ANT 304 - Week 10
ANT 304 - Week 10 ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
October 26 2015 Exam 3 0 Chapter 7 235237 244245 0 Chapter 18 679681 687694 697699 Considered Neolithic cultures Way to identify via pottery is thin black lustrous Stone inventory remains broadly similar to Yang Shao Before this culture we had Yang Shao 0 Use of oracle bones Thought that at some point and Lungshanoid were competing 0 Actually a sequence transition from one society to another Q Yang Shao then Lungshanoid o Represent two successive stages of development Characteristics we see from Yang Shao to Lungshanoid 0 Introduction to agriculture I From transitional stage of food gathering to something that is more substantive 0 Establishment of village farmers begins with the Yang Shao 0 Advanced stages of agriculture with Lungshanoid I Expansion of farming and more inclusive I Greater uniformity of agricultural techniques Remember two types of Lungshanoid early and late 0 During this development we see construction of village walls Village walls represent community efforts 0 Built for protection 0 Part of a more complex society 0 Kind of like America Southwest with irrigation systems or great kivas 0 Needs to have a social complexity in place to organize people and get them to build these places 0 Monumental works takes a lot of people and is a lot of work o AKA divination bones 0 Way of divining a future event task or activity 0 Can use the scapula of oxcattle or turtle shell I Scapulimancy use of scapula I Plastromancy use of turtle shell 0 Scapula version I Hot piece of metal placed on particular spot on bone and causes a crack I Usually has a question next to it that tells you what was asked I Crack is read and can have a positive or negative indication OOOO 0 So you take the scapula or turtle shell and let it dry SUPER DRY take metal to object and it cracks then crack is read 0 If you re the leader of the Lungshanoid and trying to figure out whether it s necessary to construct another village wall is tomorrow or next week a better day 0 Funny thing what the public doesn t see is that before the hot metal is ever placed on bone the bone has been shaven thin I So when heat placed on it it s going to crack on area where there is less resistance I Smoke and mirrors technique REMEMBER THAT THESE ARE TRANSITIONAL YANG SHAO LUNGSHANOID SETTLEMENT Shifting settlement repetitive Permanent settlement occupation occupation of same area DOMESTICATES Pigs and dogs Add cattle and sheep SETTLEMENT REGIONS Relatively small region We see an expansion POTTERY Red painted handmade Wheelmade pottery ORACLE BONES No evidence Introduced occupational specialization WEAPONS AND DEFENSE No significant defensive works Appearance of Hangt u walls and items produced that look like weapons BURIALS Burials differ by sex and age Other materials seen in burials class differences are seen SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Little evidence Concentration of special artifacts like jade and others AMERICA SOUTHEAST Mississippians 0 About a thousand years or so ago 0 One of the more powerful civilizations North of Mexico Mississippi river bottom land 0 These people known as Mississippians 0 Their adaptations to their environment based significantly on cultivation of corn 0 Heavy reliance on wild food product wild game and plants 0 America Southeast is very rich and productive area I Many fish shellfish water mammals etc 0 Had a stratified society o Specialized crafts and monumental architecture that covered many acres 0 Accomplished and prolific builders 0 One site outside of St Louis is called Cahokia 0 Dates about AD 8001300 and will go on to exist until European contact 0 Probably ruled by an individual who claimed divine power I Theocratic chief sometimes referred to as the Great Sun I Top of the social order I Under chief would be closest relatives and other associates that would form the elite class 0 This is just one example of hundreds of cities in Am Southeast that represents careful herbal planting 0 Complex trade network Principle traits for Mississippian cultures 0 Flattopped temple mounds foundation for other kinds of structures 0 Floodplain agriculture 0 Craft specialization 0 Key to the success and growth is the production of surpluses of food labor services etc F October 28 2015 A site is not a cultural group AMERICA SOUTHEAST MISSISSIPPIAN CULTURES AND THE CAHOKIA Mississippians were prolific builders Most Cahokia were single family dwellings Most of the Cahokia houses are less than 20x20 ft in dimension At the site of Cahokia outside of St Louis built a lot of different structures including those for communal purposes 0 Where you have meetings rites of passage larger storage buildings The village was a walled village 0 Large timbers placed around the village in the form of a stockade 0 Large posts are gone but one can see the post holes and follow that pattern 0 Stockade was rebuilt several times over the course of the years 0 Made of hickory logs that are at least 1 foot 12 inches in diameter and at least 20 ft tall 0 A stockade would take 15000 20000 logs What was the function of the stockade o No evidence for invasion of Cahokia 0 Though seems primarily like a defensive structure o The reason for this belief is because of great height of wall some parts of the wall seem to be hurriedly built and there are evenly spaced bastions 0 Places that stick out of wall where archers could stand pretty close to top There was also a wooden structure series of posts in a circle and with a center piece 0 To keep track of the seasons over time 0 Known as Woodhenge The more dramatic structures among these building are large earthen mounds o More than 120 at Cahokia alone 0 Most serve as platforms for houses or others structures to be built At Cahokia there are distinctly different roles for men and for women 0 Gender activities 0 Men did much of the strenuous work made tools hunted teach boy to become men 0 Women did all domestic activities child bearing duties cultivated crops gathered plants processed animal skins made pottery 0 Significant amount of food stuff provided by women Subsistence was a year round obsession at Cahokia Animals added limited and seasonal variety to the diet 0 Squashes pumpkin sunflowers 0 Fishing in Mississippi River 0 Not just for food but also for other needs such as medicinal We see evidence for leisure time 0 Many festivals and ceremonies Evidence for music and dance Games of skill and chance Find rattles drums music instruments Chunkey game game of skill o Involves solid concave stone 0 Stone would be rolled down a lawn or particular area 0 Those in competition would through a spear to estimate where this stone will stop Mississippian societies made all of their tools from rocks and minerals 0 Axes chunkey stones other tools for pounding and grinding seedsnuts Lots of pottery o Fragile of course 0 Variety of styles and decorative finishes Access to shells 0 Both freshwater and coastal 0 Jewelry rings bracelets necklaces Wood was used for construction purposes but also to manufacture many other items 0 O O O 00000 0 Certain kinds of tools Used to manufacture handles or stone tools Bows Oils and dyes Canoes 12 ft to 70 ft in length Fuel to stay warm cook food and fire pottery Animal resources 0 Turtle shells used to make bowls rattles cones and other types of ornaments Animal fat used for cooking or ointments Talons from certain birds can be made into tools necklaces decoration for capes or headdresses Rattles from rattle snake claws from bear and others have strong symbolic meanings Animal skins can be made into bags blankets robes etc The most important animal resource in the general area was the white tailed deer I Valued for meat but also for hooves and antlers I Antlers used in costume arrow points chipped stone tools
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