The Child From 6
The Child From 6 CHF 2570
Weber State University
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rozella Blanda on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHF 2570 at Weber State University taught by James Bird in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/230771/chf-2570-weber-state-university in Child and Family Studies at Weber State University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
JEAN PIAGET COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY As sumptions p A Organization humans actively organize their world into coherent systems ASchemata these systems are referred to as schema B Content the information put into these schemes is the content C Behavior the content in uences our behavior 2 Disequilibrium when the information in the schema does not fit with what the environment presents it causes confusion or disequilibrium 3 Adaptation the disequilibrium motivates us to adapt our schema through the functional processes of assimilation andor accommodation A Assimilation putting new information into existing schema B Accommodation changing the existing schema to fit the new information 4 As the person matures and develops hisher structural abilities for organizing new information thinking becomes more complex this produces stages Piaget outlined four stages occurring during the life process 5 Development follows a predictable pattern 6 A person must pass through each stage before going on to a new more complex one 7 Each stage sees the elaboration of new mental abilities that set the limit and determine the character of what can be learned at that period 8 Progress is related to four factors maturation experience physical and logico mathematical social transmission and equilibration 9 Piaget s theory is constructionistic because it believes that people actively quotconstructquot their own reality Four Interrelating Factors Which Builds A Person39s Understanding This is a brief summary of four factors that Piaget identi ed as in uencing the way a person views hisher world The article that follows provides more detailed information I Equilibration A Often referred to as the motivating force B Is a selfregulating process C Humans gain new competence through seeking equilibrium However a person is only sensitive to a certain stimulus that would cause disequilibrium when that person possesses a certain competence to act on the stimulus If the stimulus is presented prior to a certain level of competence the stimulus will have no value at all 11 Maturation A Maturation is in uenced primarily by genetics It sets the potential B The rate of maturation can be in uenced by the environment Animals raised in enriched environments had greater cortexsubcortex weight ratio C However not every experience contributes equally to brain development it probably is speciesspeci c Language and quotproductive thinkingquot experiences are probably species specific to humans D Programs that concentrate on language are probably beneficial to brain development 111 Social knowledge A Knowledge that comes from people explaining things to a child or from a child s imitation of a model This factor contributes to the child s knowledge through more formal instruction B Direct instruction is probably appropriate fOI H l of educational remediation when social knowledge is lacking IV Experience knowledge Two forms Physical experience and Logico mathematical A Physical Experience is experience in extracting the physical properties from objects It is primarily selfdirected and selftaught B Logicomathematical experience is knowledge that is acquired through internal coordination of an indiVidual s actions such as understanding quantity and prepositions cognitive oriented curriculum is probably useful in addressing the physical and logico mathematical factors Piaget39s Theory A theorist who has provided important insight into children is Jean Piaget Piaget s theory assumes that a new stimulus or experience does not simply add another element to a child s knowledge Instead each new experience alters the relationship of the existing thinking that make up the child s knowledge forming a new pattern of understanding or stage This view is in contrast to a behavioral theory approach that conceives of knowledge as proceeding from small additive increments that accumulate to form the child s current knowledge leaving the previous system undisturbed Thomas 1981 Thus Piaget s theory believes that there are quotqualitativequot changes in the way people view the world as the mature whereas a behavioral approach views people moving through in a quotquantitativequot manner Each of Piaget s stages follows a sequence that may be advanced or delayed but not altered The higher stage integrates the previous stages but emerge at a more complex and developed level which is qualitatively different than the previous stage Tanner 1978 Tanner implied that a possible reason for the similarities between the principles that Piaget s stages follow and the principles of maturation is because the stages reflect the biological maturation of the brain Therefore how the stages emerge and the content of the stage is influenced by the biological maturation of the brain This notion is supported by Piaget s statement that maturation of the nervous system determines the possibilities of the stages However the actual learning that takes place is determined by the cultural and educational conditions Piaget amp Inhelder 1964 Piaget s theory is also considered constructionistic or he views people as constructing their own knowledge and therefore reality According to his theory people build their understanding of the world through four interrelating factors equilibration maturation experience and social experience It is felt by this author that these factors are important in understanding what the child believes about the world assessing children s readiness and potential achievement and making appropriate educational placements Equilibration is what Piaget refers to as the motivating force When there is a discrepancy between what a person predicts will happen and what actually happens the person is put into a state of disequilibration and is compelled to reinstate harmony Thus humans gain new competence through seeking equilibrium However a person is only sensitive to a certain stimulus which would cause disequilibrium when that person possesses a certain competence to act on the stimulus Thus if the stimulus is present prior to a certain level of competence the stimulus will have no value at all Wadsworth 1978 The influence that experience has on development learning is obvious Piaget identified two categories of experience physical experience and logica malhemalical experience Physical experience is experience in extracting the physical properties from objects Thus learning that a square has four equal sides or that certain objects are hard and others are soft are examples of physical experience Logico mathematical experience is knowledge that is acquired through internal coordination of an individual s actions such as understanding quantity and prepositions Piaget noted that knowledge that grew from the experience factor was essentially spontaneous and self taught Thomas 1985 The social transmission factor is knowledge that comes from people explaining things to a child or from a child s imitation of a model This factor contributes to the child s knowledge through more formal instruction Furthermore this factor has to be preceded by the maturation and physical