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Chapter 10

by: aleavick

Chapter 10 KINS 2010

GPA 3.8
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt

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Biomechanics of Physical Activity! Happy studying!
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by aleavick on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KINS 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Dr Schmidt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology 2010 in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 10/28/15
Class Notes Chapter 10 Biomechanics Of Physical Activity Learning Objectives De ne biomechanics and human movement biomechanics Understand the goals of biomechanics Describe practical applications of biomechanics in physical activity related to disciplines What d ya know about biomechanics Top Hat 1 Sports Broadcaster Linesmen love it when a player becomes airborne because he doesn t weigh anything so he s easier to tacklequot 2 What are the three types of muscle contractions 3 What is the name of Newton s First Law Of Motion What is Biomechanics Biomechanics in the eld of physical activity applies the mechanical principles of physics and engineering to the motion structure and functioning of the human body Function how we produce forces to generate maintain or slow down movement during physical activity Structure How forces such as gravity affect our body Ussues Goals of Biomechanics Understand how the basic laws of physics affect and shape the structure and function of the human body Apply this understanding to a Improve the outcomes of our movements such as performance effectiveness and B Increase or maintain the safety and health of our Ussues Examples of Scope of Biomechanics Micro to Macro From micro Nanobiomechanics 1 nanometer about 1 atom Measure forces stiffness elasticity at subcellular level to detect diseases Ex Malaria disease causation Picture of atomicforce microscope view of unhealthy collage in articular cartilage To the macro Understanding locomotion of biological organisms Pic of elephant running Applications of Biomechanics Improve performance in sport and dance Reduce or prevent injuries at work at home and during exercise and sport tasks Improve the movements of people with pathological conditions clinical settings Increase performers health with exercise or training regimes Assist with the design of equipment arti cial limbs and orthoses for safety Kinesioogy in the News Does mindfulness make for a better athlete BMX bike riders one had a mental lapse before the start of the race Take home message When athletes learn how to be more aware of their bodies they may also change the workings of their brains and become more resilient to stress Closely attending to our bodies might help us to be better calmer athletes Try Thinking about your feetquot Biomechanical instrumentation and Other Tools Stopwatches metronomes protractors barbells and free weights Computer simulations What separates biomechanics from other fields what its known for Use of motion measurement devices Cameras Video Lightemitting diodes LED Used in Hollywood eX Planet of the apes Force Measurement devices Trying to measure the forces that act upon the body and what forces the body is producing Transducers Platforms EMG Video showing how these two measurements work Mechanical principles Any principle that uses force to explain how To createmaintainreduce motion Tissue is affected by loading ex Stronger or damaged Speci cally How external forces gravity ground reaction forces friction uid resistance act on performers How biomechanical laws of nature shape our movements Newton s Laws of Motion 1 Law of lnertia Every body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled by external forces to change that state 2 Law of acceleration The acceleration of a body is proportional to the force causing it Equation l Forcemass X acceleration or put as Acceleration Force Mass 3 Law of Action Reaction For every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction or force Deal with this all the time through ground reaction forces EX Walking You apply a force on the ground but the ground is applying a force to you that s equal in the opposite direction this is what makes you be able to Vertical ground reaction force and a propulsion reaction force Ex Happens in water Swimmers How you can propel through the water ExCartWes Apply the ground reaction force to the road Examples of these laws can be looked at in the sport of curling Law of inertia Have the rocksStones object to get it closest to the bulls eye To get the stone going has to apply the force Lots of bumps on the ice so they do the sweeping motion What force causes the stone to eventually stop Friction With the sweeping motion they are decreasing the friction on the ice They are also Law of acceleration The rocks don t always weigh the same weight The force you have to apply to go the same distances changes Law of Action When they hit they have opposite reaction and action Kinesiology in the news Take home message Decrees in running speed with age are substantial 10 per decade after age 40 Appears to be due to decreased activation of ankle and calf muscles Use of Muscles 3 Types of muscles contraction Eccent c Concentric sometric Ex Bicep curls Upward motion concentric contraction because the muscle is shortening Downward motion eccentric contraction because the muscle is lengthening If lowered the weight and held it in one position isometric muscle isn t shorteninglengthening or moving but is still contracting Ex Gong down Stairs Quads What type of muscle contraction is this Eccentric lengthening quad over knees Which contraction do you think generates more force Concentric Can make muscles work much harder Can also have injury during this Agonist The muscle that is the prime mover What s causing the main motion Ex Bicep curBiceps Antagonist Muscle working in opposite direction of the agonist Causes resistance Ex Bicep Curl Triceps Synergist Stabilizer Can assist motion Flexor vs Extensor Flexion When the joint angle is decreasing Extension When the joint angle is increasing Bicep curl Can call the muscles exors and extensors Also Abductors Adductors PronationSupination Etc Musces can change and have a different jobs depending on what motion you are doing Joint angles and Muscle Force Force Vs Torque Torque Force N Moment arm m EX Which box is applying the most torque on the lower back 45 LBS FLEEIDH MOMENT FLEKIDH MGMEHT 4395 LBSB IH3lil IHLBE 45 LBS l i IH2I IHLBS Picture on the right Because it has a longer moment arm Look at the center of gravity Joint angle and torque The distance from the insertion point of muscles to action of reaction depends on where we are in the range of motion when we are lifting something Torque is different in different people Force Velocity relationship Concentric the faster the movement the less force you generate Eccentric the faster the movement the more force you can generate UGA research Lower extremity BiomechanicsDr Brown Crowell and Dr Simpson Concussion causationPrevention Dr Julianne Schmidt Ankle BracesljRestricted inversion abnormal knee movement Typical landings increased impact forces didn t affect knee movement adverselyperhaps led to improved alignment Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis What are the effect of spinal fusion surgery on movements of trunk and lower extremity during higheffort movements


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