Humanities I HUM 101
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This 70 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caesar Reinger on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUM 101 at Washtenaw Community College taught by Jambard-Sweet in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/230767/hum-101-washtenaw-community-college in Humanities at Washtenaw Community College.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
ANCIENT EGYPT Secular Architecture in the Middle Kin dom i The fortress at Buhen 1 19711841 BCE a lts fortifications included a 3m deep moat drawbridges bastions buttresses ramparts battlements loopholes and a catapult The walls of the fort were about 5m think and stood lOm high El At its peak it had a population of around 3500 people 8 35 SEE 82 5535 5 2 MORTUARY TEMPLES OF THE NEW KINGDOM v AAA El Wife of the Pharaoh Thutmose ll she declared herself a man after his death in order to ascend the throne instead of one of Thutmose s young sons She is the first female monarch whose name has been recorded She created the most maiestic of royal mortuary temples at Deir el Bahri She was often depicted as a man by artists Senmu r Mortuary Temple of Harshepsuf Deir el Bahri Egypt ca 14731458 BCE Head of Queen Ha rshepsut as Pharaoh Dynasty 18 c 14901470 BCE and Queen Hafshepsut as Sphinx Dynasty 1 8 c 14901470 BCE Hatshepsu r with offering jars Deir eIBahri Egypt ca 1473 1 458 BCE red groni reB ft 6 in high L 54 w Ramses ll 3 a Erec red more monuments and Temples rhan any other Pharaoh El Lived to be 96 El 67 year reign began after The death of his father Se ry a Had 200 wives and concubines and sired well over 100 children New Kingdum ANCI E N39l39 EGYPT ea 39739 slewwm quotquotquotquot39 i 39199quot LOWEREGXPT Gimfi i Helioprj39gs Saqqara IMcmpI g j PAM39UM Gumh39Iquot Halmrtya 1 quot Z Um Bmx Hum quotI ARABlA 339 Tall clAmarna 15quot running hm f Dcir cl48ahri d Karnak u39xl 39l helws Luxm xx x I39litrakunpolis N bdru39 UPPER g 39 EC Y P T x Aswan 50 070 81 f 39J lbu Simbel Inn 200 mild I00 20 kilum us if j ELL J w A q tr 4 7 4 A 41 31 c7 339 EGYPTIAN ART Fron rolism The head of the character is always drawn in profile while the body is seen from the front Although the face is to the side the eye is drawn in full The legs are turned to the same side as the head with one foot placed in front of the other The head is at right angles to the body Every figure stands or sits with a formal stiff and rigid posture The stance of the body is severe but the faces are calm and serene and almost always tilted slightly towards the sky Sculptural Forms Statues for Eternity Tombs included images of the deceased for the ka s abode in case the mummy was destroyed Statue of Khafre Stone is diorite cf Gudea Symbolism includes Throne of two stylized lion s bodies lntertwined lotus amp papyrus representing union of Egypt Horus spreads falcon wings behind his head to protect him He39address has royal cobra on front Sculptural F arms Statue for Eternity Statue of Khafre Wearing his royal false beard Represented in ideal form and flawless face Characteristics of the style symmetrical Frontal pose ldealized body and features Compact and solid with few proiecting parts v Khnfre from Gizeh Egypt 25202494 BCE diorif e approximately 66 in high Menkaure amp one of his wives This standing statue was one of the basic formulaic types l l Stood in the valley temple of 1 his pyramid complex l Also shows how close to the stone block shape these statues l were Pose is rigidly frontal use of conventional poses to suggest timeless nature of these substitute homes for the ka 1 The wife s pose symbolizes their marital status but no I emotion is expressed 1 Menkaure and Kharmereneb ry from szeh Egyp r cut 2490 2472 REE Graywacke approximately 54 1 2 Tn high The Cannon of Human Proportions An artist drew a grid on the wall2 then placed varlous body parts at speCI c p01nts on the network of squares Each body part was a xed number of squares I I I I I I I I I Ii l l lllllx E i I IIIIIIIIII A l A A IIQIIEEEI IIIIIES III II ii HIII i Ia HeSire Saqqara Sixth Dynasty Figure Mereruka Saqqara Third Dynasty Sixth Dynasty IIIIIIII39illIIIIIIHI r IIIIIIII Wm 1m Ix II ll l ll39 III I m m EGYPTIAN ART The Armana Period People l a Akhenaton Pharaoh Amenhotep IV abandoned the worship of most Egyptian gods in favor of Aton He claimed to be Aton s son and sole prophet l3 Aton Declared by Akhenaton as the universal and only god identified by a sun disk symbol not as an animal or human Nefertiti Akhenaton s queen her name means The beautiful one is here D Tutankhamen