Biomechanics of Human Movement
Biomechanics of Human Movement HES 370
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Adrain Lang on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HES 370 at Wake Forest University taught by Anthony Marsh in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/230717/hes-370-wake-forest-university in Health Sport And Exercise Science at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Greg Simpson Krista Moore and Leila Hamzi HES 370 Biomechanics Dr Marsh Biomechanics Outline Purpose Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL injuries are some ofthe most common injuries in sports occurring at a rate ofalmost 1 in every 3000 US citizens per year From these injuries in high school and collegiate athletes approximately 70 are from reaction and sports mainly basketball volleyball and soccer these are all sports were abrupt stopping and pivoting occur Going from the proximal anterior tibia to the posterior femur on the medial and posterior part of the lateral condyle the ACL aids in stabilizing the knee joint and prevent hyperextension ofthatjoint Research has shown there to be a distinct discrepancy between males and females and the prevalence of AOL injuries speci cally noncontact injuries Since most of these injuries 63 of AOL noncontact injuries in volleyball players occur during the landing phase after a jump it is important to explore the landing phase and foot strike during a single leg landing Since female athletes experience noncontact ACL injuries two to eight times more often than male athletes the purpose ofthis experiment is to examine several different aspects of the landing phase of a female collegiate athlete and compare these aspects to male collegiate athletes Results from this study could prove to be bene cial and help reduce the thirty seven million dollars spent per year on female athlete ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation Hypothesis 1 Because females have a larger Q angle than males they undergo more adduction at the hip during the landing phase Hypothesis 2 Females will experience a smaller range of motion during the landing phase ofa singleleg landing than males Hypothesis 3 Females will experience greater extension of the knee joint during the landing phase ofa singleleg landing Hypothesis 4 Females will take less time to reach peak exion in the landing phase of a singleleg landing Proposed Methods and Literature review for hypothesis 1 An accurate observation of the difference between single leg landing in males and females is to measure the Q angle With a camera facing the anterior portion ofthe frontal plane sensors will be placed on the anterior superior iliac spine ASIS center of the patella and the tibial tuberosity V th these three points an accurate Q angle can be calculated and used to test hypotheses 1 and 2 It is understood that females have a larger Q angle 139 degrees than males 115 degrees With a larger Q angle women will be more subjected to increased valgus stress leading to an increase in injury ofthe Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Valgus stress is the abnormal relationship between the tibia and femur where the tibia is turned more outward in relation to the femur This discrepancy between genders leads to women experiencing a greater strain on the ACL during the landing phase the landing phase is de ned as the time the foot strikes the ground until maximum knee exion is reached of a singleleg landing Moving on to hypothesis 2 there is a noted difference during a singleleg landing at the hip at initial contact with the ground so that females experienced hip abduction while males experience hip adduction Continuing the landing phase female s hip internally rotates leading to a valgus stress on the knee joint Greater Q angles hip adduction through the landing phase and internal rotation all cause greater stress on the ACL increasing the chance of injury Proposed Methods and Literature review of hypothesis 2 V th a camera view of the sagital plane a singleleg landing will be performed with sensors on the ASIS and the later condyle ofthe femur Range of motion will be measured by the displacement of the knee joint during the landing phase of the singleleg landing Previous studies have found that females have less flexion displacement than males during the landing process therefore experiencing a smaller range of motion A smaller range of motion during the landing phase results in a stiffer landing Proposed Methods and Literature review of hypothesis 3 Using the sagital view of a camera the subject s singleleg landing will be lmed with sensors on the greater trochanter later femoral condyle and lateral mallelous From this digital data the angle at the knee can be calculated From the literature females are considered to have quadriceps dominance which causes more strength and activation in the quadriceps leading to increased extension Therefore during the landing