Chapter 4: Consciousness
Chapter 4: Consciousness PSY 201
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Kasashima on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain >3 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
CHAPTER 4 CONSCIOUSNESS 0 One39s momentbymoment subjective experience resulting from some at least some aspects of brain activity 0 belief that one is not conscious if there is no neural activity 0 Contents of consciousness O perceptions of the world around us 0 memories of the past Ointentions concerning future actions 0imagery of some event that could occur 0 Levels of consciousness 0 levels of arousal unconscious sleeping conscious 0 potential contents can be subliminal does not reach the limits of consciousness or supraliminal has reached the threshold where you can be consciously aware Attention 0 the manner in which the brain manages its limited information processing capacities in order to optimally perform a task through the ability to increase awareness of a subset of stimuli sensory stimuli responses memories ideas at a cost to others 0 Benefits of attended information compared to unfocused attention 0 processed more accurately O processed more quickly 0 Costs of unattended information compared to unfocused attention 0 processed less accurately O processed more slowly 0 Selective Attention O Selective Listening Experiments The participant receives different auditory messages in each ear but is required to repeat only one A gt Cannot report content of the unattended input L Aiit nalmi myrz l gt u ugti e t H L gt Cannot report oddities ex repeated word in unattended input v gt Can report change in pitch or disappearance in unattended input 0 suggests lowlevel sensory processing is l Speech outnut completed gt Can report the occurrence of subject39s own name in the unattended input 0 suggests some amount of semantic processing meaning is completed 0 SpatialAttention O overt attention directing attention by moving the eyesheadbody O covert attention directing attention without moving the eyesheadbody gt coverthidden from view secret gt looking at something but attention is directed elsewhere gt Spotlight searchlight metaphor of attention 0 Change Blindness a failure to notice large changes in the environment when there is no sudden transient in the image to draw our attention to the change 0 demonstrates that we don39t fully process all of the rich details in the scenes we experience 0 Neural Control ofAttention O Damage to the right parietal lobe lobe causes left hemispatial neglect in which the patient has difficulty directing attention to the left half of space hTanv H 4 f inxx V t 39 39 1 i 39 a 39 x r 2 I quot Arr k l c x 39 39 quot I J 392 yquot rquot I il 5 f I a 1 l v i 39 I l A t x V l I q if x x quot I 1 x I N 1 l L J39 z r39gt f l r 1 V I39l r x 7 39 FW7 39 l 1 rip u w E l l h l 1 3 c r l r r trawl l g 3 39 13 l V gm zz Wu J 2c 4 w quot l r s 39 z 139 l 9 1 t y 1 i g v I 39 2quot 39 39i l t j E 2 X gt gt4 f t 1 r 4 quot l 3 M r l l l 2 V 1 5 l J 394quot Ex I m 39 w kx 339 N 39 H n a 1 x Lane cancellazzon task Line bisectson task DMW a f 4 a a 2 Make a cross througn each vamwi line through me 1 Ifquot zinc2quot center of each i zonzoniaf 39 x I i 39 h J nquot time Visual Processinq Areas 0 Localization of function modularity different regions of visual cortex processes different aspects of the visual image 0 Binocular rivalry 0 Different images are shown to the two r eyes i l h 0 Typically perception will not be a mix of H the two but will spontaneously fip from one intact image to the other 0 Neuronal activity in the FFA and PPA reflect the contents of perceptual d g 7 awareness I 0 Also true for other visual areas V quota quot E r xquotquot V tit f M x 52m Mimi if 3 5le M b 5 MAng g 5quotch K3 39 1 0 Neural portraits of perception Reconstructing face images from brain activity 0 Training50 minutes in fMRI scanner with eyes stationary looking at 300 faces 0 Reconstructing Visual Experiences from Brain Activity Evoked by Natural Movies 0 Training120 minutes in fMRI scanner with eyes stationary