Akhenaton s son by a minor wife ruled for a decade and died at 19 a very minor fi ure His tomb was uncovered by Howard Carter in 19 2 Armarna Style More elongated curved and effeminate figure representation i A reaction against the established style a More intimacy shown in family scenes l More individuality is allowed in portraits Akheno ron in sunken relief i amp Daughters Neferf Akhena ron mt Wu nhl f 4 r 5 Ir f i Iu1lll 1 7 riestsEngineera nct r Snldirs Fa rmearsq and Tun 11 Builders Women in Egypt were free to seek employment outside the home Many women worked as musicians or dancers in the temples and during festivals Wealthier households employed women as maids or nannies and sometimes professional mourners for funerals Women who had the time and resources would operate a small business out of their home such as inen or perfume manufacturing Professional opportunities for women included physician or midwife director of dance or singing troupes and overseer The women who became doctors mostly attended to other women as gynecologists Their skills were such that they performed cesarean sections and surgically removed cancerous breasts El Within a given class men and women had the same rights Women were free to buy and sell property enter and execute contracts and file lawsuits E A woman could acquire possessions property and debt separate from her husband through labor or inheritance ll A woman was entitled to inherit one third of their ioint property on the death of her husband the remaining estate was divided between the surviving children and siblings of the dead man Women were equally accountable under the law D A woman who was convicted of a capital crime in a court of law would be executed but only after the court determined that the woman was not pregnant a If such a woman was found to be pregnant her execution was stayed until she could give birth to the child Then she was executed 1 Hathor Lady of Love Music and Intoxication B39es Dwarf god of fer ril39i ry Hothor gt a Lady of love music and intoxication El Symbol of motherhood on fertility Bes Dwarf god of fertility Women often had his image Tattooed on their thighs Egyptian Love l El No rituals of marriage yet divorce was common and granted to both men a women D There is no Egyptian word for virgin El There are records of attempts to create contraceptives with ingredients like honey bark and even crocodile dung 3 There are some images of bestiality Necrophilia was a common fear Even in death Egyptians were concerned with sexual activity rods were inserted into the penis so that men would be guaranteed an erection in eternity I All 511 Fashion and Beauty l a The Egyptians were quite fond of strong scents A popular form of pomade was shaped like a cone and worn on the top of the head As the evening progressed the cone would melt and the scented oil would run down the face and neck D Eye makeup was probably the most characteristic of the Egyptian cosmetics The most popular colors were green and black Fashion and Beauty l El Henna was used as hair dye El Tattooing was known and practiced Mummies of dancers and concubines from the Middle Kingdom have geometric designs tattooed on their chests shoulders and arms El Wigs and hairpieces were also quite popular They were quite elaborate and usually made of human hair Other tools used in the beauty ritual that have been found include short fine tooth combs hair pins and a small bronze implement with a pivoting blade thought to be a hair curler Rahotep and Nofref painted limestone c 2620 BCE mOltugtZm mammmmmu m gtgtgtOm ZuZm ltgtmlt Ou mAZ nOON ltltgtm ugt Ou m ngtgtgt O nltNgtOZ mlt IOCOI Om Imgtgtmmltmm gtm gt anmMmOZum gtZU anm Om gtUm uOgtgt Im ltltIOm AZOltltZ ltltOU gtungt gtmgt m gtgtmUmgtZmgtZ gtZU mcOum uO Im mmgtmOZ gt Im ltltOUm AZOltltZ mAZ nOrOmm ltltmm mm gt20 gtm mIOltltZ Z m gt3 j 395 147 153 3 xvxe wobo am new quot WW lf H Sw o Animals l El El Pet dogs were well looked after given names such as 39Blackey39 or 39Brave One39 and often provided with elaborate leather collars 39Man39s best friend39 was considered not iust as a family pet but was also used for hunting or for guard duty from the earliest periods of Egyptian history Cats were kept to protect food stores from rats mice and snakes and were kept as pets They are shown in paintings beneath their owners39 chairs or on their laps Egyptian cats resembled modern tabby cats The Egyptian name for cat is mlw Baste39r Daily Life I Much of what we know about the daily life of Egyptians has been garnered through the artifacts found in tombs J a 5
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