SCOM 121: Chapter 3 & 6 and class notes from that week
SCOM 121: Chapter 3 & 6 and class notes from that week SMAD 101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gab Calderon on Friday March 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SMAD 101 at James Madison University taught by George Johnson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to media arts and design in Art at James Madison University.
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Chapter 3 (culture and gender) CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION: Intercultural Opportunities: It’s a New world- Cultural values impact our communication with others Culture- learned set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices that are shared by an identifiable, large group of people with a common history. Values- most deeply felt, generally shared view of what is deemed good, right or worthwhile thinking or behavior. (What ought/should be) Beliefs- what a person thinks is true or probable. Co-culture- groups of people who live in a dominant culture yet remain connected to another cultural heritage that typically exhibits significant differences in values, beliefs, and practices from the dominant culture. (Example: African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans and Mexican Americans) Cultural Values: Many differences in cultures! Like when you tip at a restaurant is disrespectful in Japan. Value dimensions- varying degrees of importance placed on those deeply felt views of what is right, good, and worthwhile - are deep structural reasons many cultural differences that provoke serious miscommunication and intense conflict exist. Two value dimensions- 1) Individualism-collectivism The most important of all value dimensions that distinguish cultures. Individualist culture- has a “me” consciousness. People are motivated by their own preferences, needs and goals. SELF! Decision making is based on what is best for themselves. Emphasize on a rational assessment of the benefits and drawbacks of relationships. Collectivist culture- has a “we” consciousness. These people downplay personal goals in favor of advancing the goals of a valued group. 70% of world lives in collectivist cultures. Socialization- the communication of shared cultural practice, beliefs and values from generation to generation. Useful communication skills in individualist cultures- get to know people quickly, engage conversations easily, interesting enough to make an impression. Expect a person to engage in personal promotion. Useful communication skills in collectivist cultures- cooperative communication in groups is good to promote harmony, these people receive help from influential members of the group to find jobs. Parent’s approval is important. Low-context communication style- verbally precise, direct, explicit. Self-expression and persuasion is valued/accepted. (example: using a computer because every period, space and word is there) (Verbally- “Whats you point?” INDIVIDUALIST CULTURES High-context communication style- indirect verbal expression. Think about clues said. Nothing is fully explained but one still understands it. COLLECTIVIST CULTURES 2) Power-distance Power-distance dimension- acceptability of unequal distribution of power in relationships, institutions and organizations. (Does the culture tend to accept or reject stratification) All cultures are Stratified (divided into various levels of power that put distance between the have and the have-nots.) Low-PD Culture (Horizontal culture)- values relatively equal power sharing and discourages attention to status differences and ranking in society. Encourages in this culture is challenging authority and using power. (United states and Great Britain) High-PD Cultures (vertical cultures)- maintaining power differences. Authorities’ aren’t challenged and the most powerful have the right to exercise their power. (Mexico, Philippines) Low-PD Cultures you can disagree with high power people at a job or school but in high-PD cultures its not encouraged to do so. INTERCULTURAL MISCOMMUNICATION! Ethnocentrism: intercultural prejudice: Ethnocentrism- The notion that ones own cultures is superior to any other. The way we do things is good and the different way others do things is not so good. (Greek meaning- our nation is the center of all things) Ethnocentrism is a learned belief. There are differences in teaching and learning. China- teachers read to students and student stay quiet unless called upon. Israeli- students wander around classroom and talk during lessons. America- is a range of the two. Core value differences can easily serve as a bed rock foundation for ethnocentrism Cultural relativism- views cultures as merely difference, not deficient. We must respect all cultures and their inherent right to engage in practices, rituals and communication behaviors that maybe appear strange. Multiculturalism- social intellectual movement that promotes the value of diversity as a core principle and insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect and as equals. Multiculturalism incorporates the 5 ethical standards: honesty, respect, fairness, choice and responsibility. Misunderstanding: mismatched communication: Understanding is a core element of communication competence. We are too early, too late, too quiet, too loud. Interpersonal Miscommunication: Not knowing the rules. Think of a problem solving approach and the culture you’re in. INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE: Become mindful: Mindfulness is thinking about or communication with others and persistently working to improve it. We exhibit mindfulness in 3 ways: we make more careful distinctions, we are open to new information especially that which focuses on the process not the content of communication and we recognize different perspectives. Become acculturated: Acculturation- process of adapting to a culture different from one’s own. Strategies of acculturation: 1) Assimilation- abandonment of the customs, practice, language, identity and ways of living one’s heritage for those of the host culture. (Immigrants assimilate and become Americans) 2) Separation- maintaining ones ethnic identity and avoiding contact with the dominant culture. (Don’t learn the dominant language) 3) Integration- maintaining ones ethnic identity while also becoming an active part of the dominant culture. (People who aren’t Irish celebrate St. Patrick’s Day) 4) Marginalization- maintaining no ties