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week 1 notes

by: Alexandra Votaw

week 1 notes BIO282

Alexandra Votaw
GPA 3.87
BIO 282- ConceptualApproachBioMajorsII
Dr.Bang, Dr. Michel, Dr. Orchinik

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here are the notes for week one for bio 282! it includes the textbook notes, breakout assignment notes, and lecture notes
BIO 282- ConceptualApproachBioMajorsII
Dr.Bang, Dr. Michel, Dr. Orchinik
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Votaw on Monday January 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO282 at Arizona State University taught by Dr.Bang, Dr. Michel, Dr. Orchinik in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see BIO 282- ConceptualApproachBioMajorsII in Biology at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 01/19/15
BIO 282 Notes week ofJanuary 13 2015 NOTES FOR BREAKOUT How the Sodium Potassium Pump works o It is an active transport mechanism 0 3 Na from inside the cell bind to membrane protein 0 ATP provides energy to change shape of channel 1 phosphate group from ATP stays on pump 0 After new shape of protein 3Na leave out of cell and 2 K bind to protein 0 After 2K bind protein shape changes again and phosphate group released back into cytoplasm protein returns to original shape 0 Once 2K is released into the cell the proteins af nity for Na returns Na and K move against concentration gradient reason energy is needed How Membrane Potentials Occur In cells there are channels that allow only K leaving behind anions creating a negative charge inside the cell 0 Concentration gradients pull K out of the cell but membrane potentials pull K back in Why are Concentration Gradients so Important Nerve conduction and thus muscle movement brain function etc depend on electrical signals caused by concentration gradients of K and Na across never cell membrane Neurotoxins Scorpion venom Arizona bark scorpionmost poisonous bindsdisrupts Na channels 0 Poison dart frog bindsdisrupts Na channels Poytoxin from imumakeohana cora opens NatK pump TEXTBOOK NOTES Chapter 42 Animal Form and Function 421 Form Function and Adaption Adaptions heritable traits that allow individuals to survivereproduce in certain environments better than others 0 Natural seectiongtchange in aee frequenciesgtevoutiongtadaptions THE ROLE OF FITNESS TRADEOFFS Adaptions aren39t perfect Tradeoffs inescapable compromise between traits most important constraint on adaptions Spermatophore packet of sperm surrounded by a large gelatinous mass Tradeoffs common in nature ADAPTION S AN D ACCLI MATIZATIO N Acclimatization short term reversible responses to environmental uctuations phenotypic change accimation is the same as acclimatization but only occurs in the lab 0 The ability to acclimatize is an adaption 422 Tissues Organs and Systems How Does Structure Correlate with Function 0 If a structure is adaptive often size shape or composition correlates closely with its function Allele frequency of a mutation increases if mutation increases ability to reproduce STRUCTUREFUNCTION RELATIONSHIPS AT THE MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR LEVEL 0 Possible to predict a cell39s function by looking at its internal structure and size TISSUES ARE GROUPS OF CELLS THAT FUNCTION AS A UNIT multicellular bodies contain distinct types of cells specialized for different functions 0 tissue a group of cells that function as a unit embryonic tissue gives rise to connective nervous muscle and epithelial ssue CONNECTIVE TISSUE connective tissue cells that are loosely arranged in a liquid jellylike or solid matrix makes extracellular bers and other materials loose connective tissue contains array of brous proteins in a soft matrix packing material between organs padding under skin reticuar connective tissue adipose tissuefat dense connective tissue in tendonsligaments connects muscles bones and organs tough collagen bers matrix supporting connective tissue rm extracellular matrix that provides structural support bonecartilage protective enclosures for brainnervous system uid connective tissue blood cells connected by liquid extracellular matrix bood contains variety of cells w specialized matrix plasma and transports materials NERVOUS TISSUE nervous tissue consists of nerve cells neurons and supporting cells neurons nerve cells that transmit electrical signals produced by changes in permeability to ions of plasma membrane supporting cells regulate the concentration of ions around neurons supply nutrients and scaffoldingsupport dendrites highly branched relatively short processes contact other cellstransmit signals to cell body axon relatively long structure carries electrical signal from body to other cells MUSCLE TISSUE muscle tissue allow movement of body pumping heart mixing food skeletal muscle attaches to bone and exerts force on them when it contracts responsible for movement encirces opening of digestiveurinary tracts cardiac muscle walls of heart and responsible for pumping blood smooth muscle tapered at the end lines walls of digestive tract and blood vessels EPITHELIAL TISSUE epithelial tissues covers outside of body lines surface of organs and forms glands organ several tissues that serve specialized function gland organ that secretes speci c moleculessolutions ie Enzymes or hormones provides protection and is selectively permeable forms layer of closely packed cells accompanied by tight junctionsdesmosomes apical side side of epithelia that faces toward environment basolateral side side of epithelia facing interior of animal basal lamina layer of bers connecting basolateral side to connective tissue short life span ORGANS AND ORGAN SYSTEMS organ system groups of tissuesorgans work together to preform one or more function organism as a whoegt sum of its parts 424 Homeostasis homeostasis stability in the chemical and physical conditions within an animal39s cells tissues and organs HOMEOSTASIS GENERAL PRINCIPALS many processes observed can be interpreted as mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis TWO APPROACHES TO MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS use conformation or regulation con rmation no active effort to maintain body temperature body temp remains constant because it conforms to the temperature of constant surroundings cannot function in another environment regulation mechanisms adjust internal state to keep it within limits that can be tolerated regardless of external conditions if external environment gets too hot or too cold homeostasis cannot be maintainedl death THE ROLE OF EPITHELIUM epithelium responsible for forming an internal environment that can be drastically different from the external environment relatively constant conditions inside animals 0 control between external molecules and internal environment WHY IS HOMEOSTASIS IMPORTANT most enzymes function best under a fairly narrow range of conditions need homeostasis membrane permeability and speed of diffusion affected by temperature 0 proteins denature at higher tempsose function 0 changes in homeostasis can be important adaptions THE ROLE OF REGULATION AND FEEDBACK often regulate temp blood pressure blood pH and blood glucose set point a normaltarget range of values for the controlled variable mammals keep set points for body temps between 35 C39 C homeostatic system consists of 3 components sensor integrator effector sensor structure that senses some aspect of the external or internal environment integrator evaluates incoming infodecides if response needed to maintain homeostasis effector any structure that helps restore desired internal condition homeostatic systems based on negative feedback negative feedback product of a process inhibits its production when there is too much of the product it will stop being produced homeostatic systems are one of the 5 essentials of life CLASS NOTES11515 STRESS every vertebrate has the same physiological response to stress stressor a perceived threat stress response body s physiological attempt to deal with a stressor restore homeostasis homeostasis a property of living organisms to regulate internal environment to maintain stability EVOLUTION OF REGULATORY SYSTEMS Claude Bernard 18131878 theorized about a condition of a quotfree and independent existencequot as organisms become independent if the external environment the develop mechanisms for maintaining the quotmilieu interieurquot Walter Cannon 18711945 used quothomeostasisquot in his book quotWisdom of the Bodyquot de ned as property of living organisms to regulate internal environment to maintain stability dynamic regulation of balance between critical physiology variables via multiples mechanisms


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