Lecture 24: Evolution of and Within Humans
Lecture 24: Evolution of and Within Humans BIO 209L-001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 209L-001 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Renee Kopulos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I Lab - SL in Biological Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Lecture 24 Evolution of and Within Humans 1 Primate Characteristics Hands and usually feet adapted for grasping Forwardfacing eyes binocular vision In monkeys and apes Opposable thumb can touch tips of all other ngers allowing great dexterity and ability to grip Adaptions for an arboreal tree dwelling life style Monkeys have Tails while Apes don t have Tails Old World Monkey s Africa and Asia Do Not have Prehensile Tail grippingwrapping Tail but New World Moneky s South and Central America do have Prehensile Tail 2 Human Evolutionary Origins Not a simple linear progression more like a bush have different human characteristics At times more than one species in genus Homo or Australopithecus existed simultaneously Humans did Not evolve from Chimps Humans share common ancestry with chimpsbonobo clade 3 Microevolution in Human Occurs by all 4 mechanisms of evolution lLMutation Mistake in DNA Replication Gene Elow Alleles enter or leave a population take alleles with them Random Gene Elow Change in alleles frequencies due to random chance in events QLNatural SelectionFitness ability to get genes into the next generation survive to reproduce Ex Ellisvan Creveld Syndrome allele affects skeletal development and Includes Polydactyly having 6 ngers Due to Genetic Drift Founder Effect ExEounder Effect Type of Random Genetic Drift The marbles represent people with different genotype for numbers of ngers original populationgt Some Leavegt Eound start New Population Ex CNGB Mutationgt Hereditary achromatopsia quotcolor blind Random Genetic Drift Natural Selection Sickle Cell in humans One recessive allele Hs causes red blood cell to become misshapen in capillaries 0 Homozygous HsHs individual suffer from sicklecell anemia often with serious health problems 0 But Heterozygous HsHa individuals are protected against malaria Natural Selection Heterozygous advantage maintained the Hs allele in population where malaria was common HaHa gt Susceptible to malaria Ha HsgtMalaria resistant HsHsgt Sickle cell disease and susceptible to malaria Because of Gene Flow Hs sicklecell alleles are present in population where malaria isn t a problem 0 While sicklecells alleles eventually disappears from US population Not Much 1 Gene Flow still exists 2 Mediane allows us to escape some natural selection which requires a Heritable genetic variation b Differences in phenotype as a result of that variation c Differences in tness as a result of those phenotype Not all humans can digest milk as an adult lactase persistence containing to produce lactose an enzyme that digest lactose If no lactose digestive including diarrhea if consume milkgt risk of dehydration 4 Tool Use Pre1960 quotonly humans make and use tools 0 1960 Jane Goodall observes Chimpanzees modifying twigs to quot shquot termites out of monds and eat them Other animals use tools although most don t make them EX Egyptian vultures used rocks to open eggs Wood peckers nches use sticks to sh out insects New Caledonian Crow uses wire
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