to either ones native or new cultures. (Don’t belong anywhere) Reduce Uncertainty: Uncertainty Reduction Theory: (URT) when strangers first meet their principal goal is to reduce uncertainty and increase predictability. Culture shock/Acculturative stress- anxiety that comes from the unfamiliarity of new cultural surroundings, rules, norms, and practices and the attempt to adapt to these new circumstances. Promote convergence- Divergence- refers to differences that separate people. Convergences- similarities that connect us to others. To create convergence: Adjust you style of speaking (tone, pitch) and find common ground (what interests them, like compromise) Gender and communication: Sex- biology (female-male) it is genes, and hormones. Male can impregnate a female then female become pregnant but the reserve doesn’t work Gender- is social role behavior (Feminism-masculine) learned from communicating with others. Masculine-Feminine Value Dimensions: Masculine-feminine dimensions- intersection of gender and culture serves as the basis for a third deep structural value. Masculine culture- exhibits stereotypes masculine traits such as male dominance, assertiveness, competitiveness and drive for achievement. (men communicate in ways that enhance their esteem but women in this culture communicate in ways that enhance relationships) Feminine culture- exhibits stereotypic feminine traits such as affection, nurturance, sensitivity, compassion and emotional expressiveness. Equality between sexes is more common. (Men and women communicate in ways that emphasize relationships over power) The gender differences hypothesis: Gender differences hypothesis- assertion that men and women communicate in vastly divergent ways. Sexual Interest: Compliant sex- having sexual intercourse when you don’t want to but your partner does in circumstances that do not involve duress or coercion. Communications problems with gender differences in sexual interest: 1) a greater pressure on women to engage in compliant sex out of fear that their partner will terminate their relationship or lose interest in them if they resist sexual overtures. 2) Conflict in relationships can be triggered by differential interest in sex. 3) Some association with sexual violence against women if a women is less interested in sex and disappoints her partner. Social support and social skills: Women are more supportive in times of stress than men. Emotionally restrictive- having difficulty and fears about expressing ones feelings and difficulty finding words to express basic emotions. (Men are more of this than women) Negotiating for salaries: Coming out of college more men begin and ask for higher starting salaries than women. Women are more incline to believe their individual circumstances are controlled by outside force (life happens) while men believe that circumstances can be changed by individual action (we make life happen) Women believe negotiating salaries is a conflict or contest. Gender similarities Hypothesis: Gender similarities hypothesis- men and women communicate in similar ways. There are differences between men and women but the differences are small in numbers. Gender role stereotypes- magnify even small gender differences. Men are protectors and women are nurturers isn’t as big of a thing anymore as society changes. Styles Perspective: Every conversation has 2 dimensions: status (hierarchical and conversation perceived from this dimension is a negotiation in which people try to achieve and maintain the upper hand if they can) and connection (nonhierarchical and conversations perceived from this standpoint view talk between self and others as a negotiation for closeness). Men focus on status more and women focus on connection more. COMMUNICATION CEMPETENCE AND GENDER: Don’t magnify gender Differences: Sometimes both genders want the same thing like go to “cave” after work like be left alone. This is true for men but also for women. Chapter 6 Listening To Others: 1. Define listening by its basic elements (comprehending, retaining, and responding). Listening- the process of receiving constructing and reconstructing meaning from and responding to spoke and/or nonverbal messages. Comprehending- shared meaning between or among parties in a transaction. Understand speech sounds/phonemes. Speech segmentation (listeners must be able to discern breaks between recognizable words) Ex: I scream, Ice cream Hearing- physiological process of registering sound waves as they hit the eardrum. Particular sounds have no meaning until we construct meaning for them. Retaining- Memory is essential to listening. Information bulimia- cramming info into short-term memory and forgetting it before it moves into long-term memory. Forgetting curve- rate at which we no longer retain information in our memory. (Forget Spanish 3 years after taking it in high school and college.) Remembering everything isn’t a good thing either because it effects relationships You forget because you don’t pay enough attention, you don’t properly organize the information you hear, don’t attach information to any meaningful concept. Responding Without a response you don’t know if the listener is actually listening Nonverbal listeners- make eye contact and use facial expressions Verbal listeners- respond to questions. 2. Define the three types of listening (informational, critical and empathic). Information- attempts to comprehend the message of a speaker. Understand what the speaker is saying. There is information overload like distractions that happen during a task. Shift response- competitive vying for attention and focus on self by shifting topics. (me-oriented) Support response- cooperative effort to focus attention on the other person. (we-oriented) Critical- Empathic- requires us to take the perspective of the other person, to listen for what that person needs and wants. 