HU CBL Intrprsnl
HU CBL Intrprsnl COMM 2110
Weber State University
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COMMUNICATIONS 2110 COURSE MODULE TABLE OF CONTENTS Course Syllabus iv Unit Objectives and Materials Introductory Unit Building Community and Setting the Stage First Ideas Exercise 1 First Impressions 2 Study Guide 3 Unit 1 Theory and Contexts Study Guide 4 The Power of Labels An Attitudinal Scalequot 5 Unit 2 Competence Culture and Gender Study Guide 6 Breaking the Rules 7 Diversity Bingo 8 Gender Role Quiz 9 Masculine or Feminine Questionnaire 10 Beliefs About Sex and Gender Issues 11 Gender Roles in the Family 12 Unit 3 Group Development Study Guide 13 Team Excellence 14 Conversation Starters 16 The Crest 17 Creating Group Norms Discussion Questions 18 What s Most Importantquot 19 Group Norms Stop Actionquot 20 Unit 4 Groups as Systems Study Guide 21 Desert Survival 22 Unit 5 Perception Study Guide 23 Perception Problems 24 Fact or Inference 25 Partner Perception Inventory 26 Perception Checking Practice 28 Unit 6 Roles and Leadership Study Guide 30 Case Study Identifying Group Roles 31 Identifying Group Roles FollowUp 32 Leadership SelfAssessment 33 Leadership Dynamics 34 Unit 7 Defective DecisionMaking and Problem Solving Study Guide 35 Faulty Decision Making 36 Groupthink 37 Consesus DecisionMaking Assessment 38 The Uncritical Inference Testquot Exercise Story B 39 The Uncritical Inference Testquot Exercise Story C 40 Who Is Guilty 41 The Standard Agenda 43 Unit 8 Self Concept 6i Emotionality Study Guide 44 Alan39s Sabotaged Self Case Study 45 Alan s Sabotaged Self Discussion Questions 46 Identifying Your Emotional Reactions 47 Expressing Your Emotions 48 Practicing IStatementsquot 49 Avoiding YouMessagesquot 50 Unit 9 Relational Dynamics Study Guide 51 Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire 52 Interpersonal Wants Ads 53 Knapp s Relationship Stages 54 Termination Stories Assignment 55 Unit 10 Developing Group Climate Study Guide 56 Group Climate SelfAssessment 57 Communication Climates Giving Supportive and Confirming Responses 58 Win As Much As You Can 59 Defining Deception 6O Deception in Retrospect 61 Whom Do You Trust 62 SelfDisclosure Questionnaire 63 Unit 11 Power in Groups Study Guide 64 Power Can I Have Thatquot 65 Most Influential People 66 Power Issues by Gender 67 Communication Styles Gender and Listening 68 Young and Willing 70 Unit 12 Mindful Listening Study Guide 71 Listening Quiz 72 A Listening Self Evaluation 73 Bad Listening Habits 74 How Do You Listen 75 The Turnpike Arrest Case 77 Listening Exemptions 78 Active Listening Taxes 79 Active Listening for Facts 80 Reasons Why Advisory Responses are Inappropriate 81 Recognizing Effective Paraphrasing 83 Identifying Informational Paraphrasing Responses 84 Paraphrasing Practice 85 Problem Solving Paraphrasing Practice 86 Sympathy vs Empathy 87 Empathic Listening 88 Listen 89 Unit 13 Managing Conflict in Everyday Relationships Study Guide 90 Personal Reflection on Conflict 91 Personal Definitions of Conflict 92 Conflict SelfAssessment 93 Conflict Management Analyses 95 Five Types of Conflict Management 97 Identifying Conflict Management Styles 98 Conflict A Hindsight View of Conflict 100 Writing Assignments 6i Rubrics Writing Expectations 103 Personal Reflection Paper 104 Culture Communication Paper 106 Gender Communication Paper 108 Perception Checking Paper 110 ILanguage Paper 112 Pillow Method Paper 114 Exam Information Test 1 Review Terms 117 Test 2 Review Terms 118 Test 3 Review Terms 119 Test 4 Review Terms 120 Group Project Information Group Project Proposal 122 Letter from Thompson 124 Service Hours Verification Form 125 Group Project Presentation Rubric 126 Group Project Written Report Rubric 127 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 FIRST IDEAS EXERCISE Indicate Whether you agree or disagree with each of the following statements Below each statement give your reasoning as to Why you agree or disagree 1 Verbal communication is more important than nonverbal AGREE DISAGREE 2 Women and men speak different languages AGREE DISAGREE 3 The sender of a message is responsible for effectiveness AGREE DISAGREE 4 Con ict can improve close relationships AGREE DISAGREE 5 Ethnicity race and cultural background are all essentially the same thing AGREE DISAGREE 6 It is impossible not to communicate AGREE DISAGREE 7 Being a good listener means taking in more information that the other person AGREE DISAGREE 8 To be a good leader you must have an aggressive personality AGREE DISAGREE Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 1 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 FIRST IMPRESSIONS Directions Stand up walk around the room and locate based on your perceptions or impressions a person who ts each of the descriptions given below At each nding introduce yourself and explain what description the person ts in in your mind For example You appear to t item 1 on the Finder s Sheet in that you seem to me to be someone who enjoys children because you have soft gentle eyes My name is What is your name Then write the person s name next to the appropriate description Below each line indicate what about your perception or impression of them gave you that indication Then move on to seek another nding 1 Find someone who looks as if he or she enjoys children Name 2 Find someone who looks as if he or she likes to play sports Name 3 Find someone who looks as if he or she loves animals Name 4 Find someone who looks as if he or she is ambitious Name 5 Find someone who looks as if he or she appreciates classical music Name 6 It Find someone who looks as if he or she is an interesting conversationalist Name 7 Find someone who looks as if he or she likes exciting activities Name 8 Find someone who looks as if he or she enjoys spicy foods Name 9 Find someone who looks sophisticated Name 10 Find someone who looks intelligent Name Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 2 Reading Assignment Learning Objectives 1 2 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 INTROD UCTIONSTUDY GUIDE BUILDING COMMUNITY amp SETTING THE STA GE Johns amp Sline Ch1 pp111 2741 By the end of this unit you should be able to Explain What a general education Humanities course is and Why this course falls into that category Discuss Why Interpersonal Communication and Small Group Communication has been combined into this comprehensive course Complete the Time Out on p 6 of the textbook be prepared to discuss Explain What makes this textbook unique De ne cooperative learning and its purpose De ne service learning and its purpose Discuss the assumptions and goals of this course Explain the Learning Process for adults De ne Metacognition Delineate the Metacognitive Process Compare and contrast the Traditional Lecture vs the Active Lecture using cooperative learning structures List and explain some study skills strategies List and explain some testtaking skills Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 3 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 1 STUDY GUIDE COMMUNICA TION THEOR Y amp CONTEXTS Reading Assignment JampS Ch1 pp 1227 Ch 2 pp 4856 Learning Objectives By the end of this unit you should be able to 1 Discuss the difference between a fact and a theory 2 Complete the Time Out on p 15 of the textbook be prepared to discuss 3 Explain the role communication plays in making us human 4 Explain the role communication plays in our social construction of reality 5 Complete the Time Out on p 52 of the textbook be prepared to discuss 6 Recognize and illustrate the symbolic nature of verbal messages 7 Explain how language is arbitrary abstract and ambiguous 8 Complete the phrase Meaning is in not 9 Describe and illustrate the Transactional Model of Communication 10 Give an example of the following types of noise PhysicallyExternal Psychological and Physiological 11 Describe and illustrate the interpersonal communication continuum 12 Recognize and differentiate the content and relational dimensions of all messages 13 Define context and delineate the different social contexts that exist Family Context 14 Distinguish among the various kinds of families nuclear blended singleparent livein couples integrated couplehood and commuterlongdistance 15 Identify the characteristics that all types of family units have in common roles responsibilities shared time and shared space 16 Identify rules that regulate your family life as compared with the family life of others Friendship Context 17 Describe the nature of friendship 18 Discuss the expectations of friendship willingness to invest intimacy through dialogue and action acceptance trust and support 19 Distinguish how friendships differ from work or family relationships 20 Complete the Time Out on p 22 of the textbook be prepared to discuss Work Context 21 Explain the importance of interpersonal and small group communication skills for obtaining employment and performing success illy on the job 22 Describe the guidelines for effective communication at work Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 4 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 The Power of Labels An Attitudinal Scale Created by Dr Richard W Sline Directions 1 Circle the number that most closely re ects your attitude toward each of the following 8 statements SA strongly agree A agree N neither agree nor disagree D disagree SD strongly disagree 2 add up your total points for the 8 items 3 Divide your score by 8 to obtain an average score SA A N D SD To what degree to you believe in 10pen J J orbr ad 11 5 4 3 2 1 2 Giving freely or generosity 5 4 3 2 1 3 Reform or progress 5 4 3 2 1 4 The essential goodness of humans 5 4 3 2 1 5 The autonomy of the individual 5 4 3 2 1 quotindividual rightsquot 6 Economic freedom 5 4 3 2 1 7 Greater individual participation 5 4 3 2 1 in government 8 The protection of political and 5 4 3 2 1 civil liberties Total your points then divide by 8 Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 5 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 2 STUDY GUIDE COMMUNICA TION COMPETENCE GENDER AND CULTURE Reading Assignment JampS Ch 2 pp5781 Learning Objectives 1 Identify and become familiar with four elements of communication competence Knowledge B Skills C Sensitivity D Commitment 2 Describe the impact of the we vs me orientation on group work 3 Describe the opposites related to cultural orientations Low Power Distance vs High Power Distance Individualism vs Collectivism LowContext Style vs HighContext Style Masculine vs Feminine Low Uncertainty Avoidance vs High Uncertainty Avoidance LongTerm vs ShortTerm 4 Describe the opposites related to improving communication between cultures Ethnocentrism vs Cultural Relativism Misattribution vs Mind ilness Assimilation vs Convergence 5 List the differences of gender communication 6 Discuss the importance of understanding and recognizing the differences in cultural communication and gender communication 7 Complete the Time Out on p 76 of the textbook be prepared to discuss Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 6 Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 BREAKING THE RULES Instructions Do two or more of the following and summarize your experiences on the back side of this paper summarize What you did and What happened as a result Be prepared to report in class about your experiences Engage someone in conversation small talk and imagine and act out the assumptions that What the other person is saying is directed by hidden motives Assume the other person is trying to trick or mislead you and act accordingly Engage an acquaintance in conversation small talk and insist the person clarify his or her commonplace remarks eg Hi Bob How is your girlfriend feeling What do you mean how is she feeling Do you mean physically Mentally Spiritually Continue this throughout the conversation In short do not help the other person by responding to What you think he or she means Ask them everything Spend fteen minutes to an hour in your place of residence as if you were a guest or stranger Engage a person in conversation and hide a cassette tape recorder under your coat or nearby In the course of the conversation reveal the recorder and say See What I have Without invitation join a group of strangers in conversation Do not speak rst or introduce yourself Without invitation join a group of strangers in conversation Give each individual an expansive greeting as if they are all old good friends Select various persons different ages genders cultural backgrounds and levels of acquaintance and engage them in a conversation Without indicating that anything is unusual bring your face up to the other person s face until your noses are almost touching Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 7 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 Diversity Bingo Your assignment is to locate people who have either done or know about the things listed in the boxes below and then to obtain their autographs You must rst introduce yourself and share two personal things not listed in any of the boxes After the introduction the person may autograph the appropriate boxes for you The person who collects the most autographs wins You may not go back to the same person twice Was born Has attended a Knows the Is a morning Is a vegetarian Has worked outside Native signi cance of person outside the US American Angel Island the United Powwow States Has been to Can Has attended a Has never Knows the Knows which Austria communicate in Cinco de Mayo watched a signi cance of tribal American Sign celebration Super Bowl the Stonewall government the Language Riots Constitution was modeled after Has traveled Celebrates Has had his or Is a late night Knows who Knows the outside the Hanukkah her last name person Rosa Parks is opening date of United States mispronounced the deer hunting or shing season Can name at Has been a Has a lesbian Has a Native Worked while Has been to least two student for gay or bisexual American going to high Europe traditionally more than ve friend ancestor school black colleges years Is bilingual or Knows what Knows the Knows the Has danced to Can name the multilingual Kwanzaa is meaning of meaning of Jeri Tex Mex music books ofthe Juneteenth Curl Old or New Testament Is an avid Has been to a Knows his or Has danced to Knows why Is an avid country music long house her Chinese Zydeco music many Irish Dilbert fan fan birth sign people immigrated to the US in the 188039s Adapted from 3M Austin Texas Diversity Seminar 1994 Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 8 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 Gender Role Quiz Who was a hero idol superstar for you while growing up Can you check the following under the hood of your car oil radiator battery transmission uid brake uid Can you mend atom article of clothing Can you change a at tire Can you bake a cake from scratch Males only When out on a date how often does your partner drive Pay Females only How often do you initiate a first date Did you play any organized sports as a child In high school When was the last time you cried When was the last time you got into a fist ght How did you spend your leisure time as a child Have you ever earned money babysitting Mowing lawns Shoveling snow Paper route During the last week how many hours of sports events did you observe State one goal in life My children would be more important to me than my career True or False Would you ask your employer for a maternity or paternity leave of absence The male should be the primary breadwinner of the family True or False The female should be the primary homemaker of the family True or False What are two signi cant ways in which you reverse gender roles with the opposite sex Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 9 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 Masculine or Feminine Questionnaire Instructions For each statement below indicate Whether the behavior seems more typically masculine M or feminine F 1 Interrupt conversations to gain conversational control 2 Take up more space in sitting and standing regardless of physical size 3 Talkative in mixedgender conversations 4 Tell jokes 5 Engage in quottroubles talkquot talk about personal problems 6 Give quotminimum response cuesquot such as quotyeahquot or quotnopequot Without elaboration when asked questions during conversation 7 Engage in selfdisclosure 8 Give advice 9 Use greater volume and stronger in ection to highlight ideas 10 Switch or reroute the topic of conversation in mixedgender groups 11 Tell secrets 12 Make statements such as quotOh you must feel terriblequot 13 Make statements such as quotI kind of feel you may be overreactingquot 14 Tell stories about themselves instead of about other people 15 Tell stories about themselves that make them look foolish 16 Ask for directions when lost 17 Challenge the point of view of an expert in a public forum 18 Use slang and verbal obscenities 1 9 Listen intently 20 Apologize say quotI39m sorryquot Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 10 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 Beliefs About Sex and Gender Issues Instructions Read the statements listed below Then indicate whether you think each statement is generally true or false in the column labeled INDIVIDUAL OPINION Next discuss the statements with members of your group and reach a GROUP OPINION for each Focus your discussions on understanding why group members think as they do INDIVIDUAL OPINION GROUP OPINION Generally Generally Generally Generally True False True False H Women are more empathic than men P Young children need an athome mother at least for the first years of life America s national policy LN guarantees parental leaves only if they are unpaid 4 Women generally value friendships more than men U Women generally want to talk about the relationship more than men do 0 Women s hormonal swings and PMS make them unsuitable for military service I Affirmative Action policies involve quotas that require hiring certain percentages of women and minorities 9 In American schools educational opportunities are equal for men and women 0 Having lower selfesteem than males is a weakness of many females H 0 Women generally have more natural instincts for nurturing than men do H H Feminists believe in prochoice on abortion the decision should be up to the individual woman Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 11 Instructions COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 Gender Roles in the Family Indicate below whether primary responsibility for each task should belong to a male or a female Think of your family which of these are treated as gendered tasks Taking out the garbage Writing thankyou notes for a family gift Making an appointment to have the car xed Selecting new lrniture for the living room Making family investments Fixing the leaky faucet Taking the children to piano lessons Disciplining the children Changing diapers Cooking the meals Initiating romantic activity Cleaning the bathroom Cleaning out the re quotigerator Changing the sheets and pillowcases Taking a child to soccer practice Balancing the checkbook Family planning pregnancy concerns Care of elderly parents or ill children Cleaning out the rain gutters Wrapping birthday or Christmas gifts Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 12 Reading Assignment Learning Objectives 1 2 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT3 STUDY GUIDE GR 0 UP DE VFL 0PMENT JampS Ch4 By the end of this unit you should be able to Explain the interconnectedness of the task and social dimensions of groups Identify the periodic phases of group development Forming Storming Norming and Performing Explain why people join groups Explain the importance of appropriate group tension Differentiate between primary and secondary group tensions Discuss the difference between implicit and explicit norms Explain what conditions in uence conformity and nonconformity Describe the strategies for developing group cohesiveness Differentiate the conditions where group performance will likely be better than individual performance Describe the strategies for dealing with social loafing in groups Explain why the 20 rule works to diminish discrimination against minorities and women in small groups Describe competent communication for each of the periodic phases of group development List the characteristics of effective teams from handout Experience a process of group building through controlled selfdisclosure creating explicit group norms and developing group goals Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 13 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 Team Excellence Larson and LaFasto 1989 examined a large number of permanent high performance work teams in order to learn what makes such teams so unique so able to accomplish superiority Larson a scholar of small group communication and LaFasto the vice president for human resources for Baxter Health Care Corporation initially sought to identify effective management training programs that Baxter might use for developing its own teams As a result they discovered what high performance teams actually do and they learned that they all do the same things They identified eight characteristics of effectively mctioning teams l a clear elevating goal 2 results driven structure 3 competent members 4 uni ed commitment 5 collaborative climate 6 standards of excellence 7 external support and recognition 8 principled leadership Effective groups and teams share a common goal that is crystal clear and elevating that is one that is perceived by all members as worth achieving Concurrently they found that the most frequent explanation for team failure was that another issue or focus became more important than the team s performance objective Such goal drift was usually caused by politics or personal agendas The second characteristic they found common among the high performance teams they studied was a results driven structure Effective teams are designed to reinforce cooperation and collaboration rather than individual performance Duties and accountabilities are clearly structured to maximize the potential for achieving desired results However all teams are not structured the same Larson and LaFasto discovered that most teams can be placed into three categories problem solving teams creative teams and tactical teams They found that for problem solving team s ie corporate management teams trust is the central feature Members must trust one another in order to work effectively together with a high focus on issues For creative teams the dominant feature is autonomy Corporate research and development teams such as the IBM Boca Raton team that developed the IBM personal computer must be insulated