CHEMISTRY & SOCIETY
CHEMISTRY & SOCIETY CHEM 110
Virginia Commonwealth University
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theodore Simonis on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at Virginia Commonwealth University taught by Joseph Topich in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/230683/chem-110-virginia-commonwealth-university in Chemistry at Virginia Commonwealth University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Chemistry Exam 3 Study Sheet 0 Electro negativity 203 205 0 0 Polar and Non polar molecules 205 0 Polar bond a covalent bond in which the electrons are not equally shared but rather displaced toward the more electronegative atom 0 very polar bonds can be involved in hydrogen bonding 0 Hydrogen Bonding 205 207 0 Opposites attract o Fairly strong bond 0 Must have a bond with a 39 Oxygen 39 Nitrogen 39 Fluorine o Electrolytes and Non Electrolytes 208 210 0 Substances that will dissociate in solution 0 Periodic Table and Electron Valence 211 212 0 The group number in the periodic table determines how many elections are in the outer orbit 0 Group 7A 39 Halogens 0 Group 8A 39 lnert Noble Gases 0 Formation of Ions 211 212 0 Cations Na 9 Na lei 39 Add ion to the root 0 Anions Cl lei9 Cl 39 Add ide to the root Electrons in Orbit 0 Compounds 215 218 0 lonic 39 Metal and a nonmetal 39 It is being held together by electrostatic positive and negative are attracted to each other 0 Covalent 39 Made up of nonmetals 39 They carry no net charge Acids and Bases 241 243 0 Acids 39 Has mainly Hydronium ions HW o Bases 39 Has mainly Hydroxide ions OHU Hydronium Ion 241 0 Acid Base Neutralization Reactions 243 244 0 Acids can chemically be neutralized when acids and basis react with each other 0 HClmacid NaOH mbase9 NaClam salt H20m HFand OHquot concentration in aqueous solutions of acids and bases244 0 There is both present a small amount of Hydronium and hydroxide ions PH Scale and Interpretation of PH Data 245 246 0 Acids 0 6 l H increases 6 l A one unit increase in PH is a tenfold change in acidity 2 unitlOO 3 unit lOOO 0 Neutral 7 o Bases 8 l4 I OH increase 9 l A one unit increase in PH is a tenfold change in basic 2 unitlOO 3 unit lOOO pH or Normal and Acid Rain 246 251 0 Acid Rain I PH 3 4 0 Normal Rain I PH 56 Environmental Effects of Acid Rain 258 265 268 270 0 Analysis of rain for specific compounds confirms that the culprits are the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen o Sulfur dioxide emissions are highest in regions with 39 many coal fired electric power plants 39 steel mills 39 other heavy industries 0 Most acidic rain falls in the east coast Fossil Fuel Reserves 0 Sustainable Renewable Energy 0 Characteristics 0 O O Non Depletable Environmentally Friendly Accessible Scalable Safe Reliable Economically competitive Hydro electricity Wind l0 of where the worlds energy comes from About 3000 dams are hydroelectric in America Not very accessible power Not very reliable depends on wind Can use stored energy as a back up Geothermal power Using hot water or steam to turn turbines to create energy Not very accessible underwater source only if there is an Biomassl78 l73 Examples 0 Wood grassy plants 0 Food Crops woody plants 0 Agricultural Residue industrial waste Ethanol 178 173 0 More expensive than gasoline 39 Biodiesel l78 l73 0 On the rise 0 Made from natural renewable sources veg oils animal fats 0 Can be used as pure fuel or mixed with petroleum 0 Solar Thermal 39 Energy from the sun I l days worth of energy can supply enough energy to supply the world for 4 to 5 years I Not accessible only when the sun is out 0 Solar Photovoltaic353 36l 39 Germany is the biggest producers of PV energy Doping is placing impurities into a substance I N and P semiconductor N type P type P Type semi conductor there will quotdonor 0 Where Phosphorus is placed be an added electron called a electron N Type semi conductor 0 The P type must be in quotintimate contactquot with an N type for electricity to be produced 3 ln photovoltaic cells the silicon must be doped with boron and phosphorus Where the boron is placed there will be a hole Where an electron should be Near the surface extra electrons fills some of the empty holes in the p type conductor Creates a net positive charge on the N type and negative charge on the P type Sets up an electric field in this area and causes electrons to go in only one direction across the barrier into n type 1 ltlgt N type P type 0 When visible light hits a photovoltaic cell 0 Photons give the electrons just enough energy to pass across the barrier 0 But only in the one direction determined by the electric field 0 The electric field is essential for the ability to produce electriq ty 39 Photovoltaic cells 353 36l 0 Cell O 0 Module 0 Array Batteries331 336 Lead fuel 336 337 0 Pbsolid PbO2solid 2 804 4 H gt 2 PbSO4 solid 2 H20 0 The fact that PbSO4 is a solid is Why the battery is rechargeable O O O Pb is not charged Loses 2 Electrons in the process Go from this Pb molecule to the PbOZ molecule PbOZ is a 4 catioN Overall the molecule is neutral H2 fuel cell 340343
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