o Suggestive of asphyxiausually 1mm or smaller Tache noir o Drying of the conjunctive not hemorrhage o Drying of the eye 0 Could be used to determine time of death Rigor mortis Heat accelerates the process cold decelerates the process Stiffness of the body Mechanism physical biochemical change Onset immediate Manifested16 hr Max 624 hr If you have rigor mortis in the ngers the eyelids and around the neck that means rigor is setting in rigor happens same rate ofspeed with every muscle of the body It starts on the small muscles first If it happens in bigger muscles and you re really loose that means rigor is on the way out time of death is in the longer range Unreliable factors illness temp activity before death physical conditions may be 000000 0 poorly formed in the very young or very old because muscles are poorly develops 0 Never cut clothing break the rigor Cutis anserine goose flesh a spasm of the erector pilae muscles due to rigor mortis A person can develop instantaneous rigor is they were scared at the moment on death TRUE Cadaveric spasm Cadaveric spasm instantaneous rigor seen in sudden death medico legal importance The only way a body breaks down after death is through internal decomposition FALSE Post mortem tissue changes 0 Decomposition decomposes internal autolysis breaking of the cells putrefaction 1 Autolysis process after death by which digestive enzymes within the body cells break down carbohydrates and proteins Begins in the stomach 2 Putrefaction gas formation and bloating green discoloration of the abdomen marbling along blood vessels loss of hair and nails When you have this you are beyond 24 hours since death 3 Stages 1 discoloration 2436 hours of death less timeless color 2marbling or green black discoloration that follows vascular distribution progresses to dark purple black coloration 3 bloating of the body crepitus in many areas of loose skin scrotum penis eyelids normal conditions 3648 hrs4 loosening of hair and nails and shedding of skin of the hands and feet Glove and sock occurs with 47 days 0 Skeletonization 1 removal of soft tissue 2 flies beetles and animals 0 Mummification 1 Mumiyaa mummy fiacreto make 2 Dehydration of organs and tissues 3 Drying and shriveling of the body 4 Requirements dry conditions and hotcold o Adipocere llgrave wax Nails and hair do not continue to grow after death MYTHBUSTER Saponification adipocere grave wax o Sapon soap 0 Hydrolysis of fat tissues 0 Grave wax formation Requirements moisture anaerobic environment no air min of 3 years Problems associated with the time of death life insurance policy and implication or excluding O suspects 101111 Bloodstain pattern analysis involved the examination of bloodstains observed at a scene in order to reconstruct the conditions at the time blood was shed blood spatter not splatter More than 80 percent of blood is water 10 15 you can loose blood 48 is taken in blood donation 8 of your body weight is blood Investigative applications Reconstruction of the scene 0 The location andor movement of the victim o The location andor movement of the assailant 0 Point of impact 0 Sequence of death 0 Type of instrument Support or refute the statements of the suspect o The suspect is implicated andor their statement is not consistent with the patterns Support or refute the statements of the victimswitnesses o Victim statement is not consistent with the bloodstain patterns Aid in the selection of blood collection sites for analysis ANALYSIS 1 Examination of the overall stain pattern 0 Location type size shape 2 Examination of individual stains within 0 the pattern 0 Distribution size shape directionality and angle of impact When blood leaves the body travels it as a sphere Blood is very viscosity Bloodstain patterns 1FallingDripping A volume of blood that separates from a blood source and falls due to gravity 2 Contact I A bloody object comes in contact with a no bloody surface SWIPE I A nonbloody object WIPES through an existing bloodstain I A contact transfer leaving a pattern behind 3 Castoff Blood is projected from a blood bearing object as a result of motion Someone is coming off and puts a knife on my back and pulls it out there is no blood on it stab again open wound where blood will create a line on the wall Four lines in the wall stabbed 5 times First stab opens the wound 4 Arterial Spurt Blood exits body under pressure from a breached artery 5 Impact Spatter Blood receives an impact resulting in a random distribution of smaller drops Low velocity running through a puddle of blood low impact Medium velocity High velocity Individual stains Size I As the velocity of the force increases the blood drop gets smaller I Larger drops can travel further Shape I Are spherical when traveling through air I Angle that the sphere impacts the surface effects the shape of the stain Distribution I Spatial arrangement of the individual stains IVoid patterns Angles of limitations blood in Strange places Area of convergence 2 dimensional Area of origin 3 dimensional


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