from traditional corporate politics and procedures in order to maximize their creativity They often found that such teams become closely linked through both work and recreation activities Finally for tactical teams that perform specified mctions ie cardiac surgery teams football teams production teams etc the central features are highly focused tasks role clarity and welldefined operational standards The third feature that Larson and LaFasto discovered among high performing teams is competent members Members of effective teams possess technical competence at what it is they do In addition however the truly effective team members also possess personal competencies they have a we not me attitude and demonstrate a regard for teammates by utilizing effective interpersonal skills Thompson Comm 2110 Course Module Page 14 High performance teams also possess a unified commitment to the team its members and its goals Commitment to a team or organization has been de ned as the relative strength of an individual s identi cation with and involvement in a particular team or organization Such commitment is characterized by 1 a strong belief in and acceptance of the team or organization s goals and values 2 a willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the team or organization and 3 a strong desire to maintain membership in the team or organization Mowday Porter amp Steers 1982 In my own research of work teams in a health care staffing organization Sline 1999 team members possessed differing conceptualizations of commitment and different views of how commitment is communicated Larson and LaFasto found however that they best teams share a uni ed view of team commitment Highly effective teams also create a collaborative climate for working together A climate of trust where members communicate and work well together is essential for effective teamwork A collaborative climate is much like Gibb s 1961 supportive communication climate discussed in your primary text Gamble amp Gamble chapter 14 Truly effective teams also have extremely high standards of excellence For them anything short of excellent performance is simply not acceptable They set high performance standards and push each other to accept nothing less High performance teams cannot achieve excellence in a vacuum however They also must receive external support and recognition Such support includes necessary resources such as equipment and staff support as well as protection form external distractions from their mission Larson and LaFasto found that the absence of external support and recognition was noted more than its presence and that philosophical support must be matched with more tangible support such as compensation plans based on team performance as well as individual performance Finally excellent teams all possess what Larson and InFasto call principled leadership Principled leadership is characterized by its focus on the needs of each member for development and growth as both a team member and as a person Although the teams of their study each possessed principled leadership several concerns about team leadership emerged from their study The two most frequently mentioned concerns about team leadership were an unwillingness to confront substandard team member performance and diluting the team s effort by allowing too many new priorities to imposed on the team In summary Larson and LaFasto s research has provided us with an important set of criteria for high performing permanent work teams If you are establishing such teams it is important to strive to ensure that they have 1 a clear and elevating goal 2 a resultsdriven structure 3 competent members 4 unified commitment 5 a collaborative climate 6 standards of excellence 7 external support and recognition and 8 principled leadership Although these characteristics were identified among high performing permanent teams they seem just as applicable to other groups and teams as well or do they Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 15 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 CONVERSA TION STAR TERS Working in your permanent learning groups take turns selecting items from the Conversation Starters list that you wish to discuss as a group Each member may contribute their thoughts and or feelings about the selected items However anyone may choose to pass on discussing any item LN U Anybody will work hard if People who run things should be I would like to be One thing I like about myself is Nothing is so frustrating as The persons who had the greatest in uence on me was Ten years from now I Every success il team needs I take pride in If you want to see me get mad A rewarding job is one that The value I admire most in others is People say they respect me for Today I wish I were The main reason I am here is When I think of my work or schoolwork I People who smoke are My boss or professor and I are I choose quotiends who are I think my best quality is my Classes or learning activities like this are usually Today I am planning to learn A pet peeve ofmine is Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 16 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 THE CREST In olden days when ships were made out of wood and people were made out of steel people went into battle wearing armor Today we don t go into battle like they did but we do encounter each other and we do wear armor We wear it because we need it The purpose of the Crest is not to strip away our armor and reveal our secrets It is to let people know who is inside the armor So we are each going to draw for ourselves a personal crest Following this you will be creating a group crest You will be asked to describe your crest in detail to your groupmates when you are done You have about 15 minutes to draw your pictures Some crests are shaped like a shield Yours may or may not be this shape Draw your shape on the back of this paper Divide the crest into six parts The rst upper left corner part will be used to show a picture of a signi cant thing person event or circumstance in the rst half of your life Crests you recall did not have words on them and we must try to honor that tradition Fortunately there is no grade for art work The only words we will use is our name on the top and a few words or phrases at the bottom for a motto or slogan to be remembered by The second part upper right will be a symbol of a significant thing person event circumstance etc in the second half of your life Remember picture only If you can t think of a picture use your imagination you will be able to explain it later The third part middle left represents a signi cant thing in your life at the present time The fourth middle right represents the a frustrating thing in your life at the present time The fth bottom left is to be a depiction of the emotion you find most dif cult to express Finally the last part bottom right You have been informed that you only have two years to live and you have been given permission to do anything you want with those two years Draw a picture of what you want to do with those nal two years At the bottom or down the center leave room for three words or a phrase which describe how you most want to be remembered by this group Put you three descriptive words or phrase at the bottom underneath your crest Each group will have a posterboard to create a group crest You will have about 10 20 minutes to accomplish this task Be imaginative but don t worry about good art work Be prepare to explain your crests in a group presentation In the upper left corner draw a picture describing the similarities of the four or five individuals of your group In the upper right corner draw a picture representing the differences or diversity of your group In the left middle box draw a picture of your group s strengths In the right middle box draw a picture of your group s weaknesses In the bottom left corner draw a picture of your group s goals for this class In the bottom right corner draw a picture of the commitment of your group to those goals Along the bottom of the crest or down the center write the only words to appear on your shield Your Group Name This name will be a message to the class of how you want them to view your group Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 17 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 CREATING GROUP NORMS Discussion Questions Created by Dr Richard W Sline The following is a list of some questions and issues which will serve as a guide for groups negotiating how they wish to mction The purpose of this process is to enable groups to agree on behavioral norms and expectations for working together before they begin their work All of these may not apply to your group only focus on the ones you nd use il 1 2 Who is in charge here Do we need a designated leader What type of Communication Climate do we want to create for our group How will we deal with members who come on too strong and dominate discussions Also how will we know this and monitor it How will we involve members who are shy and reserved Who will make the decisions for the group and how How will we deal with members who don t pull their weight referred to as social loafers How do we feel about our group s beginning and ending times for meetings What should people do if they are unable to make meetings or meet deadlines How will we deal with interpersonal con ict in our group What role do we want our professor to perform and is it congruent with her or his desired role How will we know if we are honoring these agreed upon mctional norms How will our mctional norms impact our ability to accomplish our tasks Task dimension How will our mctional norms in uence how our members feel about being a part of our group Social dimension How much are we as individuals and as a group willing to invest in accomplishing our speci c tasks Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 18 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 WHAT S MOSTIMPORTANT Increasing Group Effectiveness Through Team Building Listed below are things people often feel are important for increasing the effectiveness of their group or organization First put the number 3 next to those items you feel are very important Then put the number 2 next to those items you feel are less important and the number 1 next to those of least importance After completing your personal rating of each item compare your ratings with your groupmates and see if you can arrive at a consensus rating Individual Group Rating Rating Groups should have clear roles and responsibilities for members No changes in the norms and goals of the group should be made without consulting those who would be affected Groups should recognize people more for the things they do Positive relationships and work climate aren t as important as getting the job done Meetings should be planned ahead of time and an agenda printed and distributed to those who will be attending People should arrive on time for meetings or work sessions and not leave early Mutual trust between groupmates should be major goal of any task group All people should have the opportunity to express themselves and make suggestions for improvements Group members do not have the right to withhold their ideas and opinions about the group s task Whenever you have a problem with someone in the group go to that person to work it out don t go to somebody else and discuss it first If a decision needs to be made quickly it s better for one person to make the decision rather than consult with groupmates All members should clearly understand what the group expects of them The image a work group projects is critical Special care should be taken to eliminate anything which isn t professionally done and done right Thompson Comm 2110 Couise Module Page 19 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 GROUP NORMS STOPACTION One effective way to improve our personal and group productivity in working on any task is to pause brie y to assess how we re doing and identify ways we can be more creative and cooperate more effectively in doing our j ob After individually completing this form group members should discuss their collective responses and make plans for improvement 1 How do you feel about the way you are mctioning as a contributing member of the group Very Satisfied Unsure Dissatisfied Very Satisfied Dissatisfied Please explain why you checked where you did 2 How satisfied are you with the way others listen to you Very Satisfied Unsure Dissatisfied Very Satisfied Dissatisfied Please explain why you checked where you did 3 How satisfied are you with the way you listen to others Very Satisfied Unsure Dissatisfied Very Satisfied Dissatisfied Please explain why you checked where you did 4 How do you assess the productivity of the group in the way it is getting its work done and using its resources to help each other Very Satisfied Unsure Dissatisfied Very Satisfied Dissatisfied Please explain why you checked where you did As soon as you as you have checked and commented please share your responses and your ideas on how you might improve individual and group productivity as you move ahead on your work Use this Stop Action at any point during your group work to evaluate how things are going Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 20 Reading Assignment Learning Objectives 1 2 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 4 STUDY GUIDE GROUPS AS SYSTEMS JampS Ch3 By the end of this unit you should be able to Distinguish between a small group and a collection of people Recognize the primary elements of a system and apply them to groups a Interconnectedness 1 ripple effect 2 synergy 3 negative synergy b Adaptability to change including openness and boundaries and methods of boundary control c In uence of size including group size and complexity and member satisfaction d Interdependence differing levels of Discuss the effects of increasing group size List the ways to deal with difficult group members Delineate and define the different types of group boundaries Discuss the positive and negative applications of group boundaries Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 21 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 DESERTSUR VIVAL It is approximately 1000 am in mid July and you have crash landed in the Sonora Desert in the southwestern United States The light twin engine plane containing the bodies of the pilot and the copilot has completely burned Only the air frame remains None of the remaining survivors has been injured The pilot was unable to notify anyone of your position before the crash However ground sightings taken before you crashed indicate that you are 65 miles off the course that was filed in your VFR Flight Plan The pilot had indicated before you crashed that you were approximately 70 miles south southwest from a mining camp which is the nearest known habitation The immediate area is quite at and except for occasional cacti it appears to be rather barren The last weather report indicated that temperatures would reach 110 degrees which means that the temperature within a foot of the surface will hit 130 degrees You are dressed in lightweight clothing shortsleeved shirts pants socks and street shoes Everyone has a handkerchief Collectively your pockets contain 283 in change 8500 in bills a pack of cigarettes and a ballpoint pen THE PROBLEM Before the plane caught fire your group was able to salvage 15 items Your task is to rank these items according to their importance to your survival starting with quot1quot for the most important to quot15quot for the least important You may assume that the number of survivors is the same as the number of your team and the team has agreed to stick together Step 1 Each member of the team is to individually rank each item Do not discuss the situation or problem until each member has finished the individual ranking Once discussion begins do not change your individual rankings Step 2 After everyone has finished the individual ranking rank order the 15 items as a team Your team will have about 20 minutes to complete this exercise SCORING To calculate the individual score add the difference between your score and the expert ranking For example if you gave an item a rank of 2 and the experts ranked it 6 the difference would be 4 OR if you gave the item a rank of 7 and the experts ranked it 3 the difference would still be 4 You would then add together that difference with the difference for the other items The lower the score the better the ranking Use the same procedure for the group ranking Average the individual scores and compare the mean with the group score to demonstrate synergy the group should have reached better decisions than its individual members Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 22 Reading Assignment Learning Objectives 1 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 5 STUDY GUIDE PERCEPTION J amp S Ch5 By the end of this unit you should be able to Describe the steps of the perceptual processnatural process of interpretation Selection Organization Interpretation Identify the factors which in uence one s interpretation of an event Identify the factors which in uence one s perception of an event Identify the major barriers to accurate perception Discuss how culture in uences perception Discuss how gender in uences perception Discuss how the media in uences perception Delineate the Perception Checking Process Discuss the purpose of using a Perception Check Identify the techniques for developing empathy Discuss the importance of being empathic and how that affects perception Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 23 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 PERCEPTIONPROBLEMS Match each perception barrier with the correct de nition Allness Frozen Evaluations Blinders Ethnocentrism FactInference Confusion Indiscrimination Double Messages SelfCharitableness Stereotypes 1 We fail to see the differences between individuals 2 We force ourselves to see a situation in a certain way ignoring the big picture 3 We think we know it all about a certain subject 4 We say one thing but our nonverbal message says the opposite 5 We think our culture does things the right way and everyone else s is wrong 6 We judge others much more harshly than we do ourselves 7 We look at the inferences we have made and we call them facts 8 We make snap judgments based on our rigid perceptions of a group a person may belong to 9 We stick with our rst impression of a person not bothering to see if heshe has another side Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 24 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 FA CT 0R INFERENCE Read the following scenario You are standing in the hall waiting to go into your English classroom You see your professor Dr Dohrer talking to your classmate Barbara Barbara has red swollen eyes and Dr Dohrer is yelling As Barbara rushes past she notices you and says I ll never do that again Now individually label each of the following statements with either an F for fact or and I for inference a You are waiting to go into Dr Dohrer s room b You see Dr Dohrer yelling at Barbara c Dr Dohrer is angry with Barbara d Barbara is angry e Barbara tells you she ll never try to speak with Dr Dohrer again Brie y answer the following questions Then discuss your answers with your group 1 What might be the reasons Barbara has red swollen eyes 2 What might be meant by I ll never do that again 3 What might be all the reasons Dr Dohrer is yelling 4 Would you perceive the situation differently if you like or dislike Dr Dohrer Explain 5 Would you perceive the situation differently if you like or dislike Barbara Explain Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 25 XMMMUNHL HONS2110IMRTNERITRCEPTRNVINVENTORY In a dyad try to identify your partner39s personal characteristics by choosing the multiple choice selection you think ts the best After you have made all your selections share your perceptions with your partner 1 My partner39s favorite type of book to read for Jn is FWWQPPFF romance novels epic novels like Michener wrote mystery novels like Agatha Christie wrote poetry westerns biographies nonfictional action novels short stories fantasy novels When socializing my partner drinks WWQPPFF juice punch beer water mixed drinks soft drinks nothing My partner smokes a b True False When attending the university my partner probably lives in 9909quot the dorms at home with parents an apartment with roommates an apartment alone with spouse or mate My partner39s favorite pastime of those listed is FWWQPPFF reading hiking aerobics bikeriding sports in general working on handicrafts listening to music hanging with friends Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 26 When going for a quotchange of scenequot my partner chooses the W999 mountains canyons whatever is easiest to get to If given the option my partner would like to 909quot stick close to home travel but mostly in the US travel but only to US Europe and Canada travel anywhere anytime On a weekend evening my partner likes to 9907 party spend the evening with one or two friends go out dancing spend a quiet evening at home alone do some physical activity Originally my partner comes from 9909quot a big city a small resort town a small agricultural town a mediumsized industrial city a small city My partner prefers a b a large network of friends of same and opposite gender a small closelyknit circle of friends My partner probably 909quot came from a large family 5 children came from a mediumsized family 34 children came from a small family 2 children was an only child My partner is W999 an excellent student 35 to 40 a good student 30 to 349 an okay student 25 to 299 a decent student 20 to 249 a struggling student 15 to 199 a misguided student lower than 15 Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 27 Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 PERCEPTION CHECKING PRA CTICE Directions Create a Perception Checking statement for each of the following scenarios Example Yesterday you saw your friend walking on the beach engaged in what looked like an intense conversation with Chris a person you have been dating recently Perception checking statement When I saw you yesterday walking on the beach with Chris I didn t know what to make of it 1description of behavior I thought you might be talking about that class you re taking together but I also wondered whether you re interested in dating Chris jtwo plausible intezpretationsg What s ug request for clarification 1 While leaving work the other day you thought you saw your friend Jim putting several reams of company computer paper in the trunk of his car 2 Ever since you began your new job members of your family have made a point of asking how you are doing several times each month They