INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS PSYC 323
Virginia Commonwealth University
Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
80302 - MKT 3010 - 002
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
EXSC 223 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Martina Rohan on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 323 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Jody Davis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/230660/psyc-323-virginia-commonwealth-university in Psychlogy at Virginia Commonwealth University.
Reviews for INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/28/15
Psych 323 11712 How important are our relationships with other people How have your relationships with other people affected your life Provide support coping strategy is close relationships harder time coping if lonely Reconnecting provide confidence Michelangelo phenomenon see your potential and help you move towards it Make sacrifices to stay in relationship What questions do you have about how relationships work Introduction Early philosophers o If you marry marry your equal Ovid o By all means marry if you get a good wife you ll be happy if you get a bad one you ll become a philosopher Socrates 0 He that is not jealous is not in love St Augustine 0 Man is by nature a social animal Aristotle 11912 Ch 2 Casual Conditions Personal casual conditions characteristics of individual that affect the relationship physical characteristics attitudes education personality other dispositions Example what causes john39s satisfaction level in his relationship with Mary John39s tendency to be satisfied in any relationship Relational causal conditions Characteristics of relationship between individuals that affect the relationship similarity of values attitudes interests physical proximit Norms rules shared understandings Example what causes John39s satisfaction level in his relationship with Mary Whether Mary calls if she stays out late with friends bc this is a relationship norm Environmental causal conditions characteristics of physical and social environment that affect the relationship comfort of environment eg temperature crowding Presence of alternative partners other factors that have nothing to do with the two people themselves Example what causes john s satisfaction level in his relationship with mary Mary s best friend just got divorced and wants her to spend more time with her than with John Group Activity John is not willing to move to New York when Mary receives a job offer there Why not Personal cause about John Relational cause about John amp Mary Environmental cause about something other than John amp Mary The advice peddlers read in Bradbury and Karnerypp 4042 Three kinds of Questions pp44 46 Description what happens 0 Addressing descriptive questions helps scientists identify the nature and scope of the problems being studies and so it is a critical first step for research foundation for future resear Prediction when does it happen 0 Asks whether knowing something about a relationship at one point in time can help us know what the relationship will be like at some future time Explanation why does it happen 0 Point out ways that relationships reach those outcomes and methods of changing or improving them 0 Provides support for interventions designed to help people improve or change their relationships Prediction of relationship phenomena predictions tailored to unique circumstances of individual almost impossible Predictions about what causes relationship outcomes on average Hindsight bias Science as an endless cycle Theory a general explanation for a phenomenon gt Hypothesis a concrete statement about how concepts should be associated in the world gt operationalization the translation of abstract concepts into concrete terms gt choose a measurement strategy self reports observation gt Design the study correlational longitudinal experimental archival gt analyze the data and draw conclusions should the hypothesis be rejected gt Theory and Hypotheses Theory integrated set of principles that explains and predicts observations generally testable if not then philosophical rather than empirical Very broad compared to hypothesis can never be proven why not Examples of Theories People39s behavior is motivated by what would increase their genetic material Evolutionary theory Hypothesis specific hypothesistestable prediction is derived from broad theory EX or more variables will be related or 2 or more groups will be different Choosing a measurement strategypg 48how can we measure abstract ideas Psychological construct abstract idea we want to learn about eg Love Operational definition make abstract concepts measurable and observable think of operational definitions for Love satisfaction with dating relationship jealousy Conflict in a relationship Good method of gauging Physiological measures observation The challenge with operational definition is construct validity describes how well an a particular whether the operational definition represents the psychological construct Selfreport measures pg 5158 Always an operationalization of a construct but sometimes the operationalization is more obvious than others Simplest kind of selfreport is a direct guestion Sometimes ask ppl to report on specific information that the researcher believes to indicate some construct and the sum ofthe ratings are taken as an operationalization of the idea Fixed response scales researcher determines all the specific questions and possible answers Openended questions researcher asks a question and respondent says what comes to mind better when don t know much about a topic helpful in gathering details that researches can use to generate more specific hypotheses Observational Measures pg 6064 Gather data about relationship events without having to ask the people who are experiencing the event Decide who will do the observing what will be observed and where to do the observing Reliability the extent to which different observers agree that a specified behavior has or has not occurred Reactivitymain