logico mathematical factors if it is to be successful Cultural and educational variables would have a great influence upon this factor Thomas 1985 The influence of physical maturation has already been discussed For example heredity equips the child with various structures such as the commissural fibers of the corpus callosum The corpus callosum is that area of the brain that connects the two hemispheres This structure like most physical structures are not fully developed at birth and will mature as the child gets older To the extent that the structures are matured will affect the potential for intellectual development and the ability to process information Languis Sanders ampTipps 1980 A child s physical logico mathematical and social knowledge are measured by most current tests Each area can give insights into the child s understanding of his world delays in these areas might suggest appropriate educational placement For example if a child s poor performance in school is due to an unenriched environment social knowledge holding the child back would only keep the child in the unenriched environment However by promoting the child the child might be exposed to an enriched environment The same could be said about the child who comes from a different culture social knowledge By promoting that child you would be exposing the child to the necessary culture for school Furthermore basic skills training may be the appropriate form of remediation when physical logico mathematical and particularly social knowledge are lacking Specifically the training programs of DISTAR and Behavior Analysis would seem to address Piaget s social experience factor As Mayer 1971 pointed out the DISTAR approach directly teaches specific rules and information that the culture deems is important The High Scope Perry Preschool model would probably be useful in addressing the physical and logico mathematical factors As Mayer noted this program focuses on getting the child to extract information through teacher directed hands on learning experiences Whether or not biological maturity can be accelerated so immature children do not need to be retained is debatable Tanner 1978 stated that the maturation of the brain cannot be accelerated by outside conditions only retarded Furthermore he cited numerous examples of how the maturation of the nervous system occurs quite separately from any exercise or learning However in experiments concerning the effects of environment upon brain development Krech Rosenzweig and Bennett 1962 reported that rats who were raised in an enriched environment as opposed to ones raised in an impoverished environment differed in the morphology and biochemistry of their brains In another study by Krech 1971 he cited evidence that rats that were raised in an enriched environment had greater cortexsubcortex weight ratio In a previous study Hebb 1970 reported that rats raised in enriched environments were intellectually superior in terms of their ability to learn the pattern of a maze Krech concluded that not every experience or environmental stimulation contributed equally to brain development He contended that the most effective way to increase brain morphology was through species specific enrichment For example providing the rat with numerous opportunities to explore mazes species specific activity enhanced the production certain chemicals that serve as transmitters between nerve cells however lever pressing activities did not Krech 1971 Krech generalized his species specific hypothesis to humans and suggested that language and quotproductive thinkingquot experiences would enhance brain development as these abilities are seemingly species specific He suggested that educators should turn to the theories of Piaget Bruner and Crutchfield as major guides in designing effective educational enrichment programs Krech 1971 Whether species specific enriched environments enhance brain maturation or if it only changes brain chemistry and structure is uncertain However both Krech and Tanner 1978 advocate using theories such as Piaget s for designing educational programs It seems as though a child s world can be rich in experience and social stimulation but if the child does not have the biological cognitive maturity the child may have difficulty organizing the information in a way that is effective for academic situations Furthermore the child may not be motivated to learn because of a lack of necessary competence to be placed in disequilibrium However because most people regardless of culture tend to be exposed to similar types of events and mature at relatively similar rates their thinking is similar These quotsimilarquot ways of thinking that occur at similar ages or periods are referred to as stages Piaget s Cognitive Development theory proposed that during the middle childhood years children had similar ways of interpreting or constructing their world He labeled this year the Concrete Operational Period because he observed that this age group of children had developed logical thought processes that freed them from the quotpull of immediate perceptionquot but was still bound by concrete tangible real life situations They were not able to effectively think in terms of hypothetical abstract or complex verbal situations At this period they have the cognitive ability to pay attention to how one event can transform into another transformation The child also can attend to the multiple features of a problem Furthermore the child has the ability to follow the line of reasoning back to where it started reversibility These concrete operational traits combined with others allow the child to seriate and classify which are cognitive abilities that are crucial to reading math and understanding the world in a more logical manner Piaget s Cognitive Stages Ages are approximate l N U Sensorimotor birth 2 years A Infant uses simple schemas such as re exes to organize and understand the world B Infant distinguishes himherself from the rest of the environment C Infant acquires object permanence the understanding that objects continue t D Infant develops language Preoperational 2 7 years A Child is able to use symbolic thought language B Organizes the world in certain ways that interfere with logical thought blocks to logical thought 1 Egocentrism Interprets the world through hisher own perceptions therefore has difficulty taking the View of another 2 Animism believes that inanimate objects have life and therefore feelings and motives 3 Perceptually bound Thought is influenced primarily by the way things look 4 Centration Centers attention on one aspect of a problemstimulus 5 Does not consider the transformations Focuses on the elements in a sequence or the successive states while ignoring the changes that took place in order to reach the successive state 6 Lacks reversibility Difficulty following the line of reasoning back to where it started 7 Lacks conservation Preoperational child cannot or has difficulty understanding the amount or quantity of a substance stays the same regardless of any change in position or shape Concrete operations 8 11 years A Has overcome most of the blocks to logical thought B Logical reasoning is based on concrete tangible objects C Is capable of seriation and classification 4 Formal operations 12 through adulthood a Can reason about numerous possible solutions and determine there plausibility in their head b Think about things that have never occurred and may not ever occur c Able to think abstractly
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