have just asked again Last month you had a long talk with your friend Rachelle about her troubled relationship with her new boss at work Now you run into her in the shopping mall and she talks for ten minutes about what she is doing without mentioning her boss or her job Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 28 You arrive at work one morning to nd your workmate Tom reading at his work station When you walk into the work area and greet Tom he grunts and turns his face away from you and keeps reading Last week your supervisor Jack returned the report you had recently submitted to him with the comment This kind of work paints a bleak picture for the future written on the top of the rst page Last week your boss Julie gave you a big assignment Three times since then she has asked you whether you re having any trouble with it Yesterday one of your workmates Steve swept the shop oor and left a big pile of debris on the oor near your work station promising to clean it up before the end of the day It s now two days later and the pile is still on the oor Thompson Comm 2110 Course Module Page 29 Reading Assignment Learning Objectives COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 6 STUDY GUIDE LEADERSHIP AND GROUP ROLES JampS Ch 6 By the end of this unit you should be able to Group Roles 1 Explain the signi cance of roles in groups 2 De ne and differentiate between role reversal role status stereotypical roles role con ict role specialization and role xation 3 Summarize the Stanford Prison Study 4 Discuss and differentiate the various types of group roles formal informal task maintenance and disruptive selfcentered 5 Discuss the process of role emergence 6 List the techniques a competent communicator uses regards to group roles Leadership 1 List the negative behaviors a group leader should avoid 2 Describe how members gain and retain group leadership through emergence and group endorsement 3 Describe and differentiate the various perspectives on effective leadership traits styles situational contingency mctional and communication competence 4 Explain the differences among leadership styles autocratic democratic and laissezfaire 5 Discuss ways to combat gender and ethnicity bias in emergent leadership of groups 6 Discuss the qualities of an effective leader in groups adaptable self re ective listens focus on task focus on social dimension and ethical 7 Describe the guiding principles for ethical leadership trusted honest concern for others respect evenhandedness and commitment Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 30 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 IDENTIFYING GROUP ROLES Case Study Directions Read the Group ProblemSolving transcript below Then return to the de nitions of the group roles in the textbook listed below Determine which roles each group member in the scenario is playing and list those roles on the following page These roles are arguable so be prepared to defend your answers in class Then answer the question on the following page about your own group dynamics Group Roles Initiator Contributor Coordinator Harmonizer Clown Information Seeker Recorder Gatekeeper Blocker Opinion Seeker Director Feeling Expresser Fighter Information Giver Devil is Advocate Stagehog Zealot Clarifier Elaborator Supporter Encourager Isolate Cynic Transcript Jane department manager I think we had better get started We have a lot to do to get ready to announce the new training plan Sally senior trainer Jane I m not sure everyone in the group really understands our plans Ithink that before we decide how to introduce the program to the division we need to make sure that everyone in personnel is thoroughly familiar with what we intend to do Jane That s a good point How much information do the rest of you have John compensation specialist Ijust know we are going to plan a training program for each employee but I have been on vacation and don t know much more than that Henry recruiter Look I don t think each offus can be expected to know all the details I think we should stick to our original plan and decide how a division wide announcement should be made The rest of us are too buy to understand all the details Sally to Henry I think you are very wrong Especially in yourjob you can actually attract people to this company with the type of on going training we are proposing Kathy benefits administration Sally maybe you could describe the type oftraining our department will receive That might help us understand the general concept Jane Sally I do think an overview ofthe program would be helpful We do however have to decide on the timing ofthe division wide announcement Sally explains the basics ofthe new training program to the staff narrative not included Frank employee representative I think it sounds like a very impressive program but I wonder ifwe can really pull it off Remember the time we decided to computerize all the records and start the year with a new payroll process We were crazy Who made that decision anyway Does anyone remember Let s not have another Kent Smith employee who left the company following the record computerization project Sally to Frank This one is not another Kent Smith project I resent you implying that it is A lot of hard work and planning have gone into identifying training opportunities that will help all our employees Ithink you should keep an open mind Jane Does anyone else have any questions about the program Kathy Well Ithink we need to move in this direction What ideas do you need from us to make the division announcement Sally Thanks Kathy First of all we need to know the timing of major communications from your individual areas to all employees We don t want too much new information going out at once Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 31 Group Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 IDENTIFYING GROUP ROLES FollowUp Directions Try to identify the roles individuals played in the dialogue see the following list Can you determine which individuals work more cooperatively than others Is there a leader Are important roles missing How would you describe the group Be prepared to discussdefend your observations Name Position Roles Reasoning Jane manager Sally senior trainer John compensation specialist Henry recruiter Kathy bene ts administrator Frank employee rep Directions In doing this activity which roles did members onOUR group display List the names of each person in your group and the roles that each person displayed and what heshe saiddid that lead you to that conclusion Roles Reasoning Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 32 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 LEADERSHIP SELFASSESSMENT Your strength in any of these is a start toward leadership Look over your responses and nd the areas in which you have leadership qualities What can you do to strengthen them What can you do to strengthen other skills You will be asked to quotbe the leaderquot at some time or another so be ready for the challenge 1 2 Do you prepare yourself for the meetings and teamwork How credible are you to yourself and others Do you convey enthusiasm involvement and commitment Do you see and adapt to other members39 responses Do you monitor and adapt your own behavior Are you principled Do you discuss ethical issues How well are you able to communicate with others Are you good at helping to create a supportive climate Do you sometimes emerge as leader in groups and teams What styles of leadership do you think you use How and when do you adapt your leadership style How do you represent the team39s interests to others Are you able to motivate and coach others in teamwork How well do you help to organize and focus the group39s work How good are you at planning agendas and managing meetings Do you guide members to cooperate in vigilant analysis How do you feel when you know you39ve provided leadership Do you enjoy working through problems with others Do you help others to think lead contribute Do you help people reach mutual understanding and goals Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 33 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 LEADERSHIP DYNAMICS There are a large number of factors that contribute to effective leadership Some of these are more important than others Please take 10 minutes to rank order the following 15 factors in order of importance to you Then determine your group ranking by consensus Do not vote or use some artificial decision making rules My Order Group Order 15 Factor Charismatic aura Willingness to compromise to reach decisions Ability to mold many plans into a workable solution Well developed communication skills Ability to manage con ict within a group Cooperation with group goals Ability to facilitate effective decisions Willingness to commit adequate time and patience to the task Understanding of individual members needs for self actualization Good internal organization of ideas Ability to achieve high acceptance for decisions Grasp of issues Personal integrity Sensitivity Ability to achieve high quality decisions from the group Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 34 GR 0UP DECISION MAKING Reading Assignment J amp S Ch 7 Learning Objectives By the end of this unit you should be able to 1 Recognize and de ne the causes of defective decision making in small groups information overload information underload confirmation bias false dichotomy collective inferential error groupthink 2 Summarize the Blue EyesBrown Eyes Experiment 3 Discuss the consequences of information overload 4 List the ways to cope with information overload 5 Differentiate between majority rule minority rule unanimity rule consensus re ective problem solving standard agenda brainstorming nominal group technique reframing 4 Explain the six steps of the Standard Agenda for making effective group decisions COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 7 STUDY GUIDE Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 35 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 FA UL TY DECISION MAKING 1 Con rmation Bias What it is How to avoid it 2 False Dichotomy Dichotomus Thinking What it is How to avoid it 3 Collective Inferential Error What it is How to avoid it Match the number of the decision making error with the examples below A C D A condominium association excludes families with children because teenagers are noisy Scientists are thrilled to see the positive effects of a wonder diet pill and are pushing the FDA to give approval earlier than scheduled despite potential risks On their shopping trip the girls didn t even go into Dillards because one of the girls claimed the prices on shoes were sky high The parents in the neighborhood banned trickortreating because of a report in Los Angeles where razor blades had been found in candy Once they had bought the Honda CRV the family was happy to see so many CRV s on the road They kept putting off reading Consumer Reports article on the best small SUV s Jeanette did not apply for the job at the rest home because old people are so grouchy Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 36 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 GROUP THINK What is Group Think Group Think occurs when group members are so concerned about having a cohesive group that they let themselves be talked into What they consider a bad idea 1 Illusion of Invulnerability 2 Inherent Morality of the Group 3 Group Members Pressured by Peers to Conform a ClosedMindedness b Illusion of Unanimity c SelfCensorship d Mindguard How can we avoid Group Think 1 2 3 4 Devil s Advocate 5 Reminder Roles REMEMBER It s okay to disagree Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 37 COMMUNIC AT IONS 2 1 1 0 CONSENSUS DECISIONMA KING ASSESSMENT Use consensus as your group39s decisionmaking procedure After coming to a decision use the following scale to answer each question individually about your group and its decision making 1 strongly disagree 2 disagree 3 undecided 4 agree 5 strongly agree 1 The group reached the right decision 1 2 3 4 5 2 I believe that our group39s decisionsolution is appropriate 1 2 3 4 5 3 Isupport the final group decision 1 2 3 4 5 4 I believe we selected the best alternative available 1 2 3 4 5 5 I would be willing to put my best effort into carrying out the group39s 1 2 3 4 5 final decision 6 I believe we approached our task in an organized manner 1 2 3 4 5 7 This group used effective decisionmaking techniques 1 2 3 4 5 8 This group was a place where people could feel comfortable expressing 1 2 3 4 5 themselves 9 I like the members of my group 1 2 3 4 5 10 I would like to work with members of my group on another similar project 1 2 3 4 5 11 Ibelieve I contributed important ideas during the decisionmaking process 1 2 3 4 5 12 Ibelieve Ihad a lot of in uence on the group39s decision making 1 2 3 4 5 13 Icontributed important information during the group39s decisionmaking 1 2 3 4 5 process 14 During group meetings I got to participate whenever I wanted to 1 2 3 4 5 15 Ibelieve that the other members of my group liked me 1 2 3 4 5 16 Other members of the group really listened to what I had to say 1 2 3 4 5 17 I felt that I was a genuine member of the group 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL SCORE If your score was between 68 and 85 you believe that your group demonstrated high consensus How does your score compare with the scores of your group members If your score was below 68 what could you have done to help the group achieve consensus Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 38 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 THE UNCRITICAL INFERENCE TEST EXERCISE Story B Babe Smith has been killed Police have rounded up six suspects all of whom are known gangsters All of them are known to have been near the scene of the killing at the approximate time that it occurred All have substantial motives for wanting Smith killed However one of these suspected gangsters Slinky Sam has positively been cleared of guilt 1 Slinky Sam is known to have been near the scene of the killing of Babe Smith T F 2 All six of the roundedup gangsters were known to have been near the scene of the murder T F 3 Only Slinky Sam has been cleared of guilt T F 4 All six of the roundedup suspects were near the scene of Smith s killing at about the time it took place T F 5 The police do not know who killed Smith T F 6 All six suspects are known to have been near the scene of the foul deed T F 7 Smith s murderer did not confess of his own free will T F 8 Slinky Sam was not cleared of the crime T F 9 It is known that the six suspects were in the vicinity of the coldblooded assassination T F Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 39 CE COMMUNICATIONS 2110 THE UNCRITICAL INFERENCE TEST EXERCISE Story C A businessman had just turned off the lights in the store when a man appeared and demanded money The owner opened a cash register The contents of the cash register were scooped up and the man sped away A member of the police force was noti ed promptly 1 A man appeared after the owner had turned off his store lights T F 2 The robber was a man T F 3 The man who appeared did not demand money F 9 4 The man who opened the cash register was the owner T F 5 The storeowner scooped up the contents of the cash register and he ran away T F quot 6 Someone opened a cash register 9 7 After the man who demanded money scooped up the contents of the cash register he ran away T F 8 While the cash register contained money the story does not state how much T 9 9 The robber opened the cash register T F 10 The age of the storeowner was not revealed in the story 9 11 The story concerns a series of events in which only three persons are referred to the owner of the store a man who demanded money and a member of the police force T F 12 The following events occurred someone demanded money a cash register was opened its contents were scooped up and a man dashed out of the store T F Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 40 CE COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WHO IS GUILTY Directions Read the following story as a group When nished turn to the back and follow the instructions about coming to a group decision on the matter Once upon a time in the land of cream and honey there lived a Baron and Baroness They lived in a large wellconstructed castle which was located on an island in the middle of a Wide fast owing river A drawbridge connected the island to the mainland at the river s narrowest point Rumor had it that the Baron also kept alligators in the river to prevent swimmers from reaching his island One morning it became necessary for the Baron to visit the outlying districts As he prepared for his departure the jealous Baron warned his Wife Do not leave the castle while I am away If you do I will severely punish you upon my return As the hours of the morning passed the pretty Baroness grew lonely Despite her husband s warning she decided to go see her lover who lived in the hills nearby Surely my husband will not retLun before sunrise thought the Baroness So she ordered the servants to lower the drawbridge and to leave it down until she returned After several pleasant hours with her lover the Baroness returned to the drawbridge However as she approached the drawbridge she found it blocked by a madman wildly waving a Wicked knife Do not cross this bridge pretty Baroness or Iwill kill you he screamed Fearing for her life the Baroness went back to her lover and asked for his help Our relationship is only a romantic one her lover said I will not help you get across the bridge The Baroness left her lover and sought out a boatman She explained her plight to the boatman and asked him to take her across the river in his boat I will do it but it will cost you 10 rubles the boatman said But I have no money with me the Baroness protested That is too bad No money no ride the boatman replied Her fear growing the Baroness ran crying to the home of a friend Again she explained her situation and begged her friend to lend her 10 rubles to pay the boatman s fee If you had not disobeyed your husband this wouldn t have happened You have created your own situation and I will give you no money said her friend Dawn was coming and her last resource was exhausted The Baroness returned to the drawbridge Again she pleaded with the madman but to no avail In desperation she tried to run past him but failed She was slain by the madman Who was guilty for her death The Baron The Baroness The boatman The friend The lover Or the madman Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 41 The Baron Who was guilty for her death The Baroness The boatman The friend The lover The madman Each group will now be assigned to make the decision of who is guilty using one of the following methods Circle the method your group has been assigned to use and follow the directions Majorig Rule After group members read the case discuss the issues and use the simple majority voting procedure to decide who was guilty for the Baroness39s death State your positions in the form of motions eg quotI move that was guilty for the Baroness39s deathquot and get a second for the motion before allowing the group to discuss that position Nominal Group Technigue After group members read the case discuss the issues involved Then each group member must use the ranking procedure to decide who was guilty for the Baroness39s death Rank the person most responsible lst through the person least responsible 6th Total the rankings for each responsible party The party with the lowest score is most responsible for her death Consensus After group members read the case use the consensus procedure to decide who was guilty for the Baroness39s death Every member of the group MUST agree with the decision enough to support it All members should feel they had a fair chance to contribute After your group has decided who is guilty answer the following discussion questions as a group 1 To what extent did the group decision re ect your individual position 2 How did the decision procedures work in this case Would you suggest a particular procedure to be used in similar situations If not which other one would you like 3 How did the decision procedures you used facilitate or inhibit communication among group members 4 Did the decision procedures cause any difficulty not associated with the case Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 42 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 THE STANDARD AGENDA aka Dewey s Re ective Problem Solving 1 Problem Identi cation define all parts of problem 2 Problem Analysis brainstorm all aspects of problem 3 Establish Criteria for judging solutions to problem ask How will we determine if the solution is a good one What are the results we want 4 Solution Identi cation brainstorm solution ideas 5 Solution Evaluation and Selection evaluate solution ideas against criteria created in 3 6 Solution Implementation this is where you try out your solution 7 Evaluation of Solution judge how effective the solution was after implementation Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 43 Reading Assignment Learning Objectives 1 2 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 8 STUDY GUIDE SELF CONCEPT amp EMOTIONALITY Johns amp Sline Ch8 amp 9 By the end of this unit you should be able to Compare and contrast the self the self concept and the self esteem Complete the following explanation of self concept am not what think am am not what think am am what think think am Discuss how the following factors in uence self concept selffulfilling prophecy Pygmalian Effect re ected appraisal social comparison gender individualistic cultures collectivist cultures attribution error selfserving bias negativity bias media technology Identify strategies for improving one s self concept Differentiate between thoughts and feelings Differentiate between displaying ie emotional ooding and expressing emotions Discuss how culture and gender can affect our emotional expressions Discuss why expressing feelings is important as opposed to emotional ooding List the guidelines for expressing emotions Define debilitative emotions and discuss ways to minimize them List the steps needed to compose an 1 message that expresses your feelings effectively Discuss the advantages of using 1 Language Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 44 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 ALAN s SABOTAGED SELF Alan continually puts himself down He thinks that other people do the same thing to him as well He often comments that classmates don39t like him the professors think he is inept and that his family doesn39t even care what he does A few years ago as a result of this attitude Alan attempted suicide through a drug overdose but