phase ofa singleleg landing females will have a smaller degree of exion at the knee increasing the chances of posterior dislocation ofthe tibia and AOL strain During the quadriceps muscle load stress on the ACL peaks at 15 degrees of exion and tapers off with greater exion at the knee lfthe joint angle at the knee is less than 30 degrees when entering the landing phase then the hamstrings have a decreased ability to adequately reduce stress on the ACL On the other hand research has shown that males have greater flexion at the knee during the landing phase which decreases the risk of a noncontact ACL injury and strain on the ACL Proposed Methods and Literature review hypothesis 4 Using the sagital camera view a frame by frame analysis ofthe landing phase will be conducted Using this analysis the time spent in the landing phase by the subject can be calculated Research suggests that ifthe time to maximum exion is maximal and if the angular displacement is large the impact forces experienced by the ACL will be reduced upon landing By taking signi cantly less time to reach peak flexion females are landing in a more extended position with less internal rotation this means that a more abrupt absorption of impact forces will be experienced increasing the strain and potential for injury on the ACL Because females take shorter time to reach peak exion they decrease their joint stability by limiting their range of motion ofthe knee joint x N F b 01 F 00 50 x O x x x I x 0 x A x 01 x 0 References BarberWestin Sue D Frank R Noyes MD and Marc Galloway MD quotJumpLand Characteristics and Muscle Strength Development in Young Athletesquot m American Journal of Sports Medicine 343 2006 37584 Bing Yu Scott B McClure James A Onate Kevin M Guskiewicz Donald T Kirkendall and William E Garrett quotAge and Gender Effects on Lower Extremity Kinematics of Youth Soccer Players in a StopJump Taskquot American Journal of Sports Medicine 2005 33 Hart J J Garrison et al 2008 quotLower Extremity Joint Moments of Collegiate Soccer Players Differ Between Genders During a Forward Jumpquot Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 172 137147 Hughes G and J Watkins 2006 quotA Riskfactor Model for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuryquot Sports Medicine 365 411428 Jacobs Cale A PhD ATC et al quotHip Abductor Function and Lower Extremity Landing Kinematics Sex Differencesquot Journal of Athletic Training 421 2007 7683 Jennifer E Eral Sarika K Monteiro Kelli R Snyder quotDifferences in Lower Extremity Kinematics between a Bilateral DropVertical Jump and a SingleLeg Step Downmentquot Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 37 2007 245 52 Jonathan D Chappell R Alexander Creighton Carol Giuliani Bing Yu and William E Garrett quotKinematics and Electromyography of Landing Preparation in Vertical StopJump Risks for Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuryquot American Journal of Sports Medicine 35 2006 235 Lephart Scott M PhD ATC Ferris Cheryl M MEd ATC Riemann Bryan L PhD ATC Myers Joseph B PhD ATC Fu Freddie H MD ScD quotGender Differences in Strength and Lower Extremity Kinematics During Landingquot Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 401 2002 16269 Muneta T Takakuda K Yamamoto H quotlntercondylar Notch Width and Its Relation to the Configuration and CrossSectional Area ofthe Anterior Cruciate Ligament A Cadaveric Knee Studyquot The American Journal of Sports Medicine 1997 69 72 Ortiz A S Olson et al 2008 quotLanding Mechanics Between Noninjured Women and men With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction During 2 Jump Tasksquot American Journal of Sports Medicine 36 149157 Ray Fagenbaum Warren G Darling quotJump Landing Strategies in Male and Female College Athletes and the Implications of Such Strategies for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuryquot American Journal of Sports Medicine 31 2003 233 Russell Kyla A et al quotSex Differences in Valgus Knee Angle During a SingleLeg Drop Jumpquot Journal of Athletic Training 412 2006 16671 Schmitz R A Kulas et al 2007 quotSex Differences in lower extremity biomechanics during 39 88 single leg landingsquot Clinical Biomechanics 22 6816 Wikstom E A et al quotFailed Jump Landing Trials Deficits in Neuromuscular Controlquot Scandinavian Journal Medicine amp Science in Sports 18 2008 5561 Wikstrom Erik A MS et al quotGender and Limb Differences in Dynamic Postural Stability During Landingquot Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine 164 July 2006 31115 Wikstrom Erik A MS et al quotJumpLanding Direction Influences Dynamic Postural Stability coresquot Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 200811 2008 10611 S Yasar Salci Behzat Bahadir Kentel Cengiz Heycan Sabire Akin and Feza Korkusuz CO mparison of Landing Maneuvers between Male and Female College Volleyball Playersquot Clinical Biomechanics 19 2004 62228
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