watching hundreds of 1020 second video clips 0 Test90 minutes in fMRI scanner watching clips repeated 10 times each Disorders of Consciousness 0 Coma no consciousness some reflexes intact cannot hear see communicate or feel emotions 0 Vegetative state no consciousness occasional random movements startles at loud noises eyes wince at bright light or when startled no communication random crying or smiling 0 Minimally conscious state partially conscious reaches for objects and may grab them sometimes responds to commands with blinking or body movement tracks moving objects with eyes occasionally forms intelligible sounds or gestures sometimes smiles atjokes or cries when sad 0 Detecting awareness in the Vegetative State 0 A braininjured patient in a minimally conscious state was asked to imagine either playing tennis or walking through the rooms of her house 0 Brain activation reflected the same differences in these tasks as those seen in healthy controls 0 Data suggests that patient is not in a vegetative state 0 Willful Modulation of Brain Activity in Disorders of Consciousness O Braininjured patient in a vegetative state unresponsive for 5 years wwas asked to imagine playing tennis if the answer to a question was quotYesquot or walking through rooms of his house if the answer was quotNoquot 0 5 of 6 questions answered correctly The Global Workspace Model of Consciousness 0 Contents of consciousness depends on which brain circuits are active as part of a coordinated network of brain areas 0 Too little activity will cause subliminal stimuli 0 Activity can be magnified if attention is drawn to a stimulus 0 No single brain region responsible for awareness 0 Verbal left hemisphere of a split brain patient will confabuate fabricate distorted memories without conscious intention to deceive to explain the actions of the right hemisphere Sleep amp Dreams 0 Effects of sleep deprivation ii inability wm mw m Crigmiive inquotq eurms m I g quot i f e ll i b lt i il i ii 05 F388 ii39i 539 wfquotl heart r8213 vanab aiy impaired morni Dqu mi Watart judgement SEAWt y quot quotif Hallucin ii mreased M315quot ilI Y eE quot V L Symptoms siwma L1 gamma to f DHquot 39 q L g V V he 1L a I impaired immune 3quot v g I I Aches svsrem quot39 Diner Gamaxii supmeesirm Risk of diabetes n w Risk of em iv Type 2 39 39I Lf quot DecreaseCZ iiim39iei aiure 0 Circadian rhythm a daily cyclical change in behavioral and physiological processes circadianquotabout a dayquot 0 Zeitgeber a stimulus like the morning sun that acts to reset the biological clock 0 without the zeitgeber human circadian rhythm has a cycle of approx 25 hrs duration 0 EEG Patterns During Sleep OAwake gt Alpha 812 Hz relaxed state gt Beta 1330 Hz aroused state 0 Stage 1 sleep gt Theta 3575 Hz transition between sleep and wakefulness 0 Stage 2 sleep gt Theta 3575 Hz sleep spindles K complexes 0 Stage 3 sleep gt 2050 Delta lt35 Hz 0 Stage 4 sleep gt gt50 Delta lt35 Hz 0 REM Sleep gt Beta 1330 Hz gt Rapid Eye Movements gt No muscle tone gt most associated with dreams 0 Sleep Cycles duration approx 90 minutes 0 Theories on the purpose of sleep 0 Restorative Theory sleep provides a chance for the brain and body to repair the wear and tear that occurs while we39re awake gt prolonged mental activity causes increased sleep that night gt high levels of growth hormones released during sleep facilitates repair of damaged ssues gt sleep strengthens immune system 0 Circadian Rhythm Theory sleep allows for a period of downtime that protects the animal gt conserves energy during the night in which it would be difficult to replace the calories spent foraginghunting for food ex hibernation gt quiet period makes it easier to remain undetected by predators O Facilitation of learning Sleep allows for a period of memory consolidation and cleanup 0 Preliminary findings gt Memories of learned facts are reinforced in deep sleep names vocab etc gt Pattern recognition reinforced by REM sleep grammar logic chess etc gt Motor skills reinforced by Stage 2 sleep musician athletes
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