fortunately was found by a friend He spent a week in the hospital trying to recover During that time many classmates visited Alan and shared their concerns about his wellbeing while offering their support Alan appreciated this yet thought they just did it because they felt sorry for him A short time after this unfortunate experience things seemed to be looking up for Alan when he got engaged to be married His wifetobe had an excellent job and they would be financially stable while he established his teaching career After the wedding they bought a home in a nice neighborhood while Alan finished school As is often the case with newlyweds many of his classmates asked him about married life and how he enjoyed his wife When he talked about his wife he would say she had a good job but she had a weird family He didn39t get along with them at all Other students observed that he never really did say anything complementary about his wife and they became suspicious when he said that marriage wasn39t all it was cracked up to be It was obvious that he was unhappy Further he said it was okay if he wasn39t happy because at least he had a roof over his head and a place to live which was better than living at home with his own family Alan also faced another dilemma in his life He finally admitted to his family and friends that he was gay Upon finding out about Alan39s homosexuality his family told him they would have nothing to do with him His father said that he would no longer acknowledge him as his son because quotno son of mine would be a 39faggot I can39t believe you are so selfish and inconsideratequot His wife was equally distraught Her devastation turned to anger quotYou39re a sorry excuse for a husband Just get out of this house I never want to see you again I expected you to love me forever I expected to spend the rest of my life with you Instead I get a faggot husband who would rather sleep with a man than with me Just get out and don39t come backquot He got divorced and tried to pick up the pieces as best he could The hardest part about the divorce from his perspective was that now he would have to nd another place to live and he would have to pay for it As a result Alan was now on his own with no job little money and a sabotaged self concept Alan is now an education student at Weber State University Despite the seemingly high standards required to be admitted to the program Alan was finally given probationary admittance after a year of applying He realizes he is an average student with a GPA of 23 yet some professors think that his GPA is the result of grade in ation There is one professor who has told Alan that he is in the bottom half of the class based on his GPA but she thinks he can make it through the program if he works hard Alan constantly measures his academic performance against the performance of his classmates who are mostly straight A students Now he is ready to do his student teaching and is quite concerned about doing a good job He wants to be accepted by the students and is worried about how he will do as a teacher He continues to engage in negative selftalk and put himself down His classmates have noticed the behavior and talked about it amongst themselves Even some of the professors have expressed concerns about having someone quotlike tha quot as a teacher in the classroom Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 45 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR ALAN S SABOTAGED SELF Alan has varied communication experiences with the people in his life from his family to his wife to his friends and to his professors How does this communication that exists affect his self concept In responding to this question include examples of the following A Re ected Appraisal U3 Social Comparison 0 Gender Roles U Negativity Bias F11 Disconfirming Communication How could self Il lling prophecy work to Alan39s advantage in this situation What would likely be a positive outcome based on selffulfilling prophecy What would likely be a negative outcome based on selffulfilling prophecy Which do you think will prevail Why Gamble and Gamble 1998 argue that the media shapes quotour opinions about how our bodies should look how males and females should interact and the meaning of successquot 48 Given media portrayals of homosexuality and homosexual relationships how will the media in uence the development of Alan39s self concept Be as specific as possible with your answer If you were one of Alan39s friends what would you say or do to Alan to help him make a positive change and strengthen his self concept Refer to p 270 276 for general suggestions Include a rationale for your answer using the information from the text and your own personal experiences Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 46 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 IDENTIFYING Y 0 UR EMOTIONAL REACTIONS Place a check mark before any of the following ways you deal with emotions on a regular basis 1 P LN U 0 9 I react immediately if I feel a strong emotion such as happiness anger or hurt I withdraw rather than tell someone how I feel whether positive or negative I scream and yell I cry I feel like crying but I don t I get so mad I can t think straight I find someone I feel comfortable with and talk out my feelings I talk to myself and try to get rid of my feelings I go and do somethingphysical exercise write poetryto get my mind off what s affecting me I laugh heartily I stuff my feeling for fear of hurting other people s feelings or getting negative reactions I physically or verbally attack the person who I feel is causing my emotional hurt I find someone to aggress against whether or not she or he is the person who I feel is causing my emotional hurt I determine whether this is a matter that must be dealt with now or can be put off until later I recognize that I am in control of myself and I don t have to get angry feel out of control or show my feelings to others Debriefing Review your answers and answer the following questions What did you learn about yourself as an expresser of emotions Are you a stuffer hide your emotions Do you express your anger in hurtful wayshurtful to yourself and others Have you been desensitized to your emotions Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 47 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 Expressing Your Emotions Communication is enhanced if you can clearly express the emotions you are feeling to others One way to communicate your emotions is to describe how you are feeling with a wellchosen word or phrase The following list gives you several options for expressing your feelings in positive neutral or negative terms Positive calm content enthusiastic friendly high joyful peaceful romantic willing Neutral i5 amazed bored numb Negative afraid bitter depressed disturbed frustrated horrible mad rebellious shocked cheerful delighted excited glad hopeful loving playful sexy wonderful ambivalent detached possessive angry confused devastated empty furious humiliated mean re gretful suspicious comfortable ecstatic attered grate ful hysterical optimistic pleased tender apathetic hurried sentimental annoyed defeated disappointed exhausted guilty intimidated miserable resentful terri ed con dent elated free happy interested passionate refreshed warm bashful lukewarm vulnerable alone defensive disgusted fearful helpless listless paranoid restless ugly Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 48 Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 2110 PRACTICING I STATEMENTS Directions Choose a situation from Column A and a receiver from Column B Write an ILanguage Statement for each situation Column A Column B 1 You have been stood up for a date a A professor or appointment 2 The other person makes fun of your b A family member you pick one schoolwork 3 The other person compliments you c A classmate you don t know well on your appearance then says I hope I haven t embarrassed you 4 The other person gives you a hug d Your best friend and says It s good to see you After writing each statement re ect on how each statement differs What accountsfor the general difference in language usage with each receiver Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 49 Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 A VOIDING Y 0 UMESSA GES The following statements are defensivecausing youmessages Write alternatives to each statement using lLanguage 1 You are such a liar 2 You only think about yourself 3 Don t be so sensitive 4 You don t understand a word I am saying 5 You are always criticizing me 6 You are so lazy 7 You jerk you forgot to put gas in the car 8 You made me so mad when you were late 9 Quit telling me what to do 10 You are such a moron I ve already explained it to you three times Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 50 Reading Assignment Learning Objectives 1 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 9 STUDY GUIDE Relationship Cycles Johns amp Sline Ch10 pp 318350 By the end of this unit you should be able to De ne Interpersonal Needs and distinguish between these needs affection inclusion and control Discuss the variables that in uence attraction appearance similaritycomplementarity reciprocal attraction competence disclosure and proximity Discuss the different dimensions of intimacy Discuss how gender affects intimacy Discuss how culture affects intimacy De ne Knapp s general stages of relationship development and identify the steps which occur in each stage coming together relational maintenance and coming apart Identify behaviors used for relationship maintenance and discuss how to repair or strengthen a weakened relationship Discuss effective communication strategies for the termination of relationships Differentiate between the following dialectical perspectives connectionautonomy dialectic opennessprivacy dialectic predictabilitynovelty dialectic Discuss some of the better ways to manage dialectical tensions Explain the importance of conversation small talk in the beginning stages of a relationship Discuss the different reasons for selfdisclosure catharsis reciprocity selfclarification selfvalidation identity management relationship maintenance social control manipulation Generate a list of guidelines for competent selfdisclosure Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 51 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 INTERPERSONAL NEEDS QUESTIONNAIRE Respond to the statements on this questionnaire according to the following scale A Always U Usually OF Often S Sometimes 0C Occasionally R Rarely N Never A U OF S 0C 1 I try to include other people in my plans 7 6 5 4 3 2 I try to take charge of things when I am with 7 6 5 4 3 people 3 I like people to act close and personal with me 7 6 5 4 3 4 I do not let other people control my actions 7 6 5 4 3 5 I try to avoid being alone 7 6 5 4 3 6 I try to have other people do things the way I want 7 6 5 4 3 them done 7 I like people to inVite me to join their activities 7 6 5 4 3 8 I try to have close personal relationships with people 7 6 5 4 3 9 I try to be friendly to people 7 6 5 4 3 10 I tend to join social organizations when I have an 7 6 5 4 3 opportunity to connect with other people 11 I try to in uence strongly other people s actions 7 6 5 4 3 12 I dislike people to act cool and distant toward me 7 6 5 4 3 13 I like people to act friendly toward me 7 6 5 4 3 14 I am not easily led by people 7 6 5 4 3 15 I like people to include me in their activities 7 6 5 4 3 Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 52 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 SCORING INTERPERSONAL NEEDS QUESTIONNAIRE Scoring For Affection Needs Add numbers 3 8 9 12 13 For Belonging Inclusion Needs Add numbers 1 5 7 10 15 For Control Needs Add numbers 2 4 6 11 14 Total Scores 35 28 High Need 27 13 Moderate Need 12 5 Low Need COMMUNICATIONS 2110 INTERPERSONAL WANTADS Create a personal want ad for the perfect friend or significant other What qualities would you NEED in them Describe that person in your want ad What qualities do you have that might appeal to them Keep it GRated and honest Bring it to class and be prepared to have class members read it Don t put your name on it Here are some examples 25yearold HM looking for someone to have fun with Must love to laugh and adventure 2030 years old with no disgusting habits Is this you Like to go to salsa dancing Then give me a try I like to cuddle watch movies and hang out I love snowboarding and hiking I don t have to make all the decisions Good attitude is a must 18yearold WF seeks 20something friend I love to be included in anything fun I don t have to be in control but I will help make decisions I am a hugger so I hope you don t mind I am a great listener so if you need someone who is fun to hang out with who will listen to you and give you a hug then call me Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 53 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 KNAPP S RELA TIONSHIP STA GES 1 INITIATING 2 EXPERIMENTING 3 INTENSIFYING 4 INTEGRATING 5 BONDING 6 l 00 STAGNATING D AVOIDING 10 TERMINATING Is this person appealing enough for me to initiate a relationship Small talk or Phatic language We try to learn more about them Is the relationship worth the effort Search for common interests We are auditioning for the friendship We disclose more personal information Serious ideas We trust them and become vulnerable We become a couple We think alike Share relaxation time We announce our commitment in a public setting such as marriage living together etc Specific rules and regulations DIFFERENTIATING How am I different from you Each have individual interests May be positive or negative CIRCUMSCRIBING Relationship is deteriorating We talk less on fewer topics We avoid certain touchy topics Begin to withdraw physically and mentally No growth just stagnation Communication is at a standstill Exchanges feel awkward We see them as a stranger We stay away from each other as much as possible because we know it would get ugly if we did see them The relationship is over This stage can be short or long depending on the feelings of the two people Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 54 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 TERMINA TIONSTORIES Think about the worst experience or someone else s experience in terminating a relationship For example When a man broke up with his livein girlfriend she was so angry that she took all the clothes out of his closet and drove down State Street in SLC throwing them out the window Be prepared to share your horror story in class Jot down some notes about this experience As you listen to other class members talk about their experiences think about how a relationship could be terminated more effectively 1 How would you want someone to terminate a relationship with you In other words identify ways you would want to be dumped 2 What sort of outcome do you want afterwards Do you want to be friends Do you want revenge 3 What are the implications of the outcomes you described above Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 55 Reading Assignment COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 10 STUDY GUIDE Communication Climates Johns and Sline Ch 11 amp Ch 10 pp 351360 Learning Objectives 1 P LN 4 9 9 Explain why the climate metaphor is used to describe patterns of communication in dyadic and group relationships Explain the differences between competitive and cooperative group climates specifically discussing their effects on the following selfesteem character buildingethics p founance group Describe the relationship between gender and competition Describe the relationship between culture and competition Explain the five criteria necessary for a structuring a cooperative group climate interdependence equality participation individual accountability cooperative communication patterns Identify communication patterns which differentiate positiveconfirming climates from negativedisconfirming climates evaluation vs description control vs problemorientation strategy vs spontaneity neutrality vs empathy certainty vs provisionalism superiority vs equality Distinguish and explain the patterns of communication that lead to positive supportive and trusting climates from those that create negative defensive and distrusting climates Explain Redding s 1972 5 characteristics of effective working climates supportiveness participative decision making trust among group members openness amp candor high performance goals Give a de nition for a benevolent lie 10 List the reasons people lie 11 Define equivocal language and why it can be preferable to lying Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 56 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 GROUP CLIMATE SELFASSESSMENT As honestly as you can rate the climate in your group on each of the following statements using the scale to the right Always Usually Sometimes Rarely Never 1 Members are able to say what they think 2 When there s a problem members talk about it 3 Members do not blame one another for problems 4 People use words that are considerate of others feelings 5 There is a feeling that all members are equal in the group 6 Members support one another in their ideas and contributions 7 Members care about the team 8 Members care about one another 9 Members know that what they say will be treated in confidence 10 Members trust one another 1 1 If a member in upset other members empathize 12 The team works on its social or team processes cooperatively 13 The team uses its social or team processes to make its task processes work effectively 14 Members are free to be assertive about what they thinkfeel Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 57 Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 COMMUNICATION CLIMA TES Giving Supportive and Con rming Responses The first six items represent a nonsupportive defensearousing reaction Give an appropriate supportive response that could substitute for the defensive one 1 Evaluative You re a slob Your clothes are all over the room Descriptive Strategic manipulative Don t you agree that it s a good idea to do your homework assignments as soon after receiving them as possible Spontaneous genuine Neutral indifferent There are always two sides to any argument Empathic Certain The best thing to do is start working on the assigned paper right now Provisional Controlling You will not go to the dance or drive or use the phonecomputertv until you get your homework done Problem Oriented Superior What classes could be hard for you You re just a freshman Equal Provide a con rming answer for the following statement by re ecting both the content and the feelings expressed Statement I m having a really hard time balancing classes and my work at the department store lhope I don t mess up both Confirming Response Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 58 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WINAS MUCHAS YOU CAN Score Sheet Round Heads or Tails Points Won Points Lost multiply by Balance 1 x 1 2 x 2 3 x 3 4 x 4 5 x 5 6 x 6 7 x 7 3 Activity Questions Answer these questions after you have completed the exercise 1 How would you describe the behavior of the members of your group How would you describe your own behavior Was your behavior typical for you Did you behave as you would in a reallife situation playing for real money Why or why not How do you feel about the way you played the game Are you pleased Disappointed Sorry Guilty Explain the basis for your feelings Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 59 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 DEFINING DECEPTION Write a brief response to each of these questions and be prepared to discuss your answers An old Moroccan proverb reads Why are you lying to me who is your friend 1 What does the word lie mean to you 2 To Whom have you lied recently Why 3 Who has recently lied to you that you know of Why 4 What kinds of situations if any do you feel justified lying 5 What kinds of situations if any do you feel justified being lied to 6 How do you react when you catch someone in a lie 7 How do you react when you are caught lying Are you a good liar 8 How does lying or being lied to affect a relationship In What ways ls lying in relationships common Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 60 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 DECEPTIONIN RETROSPECT Compile a list of lies you have committed overtly or covertly during the past few weeks be honest For each incident identify your motivation for lying Did the recipient of each lie discover the deception What were the lie s effects on your relationship with the person you deceived ls lying ever ethical If you think lying is always unethical explain why On the other hand if you think lying can be ethical identify the ethical guidelines you propose for telling lies Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 61 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WHOMDO YOU TRUST Person You Trust Reasons for Trusting this Individual What does the word trust mean How can trust be developed What personal actions can be taken to build or promote trust Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 62 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 SELFDISCLOSURE QUESTIONNAIRE Complete the following questionnaire by indicating in the appropriate spaces your willingness unwillingness to selfdisclose these matters to members of a group of students chosen at random from this class Would De nitely Disclose Would Probably Disclose Probably Would Not Disclose De nitely Would Not Disclose 1 My religious beliefs My political beliefs 2 3 My economic status 4 My Views on abortion 5 My Views on premarital sex My parents economic status My relationship with my parents 6 7 8 My relationship with my boy girlfriend 9 My most negative attribute 10 My bad habits 11 My ideal mate 12 My most embarrassing moment Why would you share certain subjects and not others Under what conditions would you share all of this information How do you know when it is safe to share this information Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 63 Reading Assignment Learning Objectives 1 2 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 11 STUDY GUIDE Interpersonal Power and In uence Johns amp Sline Ch 12 By the end of this unit you should be able to De ne power Explain signi cance of power imbalances and its affect on how we communicate in relationships Describe the different types of power Dominance power over Prevention power quotom and Empowerment power to Discuss the nonverbal indicators of power Space PostureGestures Touch Eye Contact and Objects Explain how power is transacted Describe the different responses to power 5 Define power resource Discuss the