3. Explain the problems that can interfere with competent informational listening (conversational narcissism, competitive interrupting, glazing over, pseudo-listening, and ambushing). Conversational Narcissism- tendency of listeners “to turn the topics of ordinary conversations to themselves without showing sustained interest in others’ topics” Competitive interrupting- occurs when we dominate the conversation by seizing the floor from others who are speaking. Interrupting- occurs when one person stops speaking when another starts speaking. Glazing over- occurs when listener’s attention wanders and daydreaming occurs. Pseudo-listening- when someone pretends to listen Ambushing- when we listen for weaknesses 4. Explain the problems that can interfere with competent critical listening (skepticism, true belief, and cynicism). Skepticism- process of listening to claims, evaluating evidence and reasoning supporting those claims and drawing conclusions based on probabilities. (annoying nags, always asking for evidence) True belief- willingness to accept claims without solid reasoning or valid evidence and to hold these belief tenaciously even if a googol of contradictory evidence disputes them. (can’t change his mind or won’t change the subject) Cynicism- nay-saying, fault finding and ridiculing. (a feeling that things will pan out for the worst) 5. Describe the listening response styles associated with empathic listening and non-empathic listening. Evaluate response- makes a judgement about the persons conduct. (‘I wouldn’t respond that way”) Advising response- tells people how they should act. Initial reaction. Interpreting response- we express what we think is the underlying meaning of a situation presented to us. Explain the meaning of the situation to another person. (Like why he always embarrasses you in front of your family is because he is social awkward) Content-only response- comprehends the literal meaning of messages from others but doesn’t recognize the feelings that ride piggyback. (Bf doesn’t care about gf’s fears. He just makes her fear increase) Probing response- seeks more information from others b asking questions. Supporting response- expressions of care, concern, affection, and interest, especially during times of stress or upset. Types of s.r: reassurance, agreement, praise, assistance, validating feelings. Understanding response- requires a listener to check his or her perceptions for comprehension of the speakers message or to paraphrase the message to check accuracy. Confirming responses- they enhance the persons self-esteem and confidence. NOTES FROM 3-21-16 Culture: It is a system of beliefs, values and assumptions about life It guide our behavior (Practices) It has to be shared by a group It includes customs, language and material artifacts It is transmitted from generation to generation (learned) Values & beliefs: Values- notions of what is good or right Beliefs- what is believed to be true or probable Practices- patterns of interaction that can be observed Iceburg: what is visible is behavior Co-culture: Recognizable group with shared heritage, beliefs and values living within a dominant culture Coexists with a larger or dominant framework Example of co-culture- Jewish females shave head when married, goths, Cultural border dwelling Code switching- set of ways we communicate with one group sand another way with a diff. group Co-cultures and culture vary on the strength and balance of these ‘Value Dimensions” : individualist Vs. Collectivist, Low VS High content, Now Culture and language and planes: Malcolm Gladwell and the Ethnic Theory OF Plane Crashes The influence of culture on airplane safely Mitigated speech Power distance 2 Cases in the book: Power distance: High PD- Vertical- maintain status difference and can’t challenge authority, status controls the communication. Low PD- horizontal- equal power sharing, little attention to differences in status, authority can be challenged, communication occurs across perceived differences. Communication influences (Context): Direct-low context (don’t need much context to understand) INDIVIDUALIST Indirect- high context (need to know the context to interpret) COLLECTIVIST Responses to cultural difference: Ethnocentrism- look inward… these cultures make no sense Cultural relativism- we can only understand the culture form within that culture Multiculturalism- we recognize we can learn from other cultures although they are different Culture, gender, communication: Gender- social role behavior Gender roles Gender roles are rigid in male culture (girls do this men do this) Stereotypical gender traits Feminine cultures- ppl can take diff. roles Fluid feminine Rigid masculine Culture, gender and persuasion Logistically- make sure your arguments/language can be understood Clichés are often not meaningful outside a particular culture (The nail that sits up get hammered down) Appeals should match cultural values. Individual benefit of action/Collective benefit of action. Indirect or direct appeal. Cognitive dissonance (Recognize actions don’t match their feeling) (Shame) Notes from 3-23-16 What is listening? Making meaning form messages (comprehension, remembering, feedback) Type of listener Content oriented- value credibility, enjoys listening, evaluate ideas Action oriented- organize info into concise themes and categories to enable completion of tasks (make charts) Time oriented- dislike rambling, concerned with efficiency People oriented- not judgmental, concerned with feelings, good at reading moods 3 types of listening Informational Goal- Comprehend ideas and info Helpful aid- asking good questions Bad habits- response shift and interrupting, glazing over, pseudo listening (not really listening just nodding), competitive listening (like to make it about us and us winning) Appropriate response- focused response Critical Goal- Evaluate ideas and info Assumption- cant take info at face value (the an agenda or reason why they want me to understand them) Appropriate response- Skepticism (ill believe if you prove it) Bad habits- Empathic Goal- Understand how someone feels and provide support. Listen to what is most important to speaker Assumption- feelings are just as important as facts Appropriate response- Support/Person-centeredness (focus on whole message) Bad habits- responding to content only not the underlying emotion, interpreting from our fame, offering advice Barriers to listening- Listen to only what supports our beliefs (through biases) Ambushing Rationalize away facts that don’t support our beliefs Active listening- helps with retaining info when you make a conscious effect to understand whats going on holistically (verbal). (This is like when ppl copy down every word on board). Tips: turn off computers and phones, be other oriented like is my communication clear to someone else, adopt a spirit of inquiry like ask questions because you want to know more, defer (accept) judgement, response appropriately We listen together: To discover how ppl understand and make sense of the world To gain new perspectives To discover how to best address challenges