problem with observational measures sometimes the act of observing someone changes the behavior being observed Correlational Research study naturally occurring associations among variables eg ask Ps to report their satisfaction or how often they kiss their partner no random assignment doesn39t mean causation Positive correlation as one variable increases so does the other Negative correlation as one variable increases the other one decreases Pros of correlational research use when manipulation impossible or unethical useful for prediction strength and direction of relationship ons no information about whether causal relationship between two variables Third variable problem three possible causal explanation for any correlation A98 or 89A or C 9 A88 A amount of coffee Bamount of sex Third Variable 0 amount of coffee amp amount of sex CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION 12412 Quiz next Tuesday 25 multiple choice questions no lecture after quiz bring pencil read the book page numbers on outlines Correlational designs Longitudinal research study the same people over time 0 Ex recruit 30 married couples and measure satisfaction at time of marriage and then 3 yrs later 0 Takes a long time to answer research question and costs more money Crosssectional research study different people at one point in time 0 Ex recruit 30 married couples 15 at time of marriage and 15 who ve been married 3 years and measure satisfaction 0 More common Experimental research Dependent variable D V o Dependent on influence of experiment 0 Variable being measured in an experiment Independent variable IV 0 Variable that the 39 39 39 in an I 0 Cause of change in the DV Example Experimental question do couples become less satisfied because they run out of new things to do with each other DV satisfaction with relationship measure by scale and by persistence in relationship IV things they are doing 2 groups couples who try new things once a week vs couples who don t Hypothesis couples who try new things once a week will score higher on the satisfaction scale and will be more likely to persist in the relationship compared to couples who don t try new things Random assignment side note no random assignment in correlational study P just report what they are doing Each P has equal change of being in each level of IV 0 Minimize preexisting differences like how open they are to new experiences bt individuals assigned to different groups 0 Before experimental manipulation want groups to be equivalent Example Should we let couples decide which group to be in NO How can we randomly assign them flip a coin random number table Levels groups and conditions all mean the same thing Levels the conditions or groups of your IV 1 IV with 2 levels try new things don t try new things Control group not exposed to experimental treatment not trying new things is the control group in our example but not all studies have one sometimes just comparison groups Withinparticipant each participant experiences all levels of IV in our experiment couples would have to try new things and a certain amount of time later not try new things measure satisfaction 2 times have to be careful of carry over effects what they experience at level 1 will affect them at level 2 to minimize control group should go first researchers may also counterbalance the order where have the couples will try new things first and the other half would not try new things first make order another IV Betweenparticipants each P experiences only one level of IV way more common because easier and shorter time different people in try new things group than not try new things Example How many IVs do we have 1 What are the levels Try new things and don t try new things Don t try new things is the control group Practice How would you design an experimental study Can you randomly assign Ps What is your hypothesis Main effectmention 1 IV When an IV has an effect on the DV Looking at single IV one at a time independent of other IVs of the study Conflict is DV on vertical axis 2 IVs commitment 2 levels committed and not committed and tiredness 2 levels tired and not tired There could be 2 main effects You can have as many possible main effects as you have independent variables Main effect for commitment conflict is less for people who are committed compared to couples who are not committed committed Ps has less conflict than not committed Ps No main effect for tiredness Interaction effectsmention multiple le mention most or least When the effect of an IV depends on the level of another IV Interaction of commitment with tired Conflict is highest for Ps who are not committed and tired o Tiredness didn t affect conflict when committed 0 When not committed more conflict when tired than when not tired Group exercise DV satisfaction with vacation 2 IVs 0 Location beach vs ski 0 Temp hot vs cold Possible main effect for each IV 0 Location satisfaction is higher when at the beach than skiing 0 Temp satisfaction is higher when temperature is hot than when temperature is cold Possible interaction combination of more than 1 IV 0 Satisfaction is highest when vacation is located on the beach and the temperature is hot 0 Satisfaction is lowest when at the beach and the temperature is cold Another exercise DV satisfaction with bear IVs size big vs small and color brown vs black Main effect for color prefer brown over black Main effect for size prefer big over small Interaction kids are most satisfied with big brown bears Archival Research page 7880 Researcher examines existing data that have already been gathered usually for an unrelated purpose by someone else Due to the great expense of contacting families researchers who collect data on families often ask more questions than needed for addressing the specific issues under study Thus they build into their studies the potential for later archival research Content analysis researchers need to code their materials in such a way that they can quantify differences between units Statistical Analyses page 8687
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'