following sources of power information expert reward amp punishment legitimate authority referent personal qualities persuasive and coercive Discuss the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards List the guidelines for using punishments and rewards Discuss the extent to which gender differences in uence the exercise of power Discuss how sexual harassment is a power issue Discuss the extent to which culture differences in uence the exercise of power Summarize the Milgram Studies and how it relates to power Define empowerment List ways to empower others Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 64 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 POWER Can I have that DIRECTIONS Get with a partner You should look at something your partner has that you want just pick something You have 3 minutes to persuade your partner to give you the item Your partner can give you the item or choose to keep it their choice but there is no take backs After 3 minutes switch roles 1 What were some of the types of power used to persuade you to give your partner the item they wanted 2 What were some of the sources of power used to persuade you to give your partner the item they wanted 3 What strategies were most in uential Why 4 What was the response to your power Obedience Resistance De ance Did the person endorse your power Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 65 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 Most In uential People Homework Assignment Select the three most in uential people you think that ever lived The people can be living or dead You need to develop a rationale for your choices Write up a list of your three choices with a rationale for each choice Bring this write up to class next time Most In uential People and My Rationale A B C 1 In your groups discuss the top three people according to each group member and each group member s rationale List all the possibilities acquired by the group 2 Determine as a group the top 3 choices out of the people listed above B C 3 A representative from each group will list the group s top three choices on the board 4 As a class discuss the selections each group made focusing on the people they have listed Students will need to share some of their rationales for the choices on the board 5 Following this brief discussion discuss as a class the process each group experienced in selecting the three most in uential people Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 66 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 POWER ISSUES BY GENDER Discussion Questions DIRECTIONS Answer the following questions on your own Be prepared to share your responses with a partner or small group Compare your answers speci cally with those who have different distributions of gender in their families Consider how power is distributed in your family 1 To what extent do members share equitably in outofhome and inhome responsibilities 2 Who speci cally has the power to decide whom you seedate how you spend your time how much money you can spend and so forth 3 In what ways if any do you perceive a relationship between the exercise of power and gender 4 List the powers held by males in your family 5 List the powers held by females in your family Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 67 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 Communication Styles Gender and Listening Women and men use language differently Whether this is a result of biology or culture is not important Learning to identify differences in vocal verbal and nonverbal communication is important Vocal Behaviors in Women and Men Women and men use articulation pitch and intonation in different ways Articulation refers to the way we use standard phonetic pronunciation Women use more precise and more stande articulation Pitch refers to how high or low one39s voice sounds In general women39s voices are higher pitched than men39s Because humans have the ability to change pitch some experts believe that both men and women tend to adjust their pitch to conform to cultural standards Intonation refers to pitch swings or changes within a phrase or sentence An upward in ected statement is used mostly be women and a downward in ection by a man Verbal constructs for women and men also differ Tag questions quali ers vocabulary differences disclaimers and compound requests are used more often by female speakers Tag questions illustrate hesitancy or doubt An example would be quotWe have an appointment at three o39clock don39t wequot quotDon39t wequot is the tag Quali ers such as quotmaybequot quot speaker39s lack of con dence probablyquot quotratherquot quotkind ofquot quotI thinkquot or quotI guessquot can show a Vocabulary differences refer to which gender uses which word Adverbs of intensity terribly awfully quite and certain adjectives lovely charming divine are seen as elements of women39s rather than men39s vocabulary In our society women may use typically male expletives like quotdamnquot and quothellquot but men are not likely to use typically female terms Disclaimers are used by speakers who see themselves as part of the subordinate group Women in our culture use disclaimers quotI39m not really sure about thisquot or quotI could be wrong butquot Compound requests are most often used by women who have more difficulty voicing requests than do men A male speaker in our culture would likely use the imperative quotType this nowquot whereas a female speaker might say quotIf you39re not busy would you type this nowquot which creates more harmonious relationships Several researchers have referred to male speaking styles as quotpowerquot communication and female speaking styles as quotpowerlessquot communication used as a social medium to build rapport Tag questions quali ers and disclaimers are considered to be more polite and less directuseful in creating consensus and rapport Men have learned to communicate in order to exchange information When women use their rapportbuilding style in what traditionally have been male arenaslaw medicine management for examplethese constructs may appear to be powerless when they are meant to be courteous Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 68 Women39s and Men39s Nonverbal Behavior Listeners know that nonverbal use of space posture movement touch eye contact and facial expression can also communicate power or powerlessness dominance or submission As we recall the elements of nonverbal communication we can consider the ways women and men use each and which are the result of culture Space can indicate power In our culture women and people of lower status take up less space than men and people of higher status Women are taught to keep the knees together cross the legs at the ankle or knee keep the elbows near the body and hold belongings on the lap Men on the other hand habitually take up space by sprawling and spreading out their belongings Height can also show power The person who stands over the one who is seated communicates power Men are generally taller than women and thus appear to have more power Tall women however have not learned to use their height in a powerful way Smiling can show happiness appeasement or submission Dominant members of a hierarchy smile less than submissive members Perceptive listeners are aware that women smile more frequently and for longer duration than men but this does not signal happinessit is a communication style Eye contact is also used more often and for longer duration by women when they listen Men avert their eyes more often when looked at Listeners must note the context in which eye contact is experienced While eye contact may signal listening or giving respect prolonged eye contact can deliver a threat or a sexual invitation Nodding and sometimes saying quotyesquot while nodding is often employed by women listeners to mean quotI am listeningquot Men often presume this means agreement because to them silence means quotI am listening and agreeingquot As interesting as it is to speculate on what women and men signal by certain nonverbal cues we must take care in interpreting them quotThere is much potential for much misunderstanding in crosssex communication exchanges Both women and men listeners need to be able to identify very precisely those behaviors which seem intrusive or inappropriatequot Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 69 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 SEXUAL HARASSMENT Young and Willing Barry Gomberg Angela Martinez was thank il for the parttime job she had obtained at the Swenson Gym at Weber State University This way she could work in the gym ve days a week after she was done with her high school classes She could also keep her server job downtown on the weekends and still have a little time to study and socialize Angela and her mother had decided that the only way she was going to be able to start college next year was if she were able to save at least 2500 before then This job would help her meet that goal Mark had been a line staff employee at WSU for seven years The last four years he had been in the Campus Recreation area His job description called for no supervisory responsibilities The supervisor of the area asked Mark to train Angela That was fine with Mark who found Angela quite attractive As he got to know her his conversation included more and more personal topics Mark learned that Angela had been dating a boy from her high school but she said that he was too immature Mark interpreted her remark to mean that her former boyfriend was too modest sexually Mark decided that he was the man for the job so he asked Angela out for a date She hesitated then accepted Mark took Angela to a kegger party some of his friends were having up in the mountains After socializing with the group for a while Mark led Angela off where they could be by themselves They talked for some time occasionally going over for more beer One topic of conversation was music and stereo equipment Mark told Angela that the stereo in his van was one of the best rack quality car stereos available He invited Angela to go back to the van to hear it Angela reluctantly agreed When they got to Mark s van he put on a CD and told Angela that the best place to listen to the music was in the back which Mark had outfitted with plush foam cushions Angela hesitated but felt that Mark seemed like a nice enough guy Besides she thought Mark was in a position to help or hLut her chances of keeping her job The music sounded better than any she had ever heard Mark sat down next to Angela and started rubbing her back After a while Mark began kissing Angela She didn t want to appear immature or suspicious so she didn t object to Mark s advances However when Mark tried to go further Angela jumped up and climbed out of the van 1 Do you think this is a case of sexual harassment Why or why not 2 Who was in a power position in this situation Why 3 What were some of the verbalnonverbal indicators of power in the situation To what extent were they effective ineffective Why 4 How did gender differences in uence the exercise of power in the situation What were the results Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 70 Reading Assignment Learning Objectives 1 2 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 UNIT 12 STUDY GUIDE Mindful Listening Johns amp Sline Ch 13 By the end of this unit you should be able to Distinguish between hearing and listening Describe the listening process Mind ilness Receiving Message Selecting Organizing Interpreting Responding Remembering List the guidelines for developing mindfulness Describe and provide examples of nonlistening behavior Pseudolistening Monopolizing stagehogging Selective Listening Defensive Listening Ambushing Literal Listening lnsensitive Listening Distinguish between evaluative and nonevaluative feedback Explain how advicegiving can be detrimental to relationships Differentiate between male and female listening styles Explain how paraphrasing can be used to help in effective listening Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 71 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 LISTENING QUIZ Instructions To the left of each statement indicate whether you think that the statement is true or false by place a T or F in the blank Please answer honestly and don39t try to quotpsychoutquot the quiz 20 21 22 23 24 25 Most people are pretty good listeners Listening is an easy natural passive behavior While listening it is possible to learn how to pay attention to some other idea person event etc in our environment at the same time There is no way you can quotmakequot someone listen to you To be an effective listener we must focus only on what the other person is saying and avoid being distracted by nonverbal cues There is basically only one type of listening we can utilize in our day to day lives When listening to someone with a problem it39s a good idea to offer sympathy or advice when possible Good listeners are better liked than bad listeners Hearing and listening are essentially the same thing Good listeners are born not made Being a better listener simply means taking in more information from the other person When we are listening we are also communicating to the other person at the same time To be a really good listener you have to be a mindreader Using feedback is an important part of listening Sometimes when listening the words get in the way The single most neglected communication skill is listening There are ways to tell when a person is probably not listening We spend about 25 percent of our awake time listening No matter how good a listener a person may be they will always misunderstand part of what is being communicated When people listen to each other there is less chance that they will disagree Pretending to listen is better than admitting that we39re not interested or don39t have the time The average listening efficiency of this culture is about 60 percent The major cause of poor listening is physical rather than psychological Good listeners get sweaty Most people are more interested in quottelling their own storyquot than in listening to anyone else Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 72 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 A LISTENING SELFE VAL UA TION How good a listener are you Review the following checklist and note the areas you need to improve Mark each statement A yes B no C I need improvement here 1 15 I often nd myself waiting for my quotturnquot to talk I am aware of the importance of listening in my daily life I realize that listening is a matter of skill not intelligence andI am doing something to develop my listening skills I encourage others to talk by willingly listening instead of speaking When someone speaks to me I give him or her full attention I assume every person has something worthwhile to say and I am anxious to understand them I use questions to guide my speaker so heshe will clarify hisher message to me I talk to my speaker through my actions facial expressions etc I give verbal feedback to tell the speaker how shehe is getting through to me I replay messages for clarity by saying things like quotThis is how I heard what you said am I correctquot I listen past the words of an emotional speaker and help himher convey hi sher true message I am aware of the voice tone and actions that give away unstated messages I draw mental outlines as I listen so I can be sure Ihave gotten all the major points of the message I review my mental outline as I listen so I don39t forget important points I ask for clarifications when I need them adapted from Wilson Hantz Hanna Instructor39s manual 1989 Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 73 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 BAD LISTENING HABITS How often do you indulge in the following ten bad listening habits Check yourself carefully on each one HABIT FRF OUFNCY Almost Almost Always Usually Sometimes Seldom Never 1 Giving in to mental distractions 2 Giving in to physical distractions 3 Trying to recall every thing a speaker says 4 Rejecting a topic as uninteresting before hearing the speaker 5 Faking attention 6 Jumping to conclusions about a speaker s meaning 7 Deciding a speaker is wrong before hearing everything she or he has to say 8 Judging a speaker on personal appearance 9 Not paying attention to a speaker s evidence 10 Focusing on delivery rather than on what the speaker says Total Score almostalways 2 usually 4 sometimes 6 seldom 8 almostnever 10 Total score interpretation Below 70 You need training in listening From 71 90 You listen well Above 90 You listen exceptionally well Thompson Comm 2110 Course Module Page 74 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 HOW DO YOU LISTEN The following listening assessment provides the opportunity to examine your listening behavior patterns In other words it will help you answer the question quotHow do you listen Remember there are no quotrigh quot or quotwrongquot answers Circle the letter that best describes your first response to the person in the situation who is expressing a problem You are not looking for the quotrightquot response or how you would like to respond but how you would indeed respond to people in these situations 1 One supervisor to another supervisor quotThe company policy is supposed to be to hire from within the company And now I nd out that this new guy is coming in to replace my boss I had my eyes on that job I39ve been working hard for it Well if that39s what they think of me I know when I39m not wantedquot a quotIt can be disappointing when the company seems to have forgotten about you by hiring outside the company especially when you put a lot of hard work into your jobquot b quotMaybe your quali cations don39t compare with those of the new manquot c quotI would make sure they know your views and let them know your interest in advancementquot d quotDid they discuss it with you at allquot 2 quotIt happens every time my manager appears in my department He just takes over as if I weren39t there When he sees something he doesn39t like he tells the employee what to do and how to do it The employees get confused I get upset and finally he leaves I39m responsible to him so what can I doquot quotYou should discuss your problems with your bossquot quotWhen did this start to happenquot quotThe boss must be the boss I suppose and we all have to learn to live with itquot quotIt upsets you that your manager takes over and gives con icting directions You39re not sure what would be the most appropriate way to confront him about your feelings regarding his behaviorquot 9057 3 quotIt39s happened again I was describing an office problem to my manager and she starts staring out the window She doesn39t seem to be really listening to me because she has to ask me to repeat things I feel she39s superficially giving me the time to state my problems but she ends up side stepping the issuequot a quotYou should stop talking when you feel she39s not listening to you That way she39ll start paying attention to youquot b quotYou can39t expect her to listen to every problem you have anyway you should learn to solve your own problemsquot c quotWhat kind of problems do you talk to her aboutquot d quotIt39s frustrating to have your boss behave this way when you39re talking about problems that are important for you to solvequot 4 quotI think I39m doing all right but I don39t know where I stand I39m not sure what my boss expects of me and he doesn39t tell me how I39m doing I39m trying my best but I wonder who else knows that I wish I knew where I stoodquot a quotHas your boss ever given you any indication of what he thinks of your workquot b quotIf I were you I39d discuss it with himquot c quotPerhaps others are also in the same position so you shouldn39t let it bother youquot d quotNot knowing if you39re satisfying your boss leaves you feeling unsure and you39d like to know just what he expects from youquot Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 75 5 quotAs long as I39ve got a goal ahead I39ll keep striving for it I39m determined to advance my career hard work never bothered me I know it won39t be easy and I39ll probably have to climb over a few people This is important to mequot quotYou shouldn39t have to climb over people to get what you wantquot quotGetting ahead is very important in your life even if it means hard work and it won39t be easyquot quotWhat in particular do you want to achievequot quotYou should take some management classes to help you advancequot 9057 SCORING AND INTERPRETING Circle the responses below that you circled above l a 2 d 3 d 4 d 5 b EMPATHIC RESPONSE A nonjudgmental response that captures the essential theme andor feeling expressed a potential for building rapport and mutual understanding l c 2 a 3 a 4 b S d RECOMMENDATION RESPONSE A response that offers advice tells the talker what to do or what not to do solves the problem or does the thinking for the talker l d 2 b 3 c 4 a 5 c ASKING FOR INFORMATION RESPONSE A response that asks for additional information to get a clear understanding before responding Used to excess the talker may feel quot grilled quot l b 2 c 3 b 4 c 5 a CRITICAL RESPONSE A response that expresses a form of criticism resulting from a natural tendency to judge approve or disapprove of a message received A Examine your listening response pattern 1 The response I use most often is 2 The response I use least is B What does this listening response pattern tell you about yourself 1 What do you want to maintain 2 What would you like to modify Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 76 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 THE TURNPIKE ARREST CASE LISTENING TEST Without Notes With Notes Without Test With Test circle the two that apply 1 The trooper was shot in What part of his body 2 What kind of weapon was used to shoot the trooper LN The wounded suspect and three companions made their escape in What 4 The suspect was shot in What part of his body U At What location on the New Jersey Turnpike did this incident take place 0 How much cash was found in the car How many times was the trooper shot 9 In What hospital is the policeman being treated 0 Two different people alerted the police about the shooting They were and 10 What kind of car was stopped for speeding by the trooper 11 How much bail was set for each suspect 12 In What jail are the suspects being held Thompson Comm 2110 Couise Module Page 77 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 LISTENING EXEMPTIONS WHY DON T WE LISTEN DO YOU CLAIM ANY OF THESE LISTENING EXEMPTIONS De nitions and Examples Effort Ex Xternal Noise Ex Ears Don t Hear Ex Message Overload Ex Preoccupation Ex Thought Are Rapid Ex Infer You ve Heard It Before Ex Obscure Advantages Ex No Training Ex All speech is a dead language until it finds a willing and prepared hearer Robert Louis Stevenson Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 78 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 A CTIVE LISTENING WHEN SHOULD YOU USE ACTIVE LISTENING amp PARAPHRASING TECHNIQUES FIGURE OUT YOUR TAXES TO FIND OUT Time Attitude XPerience with paraphrasing Eliminate Judgment Simple or Complex Ifyou think communication is all talk you haven t been listening iAshleigh Brilliant Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 79 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 Active Listening for Facts Observation Sheet BEHAVIORS TIMES OBSERVED Practices attentive silence good eye contact body posture Uses nonverbal acknowledgments nods head encouraging facial expressions Uses verbal acknowledgments quotuhhuhquot quotyeahquot Offers openended invitations to continue quotTell me morequot quotKeep talkingquot quotYou39re doing finequot Asks openended questions Paraphrases the idea back beginning by saying something like quotWhat I hear you saying isquot quotIn other wordsquot or quotSo you39re saying thatquot Identi es and states speakers feelings Asks closedended questions to verify the accuracy of paraphrases Other Describe Thompson Comm 2110 Cause Module Page 80 REASONS WHY ADVISORY RESPONSES ARE INAPPROPRIATE Often the listener is in no position to give advice that is he or she does not have all of the information needed is not a quali edtrained counselor or an expert in the area of the sender39s concern such as law medicine or education and has only limited personal experiences upon which to base this advice A listener tends to ignore the individuality of the sender He or she disregards the fact that everyone is different and that a solution appropriate for one person may not be suitable for another The listener suggests that the sender deal with the problem in the way the listener or even a friend or an acquaintance has dealt with a similar problem or in the manner in which the listener would deal with the problem Offering advice implies that the listener is not viewing the sender as an equal rather it indicates a superiorsubordinate such as parentchild employeremployee therapistclient etc relationship For women this relational view may result from cultural conditioning Barbara Sher psychotherapist and founder of Women39s Success Teams notes that womenmuch more than men tend to feel that listening to a troubled speaker is not enough women feel as if they have to do something to help Women are fixers We women aren39t the only ones but culturally and biologically we geared to take responsibility for another person39s life After all when you39re a mother and your baby is hungry and crying you don39t just listen sympathetically you come up with some milk And the baby learns that mothers fix things So you develop this sense of responsibility for another39s life and you have a feeling that if all you do is listen and sympathize you39re cheating somebody because you39re not giving everything you could give Borisoff and Hahn however report that men are even more likely to be advicegivers quotWhen women discuss problems and share experiences the process of the discussion conveys empathic communication In contrast men may offer solutions to show they are listening empathicallyquot Advising can result in the listener losing a friend if the listener39s advice adopted by the sender proves to be harm il rather than helpful to the sender Offering advice is an obstacle to the sender39s selfexpression the troubled sender needs to talk and listen to him or herself rather than to the dialogue partner Offering advice communicates a lack of trust in the sender39s capacity to solve his or her own problems and can decrease the sender39s feelings of adequacyselfworth Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 81 7 Offering advice reduces the sender39s responsibility for clarifying the problem and exploring possible solutions Indeed some senders seek advice so they can avoid responsibility for their own decisions then if the listener39s suggested solution does not resolve the problem the sender can always blame the listener for the failure According to Mayeroff the listener who denies the sender39s quotneed to take responsibility for his own lifequot is quotdenying him as a personquot 8 Frequently offering advice is proffering something that the sender does not want Even when the listener realizes that the sender has not asked for advice often advice is offered This realization often does not prevent the listener from telling the sender what to do quotI know you haven39t asked but I39d like to give you a piece of advice What you should do is quot Giving advice to someone who does not ask for it is giving someone something that he or she does not want Many of those who are trained in counseling corroborate the inappropriateness of advicegiving For example clinical social worker Jeffrey Moss who conducts seminars on the unique challenge of twocareer couples cautions the partners not to give advice There is a strong tendency to give advice even when it is not asked for and one of the things we have learned is that partners tend to resent advice on how to handle jobrelated issues People prefer to direct their concerns to a good listener an individual who will help him or her think through a problem rather than talk to a partner who will cloud the issue with a lot of advice Additionally the author of Parent Effectiveness Training Thomas Gordon a clinical psychologist notes the potentially negative results of parental advisory responses Such messages are often felt by the child as evidence that the parent does not have confidence in the child39s judgment or ability to find his own solution They may in uence a child to become dependent on the parent and stop thinking for herself Finally psychologist Carl Rogers testifies how good one feels when the listener resists the desire to provide direction for the troubled sender quotI can testify that when you are in psychological distress and someone really hears you without passing judgment on you without trying to take responsibility for you without trying to mold you it feels damn goodquot 9 Offering advice to a sender even when he or she asks for advice is not giving the sender what he or she needs A sender needs a sounding board who has the willingness to listen the capacity to care the desire to understand and discretion and honesty None of these things includes advicegiving Andrew Wolvin Carolyn Coakly Listening 1996 Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 82 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 RECOGNIZING EFFECTIVE PARAPHRASING Select the effective paraphrase of the sender s message and say why it is the only effective paraphrase Why Why Why Speaker Sometimes I think I d like to drop out of school but then I start to feel like a quitter A B C Maybe it would be helpful to take a break and then you can always come back You re so close to nishing Can t you just keep with it a little bit longer It sounds like you have doubts about finishing school but that you don t like to think of yourself as a person who would quit something you started What do you think the consequences will be if you drop out Speaker I really don t want to go to a party where I don t know anyone I ll just sit by m A B C yself all night You re apprehensive about going someplace where you don t know anyone because you ll be alone It would really be good for you to put yourself in that kind of situation I can really relate to what you re saying I feel awkward too when I go to strange places Maybe you could just go for half an hour and then you can always leave if you re not having a good time Speaker I get really nervous when I talk with people I respect and who I fear might not respect me A I ve really found it useful to prepare my remarks in advance Then I m not nearly as nervous B You really shouldn t feel nervous with people you respect because in many ways you are just as good as they are C You feel uncomfortable when you talk with people who you think may not regard you in a positive way D Why do you think you get so nervous about people you respect Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 83 Instructions COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 IDENTIFYING INFORMATIONAL PARAPHRASING RESPONSES Identify the best paraphrasing response to each statement below Boss to employee quotDraft a letter that denies this request for a refund but make it tactfulquot A quotWhat do you want me to sayquot B quotHow can I say no tactfullyquot C quotSo I should explain nicely why we can39t give a refund rightquot D quotIn other words you want me to give this customer the brushoff rightquot Friend says quotHow do they expect us to satisfy the course requirements when there aren39t enough spaces in the classes we39re supposed to takequot A quotSo you39re frustrated because you can39t get into the courses you need huhquot B quotYou think that some of the courses are worthless is that itquot C quotSounds like you39re sorry you chose this majorquot D quotWhy don39t you write a letter to the chair of the departmentquot Friend says quotWhy don39t I meet you after class at the student unionquot quotSo you want me to pick you up at the student unionquot quotYou want me to pick you up againquot quotSo we39ll meet at the south entrance around 515quot quotWhy can39t you drive yourself Is your car broken againquot COW Coworker advises quotWhen you go in for ajob interview be sure to talk about the internship your course work and your extracurricular activities Don39t expect them to ask youquot A quotYou think they won39t ask about those thingsquot B quotWon39t that sound like braggingquot C quotWhy should I talk about the internshipquot D quotSo you39re saying not to be bashful about stressing my experiencequot Friend says quotI don39t think it39s right that they go out and recruit women when there are plenty of good men aroundquot A quotSounds like you39re angry because you think they39re so concerned about being fair to women that they39re being unfair to men rightquot B quotYou39re right that doesn39t sound fairquot C quotIf you don39t think it39s fair you ought to speak upquot D quotI can see that you39re angry What makes you think women are being given an unfair advantage quot Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 84 Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 PARAPHRASING PRACTICE Instructions Write a paraphrasing response for each of the following statements Include the speaker s thought and as appropriate the speaker s feelings I I guess it s OK for you to use my computers Just be careful to handle the oppy disks only by the 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 cover and don t put any food or drinks on the desk or anywhere near the machine This computer cost me a lot of money and it would be a disaster if anything happened to it You ll have the best chance at getting a loan for the new car you want if you give us a complete financial statement and credit history Instructor to student This paper shows a lot of promise It could probably earn you an A grade if you just developed the idea about the problems that arise from poor listening a bit more I do like the communication course but it s not all what I expected It s much more personal if you know what I mean We just got started on your car s transmission I m pretty sure we can have it ready tonight I do think it s wrong to take any lives but sometimes I think certain criminals deserve capital punishment We are planning to have some friends over tonight but I guess you re welcome to come too Why don t you just bring along something we can munch on so we ll be sure to have enough food You know I enjoy spending time with you But I have other friends too Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 85 Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 2110 PROBLEM SOLVING PARAPHRASING You have already learned that the most help il paraphrasing responses re ect both the speaker s thoughts and feeling In order for this style of helping to be effective you also have to sound like yourself and not another person or a robot There are many ways to re ect another s thoughts and feelings It sounds like you re I hear you saying Let me see ifI ve got it You re saying So you re telling me Instructions Write a paraphrasing response for each of the statements which follow Be sure that the response fits your style of speaking while at the same time it re ects the speaker s thoughts and feelings Example Stan always wants to tell me about the women he s going out with he gives me blow by blow descriptions of their dates that takes hours and he never seems to ask about who I m going out with or what I m interested in It seems like you might be tired feeling of hearing about Stan s love life thoughts and maybe a little put out feelin that he doesn t solicit information from on about whom ou re datin s 39 39 thou ht is that it l I can t believe it First the instructor said my answers were too skimpy so I gave her more information Now she tells me I m being too wordy Arggh 2 What would you do if you heard your best friend making 1n of you behind your back 3 We can t decide whether to put grandmother in a nursing home She hates the idea but she can t take care of herself anymore and it s just too much for us 4 Those crappy finals are finally over I m never going to even think about history again quot 5 I m really starting to hate my job Everyday I do the same boring mindless work But if I quit I might not find any better wor 6 They haven t called me in ages I think they must be mad at me or something 7 Maybe I ll just use their lawn as a bathroom Then they ll understand what their dog is doing in my yard 8 Why don t you try to be a little less messy around here This place looks like a dump Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 86 Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 SYMPATHY VERSUS EMPATHY Adapted from William Gudykunst Bridging Differences 2d ed Thousand Oaks CA Sage Publications 1994 Most card shops have a sympathy card section Such cards let people know you realize they are feeling bad about the death of someone close to them To symp athize is to say you are sorry that you want to offer your support and acknowledge that someone is feeling bad Empathy goes one step nther than sympathy Empathy means that you try to perceive the world from another s perspective you attempt to feel what someone else feels Respond to the sample situations below both with sympathy and empathy 1 A good friend of yours just phones to tell you that her dog a wellloved fourteenyearold pet has just died Respond with sympathy Respond with empathy 2 Your older brother comes to visit you and tells you that he and his wife are getting a divorce after twenty years of marriage Respond with sympathy Respond with empathy 3 A friend tells you that she just got fired from her job Respond with sympathy Respond with empathy WAYS TO DEVELOP EMPATHY 1 Understand the person39s background The more the listener knows about a person39s background the better the listener can understand the sender39s frame of reference In order to know the sender39s background the listener must provide an atmosphere in which the sender feels safe to share personal information 2 Shared similar feelings If two people have been in similar situations or have had similar feelings then it is easier to empathize with them 3 Desire to understand The listener must be sincerely interested in relating with the sender This desire is conveyed verbally and sometimes more importantly nonverbally Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 87 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 EMPATHIC LISTENING RESPONSES Empathic listening involves perceiving the speaker39s feelings and identifying and related with those feelings The empathic responses are predominantly nonverbal but the three verbal responses include 1 appropriate questioning 2 paraphrasing and 3 mirroring repeating a few words The best way to learn to respond empathically is through real life but partially scripted experiences The experiences are focused on topics or subjects that are relevant to university students and communication Objective The student will respond appropriately as judged by a third peer to a personal verbal message by 1 asking questions 2 paraphrasing or 3 mirroring Procedure The class will be divided into groups of three Each person will choose a set of three message cues from those listed below Each person will develop a one to two minute message from the cues chosen by himher Participant 1 presents hisher message Participant 2 responds appropriately by asking at least two questions paraphrasing or mirroring Participant 3 evaluates the responses Participants will exchange roles and responsibilities Empathic Listening Message Cues Circle and complete ONE message cue Prepare to present your completed cue A The communication situation which makes me most anxious is Ithink I dread it most because When I am in this situation I B These class meetings are I think we need to During and after these meetings I feel C I think my studies are going well this semester except for I feel this class I wish D I really like When heshe is around I feel When heshe is around Iknow E I have a difficult time knowing what to do when Italk to myself about I wish F I am most embarrassed in class when Iwish Perhaps I should G I think is the best listener I know I know heshe is listening to me because I can tell heshe is H I have the most difficult time listening when also bothers my listening I think the ideal listening situation would include I I listen best when in uences my listening About listening I think Created by Bob Bohiken Northwest Missouri State University Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 88 Listen When I ask you to listen to me and you start giving advice you have not done what I asked When I ask you to listen to me and you begin to tell me why I shouldn t feel that way you are trampling on my feelings When I ask you to listen to me and you feel you have to do something to solve my problems you have failed me strange as that may seem Listen All I asked was that you listen Not talk or do just hear me Advice is cheap 50 cents will get you both Dear Abby and Billy Graham in the same newspaper And I can do for myself I m not helpless Maybe discouraged and faltering but not helpless When you do something for me that I can and need to do for myself you contribute to my fear and weakness But when you accept as a simple fact that I do feel what I feel no matter how irrational then I quit trying to convince you and can get about the business of understanding what s behind this irrational feeling And when that s clear the answers are obvious and I don t need advice Irrational feelings make sense when we understand what s behind them Perhaps that s why prayer works sometimes for some people because God is mute and doesn t give advice or try to fix things God just listens and lets you work it out for yourself So please listen and just hear me and if you want to talk wait a minute for your turn and I ll listen to you Anonymous Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 89 Reading Assignment COMMUNICATIONS 2110 UNIT 13 STUDY GUIDE Con ict Management Johns amp Sline Ch14 amp Ch12 pp 429430 Learning Objectives 1 Describe the elements of interpersonal con ict Expressed disagreementIncompatible goals InterdependenceIntercormectedness Feel the need to resolve Identify both potential positive and negative outcomes quotom con ict in relationships and groups Discuss the different forms of con ict Covert Overt Describe the different responses to con ict Exit Neglect Loyalty Voice List some of the constructive ways to communicate during a con ict Discuss the guidelines for effective communication during con ict Focus on the overall communication system Effective timing Aim for WinWin Show honor Show grace Discuss the cultural differences regarding con ict Discuss the gender differences regarding con ict Explain the different con ict management styles Avoiding Accommodating Competing Compromising Collaborating List the recommended steps for collaborative con ict management 5 2 6 3 7 4 8 Differentiate between a negotiation mind set which can only lead to a compromise from a collaborative mind set which may lead to compromise Describe and explain DESC script strategy for expressing our feelings in a given con ict Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 90 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 PERSONAL REFLECTION ON CONFLICT A Cooperative Learning Structure Adapted from Gamble T K amp Gamble M W 1998 Contacts Communicating Interpersonally p 278 Needham Heights MA Allyn amp Bacon Think about several situations in which you were in con ict with another person and the feelings you had at the time Using the following scale to measure your feelings about con ict For example for the first item good versus bad if you feel that the con ict was completely bad circle 5 If you feel neutral about the con ict circle 3 good 1 2 3 4 5 bad rewarding 1 2 3 4 5 threatening normal 1 2 3 4 5 abnormal constructive 1 2 3 4 5 destructive necessary 1 2 3 4 5 unnecessary challenging 1 2 3 4 5 overwhelming desirable 1 2 3 4 5 undesirable inevitable 1 2 3 4 5 avoidable healthy 1 2 3 4 5 unhealthy clean 1 2 3 4 5 dirty 3 Compute your score by adding up your total Total Score 1014 You think con ict is definitely a positive experience 1520 You think con ict can be helpful 2130 You don t like to think about con ict you have very ambivalent feelings toward it 3140 You think con ict is something to avoid 4150 You think con ict is definitely a negative experience 4 Determine the average male and female scores in the class How do they compare If they are different what do you believe caused the difference How does your score compare to the average score for your sex Thompson Comm 2110 Couise Module Page 91 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 PERSONAL DEFINITIONS OF CONFLICT Cooperative Learning Structure Adapted from Con ict Management Dyadic Sharing by Marc Robert in The 1979 Annual Handbook for Group Facilitators edited by John E Jones and J William Pfeiffer San Diego CA University Associates 1979 Please read this silently The following pages contain a series of openended statements intended to help you discover and share your reactions to con ict and your ways of dealing with it After completing them you will have an opportunity to learn from your partner s responses This experience is most effective if your answers are spontaneous and unrehearsed Complete each sentence as quickly as you can Write directly on the page When both you and your partner have finished completing these statements you will share your responses with each other by following these rules 1 Take turns completing each sentence orally Both partners should have an opportunity to share their responses to each statement before moving on to the next one 2 This discussion is con dential 3 Do not skip items Respond to each one in the order in which it appears 4 You will have 15 minutes to discuss these items with your partner Briefly complete each sentence 1 The time I felt best about dealing with con ict was when 2 When someone disagrees with me about something or challenges me in front of others I usually 3 The most important outcome of con ict is 4 When I confront someone I care about I 5 I feel most vulnerable during con ict when 6 When someone avoids con ict with me I 7 My greatest strength in handling con ict is 8 I am most apt to confront people in situations such as 9 When I was growing up con ict was 10 My greatest weaknesses in handling con ict is 11 When I think about confronting a potentially unpleasant person I 12 I sometimes avoid directly confronting someone when Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 92 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 CONFLICT SELFASSESSMENT Respond to the following statements to assess the extent to which you characteristically respond assertively to interpersonal con ict Use the scale to evaluate the degree to which each statement typi es your behavior For each statement assign a score of 5 to 1 according to the following criteria 5 If you almost always display the behavior 4 If the behavior occurs about 75 percent of the time 3 If you have a 5050 chance of displaying the behavior 2 If you sometimes but not frequently behave in this manner 1 If you almost never display the behavior Add the values in each of the sections below to determine your total score 1 You and a friend disagree over who works harder to make your friendship work You try not to make your friend feel guilty calmly let your friend know what upsets you about his or her behavior avoid blaming your friend for any relationship problems look directly at your friend when talking to him or her make no assumptions about how your quotiend feels question your friend in an effort to avoid misunderstanding him or her avoid using sarcasm as a communication strategy refrain quotom becoming anxious about discussing the problem use appropriately forceful voice tone body language facial expression and gestures to support your feelings avoid cursing and using obscenities to make your point present your thoughts in an organized manner consider the impact of your actions Total 2 You and your boss disagree over the kind of job you are doing You try not to make your boss feel guilty calmly let your boss know how you feel avoid blaming your boss for the disagreement look directly at your boss when speaking to him or her make no assumptions about your boss39s feelings avoid using sarcasm during the interaction question your boss to avoid further misunderstanding refrain from becoming anxious about letting your boss know what you think use appropriately force il voice tone body language facial expressions and gestures to support your feelings avoid cursing or using obscenities to make a point present your thoughts in an organized manner consider the impact of your actions Total Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 93 You and a teacher disagree about a grade You try not to make your teacher feel guilty calmly let the teacher know how you feel avoid blaming the teacher for the grade look directly at the teacher when speaking to him or her make no assumptions about the teacher s reasons question the teacher to avoid a misunderstanding avoid using sarcasm during the interaction refrain from becoming anxious about speaking up and letting the teacher know what you think use appropriately force il voice tone body language facial expressions and gestures to support your feelings avoid cursing or using obscenities to make a point present your thoughts in an organized manner consider the impact of your actions Total If you consistently score near 60 for each situation you are probably comfortable handling interpersonal con ict If you consistently score near 12 you probably are not Reexamine each set of responses With which person were you most effective Most ineffective Why Circle the questions to which you responded with a 1 2 or 3 These are the behaviors you may want to work on Thompson Comm 2110 Couise Module Page 94 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 CONFLICT MANA GEMENTANAL YSES Instructions Your task is to rank the ve alternative courses of action in each of the three cases below from most desirable or appropriate way of dealing with the con ict to the least desirable Rank the most desirable course of action 1 the next most desirable 2 and so on ranking the least desirable or least appropriate action 5 Enter your rank for each item in the space next to each choice Case One Sally is a senior qualitycontrol QC inspector and has been appointed group leader of the QC people on her crew On separate occasions two of her people have come to her with different suggestions for reporting test results to the machine operators Paul wants to send the test results to the supervisor and then to the machine operators because the supervisor is the person ultimately responsible for production output Jim thinks the results should go directly to the lead operator on the machine in question because he is the one who must take corrective action as soon as possible Both ideas seem good and Sally can nd no ironclad procedure in the department on how to route the reports Ifyou were Sally you would A Decide who is right and ask the other person to go along with the decision perhaps establishing it as a written procedure B Wait and see the best solution will become apparent C Tell both Paul and Jim not to get uptight about their disagreement it is not that important D Get Paul and Jim together and examine both of their ideas closely E Send the report to the supervisor with a copy to the lead operator even though it might mean a little more copy work for QC Case Two Ralph is a module leader his module consists of four very complex and expensive machines and ve machine operators The work is exacting and inattention or improper procedures could cause a costly mistake or serious injury Ralph suspects that one of his operators is taking drugs on the job or at least is showing up for work under the in uence of drugs Ralph believes that he has some strong indications but he knows he does not have a case Ifyou were Ralph you would Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 95 Case Three Confront the employee tell him or her what you suspect and why and that you are concerned for them and for the safety of the rest of the crew Tell him or her you are willing to overlook it as long as this behavior is not repeated in the future Move the suspected offender to a less criticaljob so that mistakes are minimized Say nothing about it to the individual right now deciding that confrontation might either turn the person off or drive them underground Give the employee the facts of life Tell him or her that the behavior is illegal and unsafe Warn the employee that if he or she is caught you will see that the employee is fired Express your concern that the employee s behavior indicates a potential problem which if left unchecked could seriouslyjeopardize the crew Offer your support in helping the employee overcome the problem Jean is the supervisor ofa production crew From time to time the Product Development section has enlisted people from Jean s production crews and assigned them to be operators to run test products on special machines This has put very little strain on the production crews since the demands have been small temporary and infrequent Lately however there seems to have been an almost constant demand for four production operators The rest of the productions crew must fill in for these missing people usually by working harder and taking shorter breaks Ifyou were Jean you would A B Let it go for now the crisis will probably be over soon Try to smooth things over with your own crew and with the development supervisor explaining that we all have jobs to do and cannot afford a con ict Let Product Development have two of the four operators it requested Go to the development supervisor or the supervisor s boss and talk about how these demands for additional operators could best be met without placing production in a bind Go to the manager of production Jean s boss and ask him or her to call off the development people Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 96 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 FIVE TYPES OF CONFLICT MANA GEMENT Competing Collaborating Compromising Avoiding Accommodating Am RTIVENESS 6 High Low lt2 COOPERATION ED High Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 97 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 IDENTIFYING CONFLICT MANA GEMENT STYLES Directions Inbel each scenario with the con ict management style being used Scenario One Con ict Style Scott and Stephanie have been going together for six months Scott has two ee tickets to the Friday Night Monster Truck Rally because his uncle has an entry However Stephanie s mother has bought her two Friday night tickets to the Nutcracker Stephanie s favorite ballet When the couple hears about the con icting plans their tempers air They accuse each other of being sel sh and stubborn Scott storms out of the house and Stephanie slams the door She takes her friend Susan to the ballet Scott and his brother go to the rally They both spend the evening criticizing each other making it dif cult for anyone to enjoy the evening Scenario Two Con ict Style Adam and Jonathan are brothers who have to share a car Their varied work and school schedules have caused constant con icts between them The two are so frustrated when they nd they both want the car Saturday night Jonathan Adam let me just drop you off at work and then your friends can pick you up when you re finished at 6 Adam My friends are leaving for Salt Lake at 530 so they can get dinner before the concert Ineed to have the car so I can leave from work to meet them down there Why can t you just ride to work with Matt Jonathan Matt is getting sick of always having to pick me up I owe him ten bucks already He s going to want gas money and I don t blame him Besides I have a date after work with Amy I m going to feel so stupid if she has to drive again Adam You always have the car Jonathan What Give me a break The only way I ll let you have the car is if you give me the ten dollars to give to Matt Adam Oh all right Give me the keys Scenario Three Con ict Style Pam is so excited when she is hired at First Security Bank as a teller She is trying to save money for college next year and this new job pays so much more than her waitress job used to Everything would be perfect if it were not for that problem with her supervisor Frank He stands too close to Pam making her very uncomfortable He never calls her Pam it s always Honey or Sweetheart Although she hates his behavior she has never told him She just laughs nervously She badmouths him behind his back to the other tellers but she doesn t dare confront him he could have her red Thompson Comm 2110 Coume Module Page 98 Scenario Four Con ict Style Pam is so excited when she is hired at First Security Bank as a teller She nds the work challenging but interesting Everything would be perfect if it were not for that problem with her supervisor Frank He stands too close to Pam making her very uncomfortable He never calls her Pam it s always Honey or Sweetheart She nally gets the courage to confront him But instead of apologizing he calls her a prude and threatens to have her fired if she mentions the matter to anyone else Pam goes to the police and files sexual harassment charges against Frank Scenario Five Con ict Style Scott and Stephanie have been going together for six months Scott has two free tickets to the Friday Night Monster Truck Rally because his uncle has an entry However Stephanie s mother has bought her two Friday night tickets to the Nutcracker Stephanie s favorite ballet When the couple first learns about the differences in their plans their tempers air But they decide that their relationship means more to them than their tickets They give away the treasured tickets rent an old video and order a pizza Friday night Scenario Six Con ict Style Jeff has promised to drive his girlfriend Jenna to work But just as he is about to leave his dad says Jeff before you go anywhere I want that garage cleaned out and both cars washed Jeff hesitates for a moment but then agrees to do the work When Jeff calls Jenna to see if she can get another ride to work she seems irritated Why don t you just tell your dad that you ll do it tomorrow she asks It s really not fair to spring all these chores on you spur of the moment is it I know Jeff replies he makes me so mad when he does that But I really want to stay on his good side this week I want him to be in a good mood when I ask him if I can go to St George over spring break Good point Jenna laughs I think my mom can drive me to work Scenario Seven Con ict Style Sarah and Joseph have been married for three years They are so happy but money is very scarce As Christmas approaches they disagree about whether they have enough money to buy each other gifts In secret Joseph sells his beloved pocket watch to buy tortoise shell combs for Sarah s long auburn hair Ironically Sarah goes to a barber who cuts her hair and pays her for it just enough money to buy a gold chain for Joseph s pocket watch Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 99 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 CONFLICT A quotHindsightquot View 0fA Con ict in Which You Were Involved Try to recall a recent con ict in which you were involved and which you would be willing to describe to members of your group It is not important to name individuals involved These are notes for your own use You will have a chance to discuss them in your team This con ict was about between Frustration In this situation I wanted and felt frustrated because The other party wanted and felt frustrated because Conceptualization I believed that the key issue was I think that the other party believed that the key issue was Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 100 Behavior As you recall the incident What did you do and What did the other party do that led to either desirable or undesirable outcomes Outcomes What would you consider to be the major outcomes of this con ict Desirable Outcomes Umle irable Outcomes Future Applications What would YOU do say differently next time Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 101 WRITING ASSIGNMENTS amp RUBRICS COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WRITTEN COMMUNICATION WRITING EXPECTATIONS This is a college course and Therefore college level wriTing is expecTed on all assignmenTs This is a course on communicaTionwriTTen verbal non verbal eTc Your wriTTen communicaTion assignmenTs are expecTed To be appropriaTe coherenT inTelligenT inTeresTing eTc COMMON PROBLEMS IN PAPERS Figure ouT whaT is wrong and correcT The errors 1 The reporT was wriTTen by KaThy 2 I would like To asserT ThaT The auThor should be considered a buffoon 3 Before going To The supermarkeT we made a lisT of groceries we needed in order To make The food ThaT we inTended To eaT for dinner 4 Please converge in The souTh conference room 5 The decision was compleTely unanimous 6 For example my parenTs decided To geT married aT a young age MLA FORMATTING amp SPECIAL REQUESTS 1 12 poinT fonT someThing legible such as Times or New Roman 2 1 inch margins on all sides 3 Double spaced ThroughouT even beTween The TiTle and paper no exTra spaces anywhere 4 CenTer TiTle afTer name informaTion and above essay no bold no all caps no iTalics no quoTes no larger fonT no underline no exTra spacing 5 CiTaTions should be included afTer direcT quoTes quoTes in quoTaTion marks and paraphrases The ciTaTion should be in parenTheses and include The auThor39s lasT names and The page number The period should go AFTER The close parenThesis For example Thompson is The coolesT Johns eT al 28 6 Special RequesT PrinTwriTe your name class period daTe informaTion on The back of The lasT page of your paper Also aTTach your wriTing assignmenT grading rubric To The fronT of The paper make sure your name is noT on ThaT eiTher Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 103 1 2 3 CE COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WRITING ASSIGNMENT 1 Personal ReflecTion Paper ParT 1 To become a more compeTenT communicaTor iT is essenTial To realize The areas in which you are lacking or need improvemenT As you are able To idenTify where you need To improve you will be more apT To inTernalize The informaTion This course offers which will poTenTially help you communicaTe beTTer in Those areas To help you idenTify where you need To improve iT may be beneficial To inquire of family members friends and co workersemployers or class peersTeachers This can poTenTially be a difficulT yeT enlighTening experience To geT helpful feedback from Those whom you ask iT is imperaTive you have an open mind reduce your personal defensiveness and only ask Those people who will be candid and honesT Keep in mind ThaT There is no such Thing as a perfecT communicaTor and people can be more or less compeTenT in a varieTy of ways Your goal for This assignmenT is To idenTify Those areasskills in which you need The mosT improvemenT To do so you musT also be honesT wiTh yourself WriTe a 4 5 page personal essay using MLA formaT where you examine The Three conTesz in which you communicaTe mosT and deTermine ways in which you can improve in Those areas Specifically analyze The conTesz of Family Friends and Work or School Be sure To read and sTudy The Tebeook informaTion regarding These conTesz IdenTify your communicaTion behaviors boTh verbal and nonverbal which need improvemenT For each communicaTion conTexT use aT leasT one personal example of poor communicaTion or a communicaTion mishap To illusTraTe why YOU need To improve Be sure To analyze whaT YOU did ThaT conTribuTed To The poor communicaTion and how The lack of This skill is a problem for you IdenTify how you Think you could improve in This area by giving aT leasT one idea for personal improvemenT Refer To The WriTTen CommunicaTion hand ouT To make sure you follow The MLA formaTTing requiremenTs and special requesTs PLEASE PROOFREAD YOUR PAPER AND MAKE CORRECTIONS BEFORE TURNING IT IN Thompson Comm 2 10 Course Module Page 104 PERSONAL REFLECTION PAPER 1 GRADING CRITERIA INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH 111 glla Hook ATTenTion GeTTer lllb Thesis STaTemenT STaTemenT abouT personal communicaTion improvemenT needs Clllc LisT of Three conTesz which you will be examining in same order as paper PARAGRAPH 2 115quot 118 Describe The firsT of The 3 communicaTion conTesz you will be discussing Family 112 Friends 115 WorkSchool 118 Include a MLA source ciTaTion quoTe or paraphrase which helps To define The conTexT c112 c115 118 PARAGRAPH 3 lt116 119 Describe The communicaTion skills YOU need To improve upon wiThin The corresponding communicaTion conTexT IllusTraTe The need for improvemenT wiTh a specific personal example where your lack of communicaTion skills were obvious and deTrimenTal c113 G116 i5119 PARAGRAPH 4 117quot 1110 Discuss your personal example of poor communicaTion skills EvaluaTe whaT YOU did which conTribuTed To The poor communicaTion and how The lack of This skill is a problem for you IdenTify how YOU could improve in This area 114 G117 C1110 PARAGRAPHS 5 6 amp 7 and 8 9 amp 10 G RepeaT The sTeps used in paragraphs 2 3 amp 4 for The addiTional paragraphs using The 2nd Friends and 3rd WorkSchool communicaTion conTesz CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH 1111 1111 ResTaTe your Thesis 1111b Summarize The 3 conTesz and whaT you need To improve in regards To communicaTion for each one 1111c Include your feelings abouT communicaTion and your anTicipaTion for This course CONVENTIONS Very few grammar andor spelling errors SPECIAL REQUESTS Grading rubric aTTached Name does NOT appear on fronT of paperin dialogueon rubric only on The back of The IasT page Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 105 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WRITING ASSIGNMENT 2 CULTURE COMMUNICATION PAPER Research has shown ThaT culTure has a greaT impacT on how we communicaTe Because of our differing culTural backgrounds miscommunicaTion and conflicT can and does occur For This wriTing assignmenT you will do The following 1 6 Make sure you undersTand The following definiTion of culTure a learned seT of shared inTerpreTaTions abouT beliefs values and norms which affecT The behaviors of a relaTively large group of people LusTig and KoesTer 30 ReflecT on The many possible culTures To which you belong Think abouT The people in The Three differenT conTesz of your life workschool family and friends and The culTures To which They belong STudy The lisT of comparisons beTween culTural communicaTion sTyles found below and as discussed in The course Tebeook Now wriTe a 2 page paper follow The Grading Rubric where you discuss your personal experiences wiTh culTural communicaTion You will address Two areas of culTural communicaTion you have been socially consTrucTed To follow based on your culTural background CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN COMMUNICATION Low Power DisTance vs High Power DisTance Individualism vs CollecTivism Low ConTexT STyle vs High ConTexT STyle Masculine vs Feminine Low UncerTainTy Avoidance vs High UncerTainTy Avoidance Long Term vs ShorT Term Refer To The WriTTen CommunicaTion hand ouT To make sure you follow The MLA formaTTing requiremenTs and special requesTs PLEASE PROOFREAD YOUR PAPER AND MAKE CORRECTIONS BEFORE TURNING IT IN Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 106 CULTURE COMMUNICATION PAPER 2 Grading Rubric INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH 11 lilo Hook ATTenTion GeTTer Clllb BRIEF summary of The currenT research on culTural communicaTion differences lllc Thesis STaTemenT evaluaTive sTaTemenT abouT your culTural communicaTion PARAGRAPH 2 and W4quot Cll2 W4 A descripTiondiscussion of a culTural communicaTion difference which you follow include a MLA source ciTaTion quoTe or paraphrase which helps To define The difference PARAGRAPH 3 and ll5 quot3 H5 IllusTraTe The culTural difference discussed above wiTh a specific personal example of how you follow iT Discuss whaT culTural facTors influenced you To follow This and from where ThaT culTural background comes CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH 16 quot6a ResTaTe your Thesis ll b Summarize The Two culTural communicaTion differences you discussed clli oc Include your feelings abouT culTural communicaTion differences CONVENTIONS Very few grammar andor spelling errors SPECIAL REQUESTS Grading rubric aTTached Name does NOT appear on fronT of paperin dialogueon rubric only on The back of The lasT page Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 107 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WRITING ASSIGNMENT 3 GENDER COMMUNICATION PAPER Research has shown ThaT gender has greaT impacT on our communicaTion and relaTionships Men and women do communicaTe differenle For This wriTing assignmenT you will do The following 1 Pay aTTenTion To conversaTions around you beTween same gender and differenT gender groups 2 ReflecT back on conversaTions you have had wiTh your friends significanT oTher family members co workers boss Teachers eTc 3 STudy The lisT of comparisons beTween gender communicaTion sTyles found below and as discussed in The course Tebeook 4 Now wriTe a 2 page paper follow The Grading Rubric where you discuss your personal experiences wiTh gender communicaTion You will address aT leasT one area of gender communicaTion in which you follow The norm and aT leasT one area in which you break The norm GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMMUNICATION Women Men 1 CommunicaTe To connecT 1 CommunicaTe for sTaTus 2 Problem Talk To connecT 2 Problem Talk To find soluTions 3 EmoTional helper gives empaThy 3 EmoTional fixer gives advice 4 InTeresT in deTails 4 InTeresT in facTs 5 Gossip To connecT 5 Gossip To creaTe sTaTus 6 ImporTanT To be liked 6 ImporTanT To be respecTed 7 Peacemaker 7 Warrior proTecTor 8 CreaTes communiTy 8 CreaTes conTesT 9 SiTs small 9 SiTs spread ouT 10 Reveals secreTs connecT 10 Reveals secreTs loses power 11 Concern caring 11 Concern condescending 5 Refer To The WriTTen CommunicaTion hand ouT To make sure you follow The MLA formaTTing requiremenTs and special requesTs PLEASE PROOFREAD YOUR PAPER AND MAKE CORRECTIONS BEFORE TURNING IT IN Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 108 GENDER COMMUNICATION PAPER 3 Grading Rubric INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH Gil Gila Hook ATTenTion GeTTer Qilb BRIEF summary of The currenT research on gender communicaTion differences iilc Thesis STaTemenT evaluaTive sTaTemenT abouT your gender communicaTion PARAGRAPH 2 QlZ A descripTiondiscussion of The gender communicaTion differences of which you follow The norm include a MLA source ciTaTion quoTe or paraphrase which helps To define The difference PARAGRAPH 3 Q13 IllusTraTe The communicaTion difference discussed above wiTh a specific personal example of you following This norm Analyze why you Think you do so PARAGRAPH 4 34 A descripTiondiscussion of The gender communicaTion differences of which you DO NOT follow The norm include a MLA source ciTaTion quoTe or paraphrase which helps To define The difference PARAGRAPH 5 Ql5 IllusTraTe The communicaTion difference discussed above wiTh a specific personal example of you NOT following This norm Analyze why you Think you do noT CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH 16 601 ResTaTe your Thesis Qi b Summarize The Two gender communicaTion differences you discussed lioc Include your feelings abouT gender communicaTion differences CONVENTIONS Very few grammar andor spelling errors SPECIAL REQUESTS Grading rubric aTTached Name does NOT appear on fronT of paperin dialogueon rubric only on The back of The lasT page Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 109 1 2 3 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WRITING ASSIGNMENT 4 PERCEPTION CHECKING PAPER Use percepTion checking correchy on aT leasT one occasion wiTh someone you have an inTerpersonal relaTionship wiTh Your inTeracTion musT be face Toface communicaTion NO Telephone or InTerneT e mail chaT room insTanT messenger conversaTions PERCEPTION CHECKING PROCESS 1 Describe The person39s behavior To him whaT he said or did in very specific deTail NOTE DO NOT EVALUATE THE BEHAVIOR 2 Offer 2 reasonable inTerpreTaTions of The person39s behavior 3 Ask The person for feedback on how To inTerpreT his behavior HINT Use These sTeps in The correct order Use a nonThreaTening voice and appropriaTe eye conTacT Avoid sarcasm or double messages WriTe a 1 2 page essay describing your experience Use The PercepTion Checking Paper grading criTeria To help you sTrucTure your paper correchy Refer To The WriTTen CommunicaTion hand ouT To make sure you follow The MLA formaTTing requiremenTs and special requesTs PLEASE PROOFREAD YOUR PAPER AND MAKE CORRECTIONS BEFORE TURNING IT IN Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 110 PERCEPTION CHECKING PAPER 4 GRADING CRITERIA INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH 11 lilo Hook ATTenTion GeTTer Clllb BRIEF summary of The percepTion checking process cllllc BRIEF explanaTion of The PURPOSE of percepTion checking llld Thesis STaTemenT evaluaTive sTaTemenT abouT PercepTion Checking PARAGRAPH 2 llZ A descripTion of The conTexT for The percepTion check Include The approximaTe Time of day The place The person your relaTionship To The person why you ThoughT iT was necessary To do a percepTion check and any oTher needed background informaTion leading up unTil righT before you use The percepTion check PARAGRAPH 3 553 WriTe ouT The acTual dialogue of The conversaTion Include in dialogue formaT whaT you said wordfor word for The percepTion check and whaT Their wordfor word response was Do noT include The conversaTion prior To The percepTion check or afTer Their response PARAGRAPH 4 4M WriTe a deTailed analysis of whaT workeddidn39T work in The percepTion check Were you able To gain an accuraTe percepTion Why or why noT WhaT could YOU do beTTer nexT Time NOTE If your percepTion check didn39T work because you didn39T do The sTeps righT do anoTher one so you can aT leasT speak from CORRECT experience CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH 15 5a ResTaTe your Thesis lle Summarize your experience wiTh percepTion checking W5C Include your feelings abouT The percepTion checking process CONVENTIONS Very few grammar andor spelling errors SPECIAL REQUESTS Grading rubric aTTached Name does NOT appear on fronT of paperin dialogueon rubric only on The back of The lasT page Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 111 1 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WRITING ASSIGNMENT 5 quotILANGUAGEquot PAPER Use I Language correchy on aT leasT one occasion wiTh someone you have an inTerpersonal relaTionship wiTh inTeracTion musT be face Toface communicaTion NO Telephone or InTerneT e mail chaT room insTanT messenger conversaTions Your I STATEMENTS Describe The person39s behavior To him whaT he said or did in very specific Terms DO NOT EVALUATE Express how you feel abouT The person39s behavior NOT how The person made you feel Begin your senTence wiTh I feel emoTion OR I geT emoTion EXAMPLE I feel frusTraTed NOTE Make sure you don39T have a hidden you message like I feel you acTed like an inconsideraTe jerk lasT nighT Express how his behavior affecTed you direchy HINT You can compleTe The phrase above wiTh when you describe acTual acTions EXAMPLE when you don39T pick me up on Time NOTE Make sure you don39T inserT a hidden you message here eiTher like when you acTed like an inconsideraTe jerkquot HINT These sTeps may be sTaTed in any order Be sure noT To send a double message of sarcasm or insinceriTy wiTh your Tone of voice or body language 2 3 WriTe a 1 2 page essay describing your experience Use The I Language grading criTeria To help you sTrucTure your paper correchy Refer To The WriTTen CommunicaTion hand ouT To make sure you follow The MLA formaTTing requiremenTs and special requesTs PLEASE PROOFREAD YOUR PAPER AND MAKE CORRECTIONS BEFORE TURNING IT IN Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 112 ILANGUAGEquot PAPER 5 GRADING CRITERIA INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH 11 Cilia Hook ATTenTion GeTTer clllllza BRIEF summary of I Language STEPS ll391c BRIEF explanaTion of The PURPOSE of I Language Hid Thesis STaTemenT evaluaTive sTaTemenT abouT I Language PARAGRAPH 2 112 A descripTion of The conTexT of The firsT I Language experience Include The approximaTe Time of day The place The person your relaTionship To The person why you are using I Language and any oTher needed background informaTion leading up unTil righT before you use The I STaTemenT PARAGRAPH 3 5513 WriTe ouT The acTual dialogue of The conversaTion Include in dialogue formaT whaT you said wordfor word for The I STaTemenT and whaT Their wordfor word response was Do noT include The conversaTion prior To The I STaTemenT or afTer Their response PARAGRAPH 4 C114 WriTe a deTailed analysis of whaT workeddidn39T work in The I Language l experience Did you feel like you were able To sTay in conTrol of your emoTions This is whaT indicaTes wheTher iT worked or noT Did The oTher person respond The way you ThoughT he would Why or why noT WhaT would you do differenle nexT Time Why NOTE If your I STaTemenT didn39T work because you didn39T do The sTeps righT do anoTher one so you can aT leasT speak from CORRECT experience CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH 15 C1150 ResTaTe your Thesis 11513 Summarize your experience wiTh I Language quot56 Include your feelings abouT using I STaTemenTs l CONVENTIONS Very few grammar andor spelling errors SPECIAL REQUESTS Grading rubric aTTached Name does NOT appear on fronT of paperin dialogueon rubric only on The back of The lasT page Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 113 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 WRITING ASSIGNMENT 6 PILLOW METHOD PAPER 1 Read The secTion on The Pillow MeThod in The Tebeook You will apply The Pillow MeThod To one inTerpersonal issue and describe your ThoughTs and feelings aT each posiTion on The pillow 2 Choose a person wiTh whom you are having a serious conflicT parenT friend Teacher peer boyfriendgirlfriend boss co worker coach TeammaTe or broThersisTer and idenTify whaT The conflicT is OR Choose any issue wiTh which you sTrongly agree or disagree Here are some possible Topics Gun conTrol aborTion TaTToos war cell phones in school or curfew 3 Use The Topic you have chosen To follow The process PILLOW METHOD PROCESS Place yourself in each posiTion on The pillow and make sTrong argumenTs for each posiTion a I m RighT You re Wrong WhaT are all The reasons you feel sTroneg abouT This issue b You re RighT I m Wrong This will be a hard posiTion STand in your opponenT39s shoes and Think of all The reasons heshe is righT Make a sTrong case c BoTh RighT BoTh Wrong Discuss how acTually boTh posiTions are correcT and boTh are incorrecT d IT Isn T ImporTanT Which PosiTion is RighT or Wrong WriTe abouT how The issue or conflicT is noT life changing IT is noT worTh losing friends or relaTionships over e There is TruTh in All Four PerspecTives Recognize ThaT all four posiTions have some TruTh and meriT HINT This exercise will only work if you can suspend your presenT posiTion and imagine how iT would feel To supporT The oTher posiTions Discuss your ThoughTs and feelings as you compleTe This exercise You will know you have been successful if you can undersTand noT necessarily accepT buT jusT undersTand The oTher posiTion AfTer you have reached This undersTanding do you noTice any change in how YOU feel or Think abouT The person or people who believe The opposiTe posiTion 4 WriTe a 2 page essay describing your experience Use The Pillow MeThod Paper grading criTeria To help you sTrucTure your paper correchy 5 Refer To The WriTTen CommunicaTion hand ouT To make sure you follow The MLA formaTTing requiremenTs and special requesTs PLEASE PROOFREAD YOUR PAPER AND MAKE CORRECTIONS BEFORE TURNING IT IN Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 114 PILLOW METHOD PAPER 6 GRADING CRITERIA INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH 11 f1 lla Hook ATTenTion GeTTer gllb BRIEF summary of The Pillow MeThod process illc BRIEF explanaTion of The PURPOSE of The Pillow MeThod Pilld Thesis STaTemenT evaluaTive sTaTemenT abouT The Pillow MeThod PARAGRAPH 2 112 Describe The Topic you have chosen To address using The Pillow MeThod and why you have selecTed This Topic PARAGRAPH 3 113 I39m RighT You39re Wrong Discuss The reasons you feel sTrongly abouT This issue PARAGRAPH 4 114 You39re RighT I39m Wrong STand in your opponenT39s shoes and Think of all The reasons heshe is righT Make a sTrong case PARAGRAPH 5 115 BoTh RighT BoTh Wrong Discuss how acTually boTh posiTions are correcT and boTh are incorrecT PARAGRAPH 6 16 IT Isn39T ImporTanT Which PosiTion is RighT or Wrong WriTe abouT how The issue or conflicT is noT life changing IT is noT worTh losing friends or relaTionships over PARAGRAPH 7 C117 There is TruTh in All Four PerspecTives Discuss how all four posiTions above have some TruTh and meriT and are appropriaTe in differenT circumsTances CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH 18 380 ResTaTe your Thesis Clle Summarize your experience wiTh The Pillow MeThod 1186 Include your feelings abouT The Pillow MeThod CONVENTIONS Very few grammar andor spelling errors SPECIAL REQUESTS Grading rubric aTTached Name does NOT appear on fronT of paperon rubric only on The back of The lasT page Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 115 EXAM REVIEW GUIDES COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 TEST 1 REVIEW TERMS UNITS 13 Advantages of Cooperative Learning Elaboration vs Rehearsal Metacognitive Process Humanist Philosophy of Communication Interpersonal Relationship Continuum Theory vs Fact Social Construction of Reality Transactional Model of Communication Overlapping Environments Content and Relational Dimensions of Messages Nonverbal Communication Communication Noise Family Context and Rules Friendship Context and Rules Work Context and Rules Effective Work Climate Elements of Competent Communication Collectivism vs Individualism we vs me High Context Language vs Low Context Language Uncertainty Avoidance Miscommunication Between Cultures Differences in Gender Communication Task Dimension and Social Dimension of Groups Strategies for Developing Group Cohesiveness Primary Tension and Secondary Tension in Groups Stages of Group Development Competent Communication Techniques in the Stages of Group Development Strategies to Help the Social Loafer LaFasto s Characteristics of an Effective Team 20 Rule in Group Formation Conformity vs Nonconformity to Group Norms Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 117 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 TEST 2 REVIEW TERMS UNITS 47 Groups vs Crowds Synergy vs Negative Synergy Interconnectedness and the Ripple Effect Groups as Systems Effect of Size on a Group Degrees of Group Interdependence Group vs Individual When does each perform best Boundaries vs Openness The Perception Process Barriers to Accurate Perception Perception Checking Steps Fact Inference COH lSiOl l Ethnocentrism Frozen Evaluations Formal Roles vs Informal Roles Role Emergence Role Con ict and Role Reversal Maintenance Roles Task Roles Disruptive Roles Blue EyesBrown Eyes Experiment Ethical Leadership If you want to be a leader you should Communication Competence Perspective of Leadership Traits Theory of Leadership Majority Rule vs Group Consensus Which one is best and Why False Dichotomy Dichotomous Thinking Confirmation Bias and how to avoid it Collective Inferential Error and how to avoid it Groupthink and how to avoid it Steps of the Standard Agenda including Brainstorming Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 118 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 TEST 3 REVIEW TERMS UNITS 810 Self Concept Self Esteem Re ected Appraisal SelfFulfilling Prophecy Social Comparison Theory Individualistic vs Collectivistic Cultures and the Self Concept Selftalk l Statement lLanguage vs YouLanguage Expressing Feelings vs Displaying Emotions Debilitative Feelings SelfDisclosure Metacommunication TeamworkCooperation vs Competition in Groups Cooperative Group Climate FaceSaving Equivocal Language Knapp s Relational Development Model Stages Attraction Schutz Interpersonal Needs Theory Small Talk Communication Climates Gibb s Categories of Communication Patterns Confirming vs Disconfirming Competitive vs Cooperative Defensive vs Supportive Hidden Agenda Strategy vs Spontaneity Evaluation vs Description Provisional vs Certainty Trust vs Lying Covert Lies Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 119 COMMUNICATIONS 2110 TEST 4 REVIEW TERMS UNITS 1 114 Dominance Power Preventative Power Empowerment Coercive Power Expert Power Legitimate Power Persuasive Power Group Endorsement of Power Resources Guidelines for Punishment and Reward Milgram Studies Verbal and Nonverbal Indicators of Power Gender and Power Issues Culture and Power Issues NonListening Behaviors Active Listening Strategies Behaviors Nonverbal Listening Behaviors Bene ts of ActiveMind ilEffective Listening Empathy vs Sympathy Gender and Listening Nonevaluative Feedback vs Evaluative Feedback advice Steps of Paraphrasing Intrapersonal Con ict vs Interpersonal Con ict Five Con ict Management Styles Avoiding Accommodating Competing Compromising Collaborating Steps of Collaboration Negotiation Mind Set vs Collaboration Mind Set Gender and Con ict Resolution Culture and Con ict Resolution Guidelines for Handling Con ict DESC Script Steps and Purpose Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 120 GROUP PROJECT INFORMATION Group Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 21 1 0 GROUP SER VICE PROJECT PROPOSAL Describe in detail What kind of service you want to provide Where will you do the project A and how many people will be served B A B How will each member of the team provide hisher eight hours of service List your service destination contact person A hisher position B the agency af liation C and phone number D A B C D Does the project have a high degree of INTERDEPENDENCE It should Explain how each team member will be dependent on others to do hisher job On the back of this paper list a tentative calendar of your service project and What steps must be done ahead of time and when What will be the actual dates of your service Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 122 STEPS TO COMPLETE PROJECT 1 2 3 4 5 6 16 7 8 9 1 o N 0 Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 123 To Whom It May Concern Thank you for allowing my Weber State University Communication 2110 students to work with you on their service project In order to verify the eight hours required for the assignment it is important that I have hours listed dates listed and names of each student who participated in each section of the service Would you please ll out the form on the back of this letter as they complete their work Also please list your name and phone number below in case I need to contact you Thank you and I appreciate your help Sincerely Stephanie Thompson Department of Communications Weber State University 801 6681594 Communication Group s Name Your Name Agency or Af liation Phone Number Please describe what you understand this group of students will be doing as their service project Thompson Comm 2110 Course Module Page 124 COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 SERVICE VERIFICATION Service Period One Service Period Two Service Period Three Service Period Four Date Time fromto Names of those attending Signature Date Time fromto Names of those attending Signature Date Time fromto Names of those attending Signature Date Time fromto Names of those attending Signature Service Period Five Service Period Six Service Period Seven Service Period Eight Date Time fromto Names of those attending Signature Date Time fromto Names of those attending Signature Date Time fromto Names of those attending Signature Date Time fromto Names of those attending Signature Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 125 COMMUNICATIONS 2 1 1 0 GROUP PROJECT PRESENTA TION CONTENT Was there a detailed summary of the service Did the group explain why they had chosen this project Did the group focus on what they had learned about groups and explain how these concepts related to their project Forming Storming Norming Performing Primary Tension Secondary Tension Interconnectedness Ripple Effect Interdependence Cohesiveness Group Climate Maintenance Roles Task Roles Disruptive Roles Group Synergy Decision Making Methods Con ict Management Techniques IN T ERDEPENDEN C Y Did the group explain how they made their service project was interdependent Was the group service project truly interdependent Was there a sense of interdependency to the presentation Rather than just individuals giving reports PRESEN TA T I 0N Was the presentation done in a creative way Role play rap song game show talk show etc Were there photos and or videos to document the service At least a photo posterboard needs to be submitted Was at least one form of technology used for the presentation PowerPoint video slide show overhead etc Was the group enthusiastic and was the presentation interesting to the classteacher Group Name Date Great 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 lt 5 gt 5 5 TOTAL PRESENTATIONSCORE Thompson Comm 2110 Come Module Page 126 Good 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 vvvvvvvvvvv Poor 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 l vvvvvvvvvvv Group Name Date COMMUNICATIONS 21 10 PROJECT WRITTEN REPORTRUBRIC Does the paper give a detailed summary of the service Did every member attend and camplete 8 houls of service Was everynne present at every service period Does the paper explain why the project was interdependent Was the project truly interdependent Does the paper focus on what was learned about groups and Disruptive Roles Group Synergy Decision Making Methods Con ict Management Techniques m w W W o n m Is the paper wellorganized and free from errors TOTAL REPORTSCORE SERVICE PROJECT Point Breakdown and Cumulative Score 5 0 All group members delivered 8 hours of service veri cation form 5 0 Every group member was at each service session veri cation form 50 observation 5 0 Written Report 100 Project Presentation in front of the class 300 TOTAL PROJECTSCORE Great Wm ummummummu Thompson Comm 2110 Coulse Module Page 127 AAA Good NNN NNNNNNNNNN Poor NONE NONE 1 NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE NONE The project had a high degree of interdependence based on explanation and teacher
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