Week 9 notes
Week 9 notes ANTH 1001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia SaoBento on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by O'Malley, R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/28/15
Paleoecology 0 Tree rings 0 Oxygen isotopes Atoms or molecules that have higher s of neutrons in nucleus have much higher mass 016 and 018 Ocean systems retains 018 016 evaporated faster Both do evaporate but 018 with precipitate father than 016 heavier 0ceans will be rich is 018 ice caps 016 as 016 deposits at extreme latitudes Microorganisms use 0 to build shells die and fall to ocean floor provide signal to ratio of 016 to 018 at time of life 0 Snow and ice form layers that hold similar clues 0 Stable carbon isotope ratios 0 Focuses on stable isotopesgt C13 amp C12 0 Two metabolic pathways at different rates 0 C3gt temperate grass legumes and woody plants 0 C4gtarid grass and sedgesC13 0 Animals that eat plants retain ratio as well as those that eat the first animal 0 Ratio is a biological signal 0 Bonesteeth show which plants they ate 0 Help to make inferences about environment 0 Paleopoles O Palynologygt study of pollen 0 Can be recovered from soil 0 Useful for reconstructing habitat o Faunal or vegetation assembly 0 Animals found can demonstrate a possible environment Taphonomygt study of death and decay in natural context and processes of burial and fossilization Damagewear of bones Preservation biases Location Ecology Primate 0rigins 0 Molecular Phylogeneticgt study of similarities and differences of genetics to determine common ancestors 0 Also used to date when such a split occurred 0 Sarich and Wilson 1967 0 Drew blood from animals and introduced this to anther sample to measure strength of immunology reaction 0 Small reaction closer relationship 0 Molecular clock requires 0 One calibration point 0 Rate consistency 0 PCR tests make DNA analyses easier and more economical Recent work favors non coding DNA and Mitochondrial DNA Different molecules calibration points and assumptions about mutation rates can result in different estimates but if they do not they can reinforce results 0 Estimated divergence times 0 Pongo gorillapanhomo split 183 mya OOOOOO O Gorillapanhomo split 86 mya O Panhomo split 66 mya 0 Pan Paniscus pan troglodytes split 22 mya 0 Recent in terms of earth total timeline KT extinction 65myagt no evidence of large dinosors above a specific layer of earth 0 At least one major meteor impact Mexico Increased volcanic activity Deccan traps in India Climate changeextinction Disruption of biosphere 0 Mass extinction opens ecological niches Geological Time scale 0 PreCenozoic gt65 mya O Diversification of primitive mammals mid to late crustaceous O Diversification of angiosperms and insects o Cenozoic 65 mya shifting of tectonic plates to form current continents o Paleocene 6555mya 0 Warm wet earth 0 Eurasia and NA still connected 0 Beginning of quotage of Mammalsquot O Plesiadapiformesnorth America 0 True primates or close relatives 0 Small rodents tree shrew 0 Status of protozoal bullae is murky Primate originsgrasping hands and forward facing eyes 0 Arboreal hypothesis woodjonesgt possible component not whole story 0 Visual predation hypothesis Cartmillgt hands to grab small prey 0 Mixed diet hypothesis Sussmangt characteristics evolve for wide variety of diet 0 Eocene 5534mya 0 Growing colder 0 First undisputed true primates in northern hemisphere 0 May not have any living relatives but very similar 0 Adapoids lemurs and lorries o Omomyoids resemble tarsiers O Origins of Strepsirrhini haplorrhine split happened in earl Eocene 0 End of Eocene 39Grande couture39 0 Mass extinctions in northern hemisphere 0 At least one giant meteor 0 Large drop in temperature Oligocene3424mya 0 Permanent ice caps at poles 0 Drop in sea levels 0 Drop in temperature 0 Fayum depression in Egypt 0 Was a lush jungle region 0 Apidium predates PlatCata split 0 2133 dental formula 0 Aegptopithecus Cata ancestor o 2123 dental o Primate fossils in south America Barnisella 0 Molecular phylogenetic suggest monkeyape divergence at end of Oligocene Raftinggt chunks of vegetation with animals came from Africa to south America Miocene 245mya 0 World warms but then drys and coolerseasons o Fluctuating seas o Grasslands and woodlands less dense Africa 0 quotage of Apesquot gives was to quotage of Monkeysquot 0 End of Miocene presence of ape fossils has declined 0 Dental Apes O Y5 molars O No tail but monkey like body 0 Proconsul looks like monkey o Morotopithecus O 21mya suspensory shoulder 0 Some likely ancestors of modern apes in Europe amp Asia 0 Orangutan ancestor 125 mya southern Asia 0 End of Miocene possible hominins PHocene 0 Global cooling and drying o Continents approach modern configuration 0 Deserts spread o Monkeys diversifyTheropithecus O Genus contains several species of 39giant39 terrestrial cercopithecines 0 One species left gelada related to baboons 0 Estimated divergence of chimps and Bonobos 22mya o Hominins diversify PanHominin split 0 quotgreat American Interchangequot 3mya O Plates to point where land bridge allows for exchange 0 South American Fauna loses out in majority O Opossum and anteaters survive Paleocenegt EocenegtOigocenegt Miocenegt Pliocene Bipedalism o Panhominin split 66 mya perhaps older 0 Only definite chimp fossils are teeth 500kya in Kenya 0 Don t know chimp evolution before then 0 Context of hominin origins 0 Late Miocene East Africa LCA forest or Mosaic habitat mixed w open areas African tropical forests are contracting Expansion of woodland and savanna 0 Fruit resources are more scatteredseasonal 0 New dietary options 39 Meat freshwater fishshellfish I Roots and tubers OOOO O O O I Grasses and sedges Tropical rainforests Warm and wet High rainfall Con nuouscanopy Less pronounced seasons Strong C3 signal Tropical woodland Seasonal rainfall Notcontinuous canopy Mix of C3 C4 plants Savanna Seasonal rainfall Scattered trees Stronger C4 signals 0 Habitual Bipedalism O O 0 Stand upright at expense of other forms of locomotion VVhy Energetic efficiency I Endurance running I Thermoregulation sun exposure I More efficient specifically than chimps Ecology I Better field of view I Greater feeding efficiency Carrying I Offspring tools food Sexual selection I Enhance male displays I Concealed ovulation provisioning and monogamy One single selective pressure is unlikely Skull 0 Shift in foramen magnum position I Where spine enters skull 0 Reduction in nuchal crestplane I Muscle configuration of neck Spine 0 Different vertebral morphology S v C o of lumbar vertebrae I Homo5 Pan34 Ribcage o More compressed dorsoventrally o More barrel like Pelvis o Paddle v Saddle upper body sitting in pelvis o Shifting in gluteal muscles and center of gravity Femur o Valgus angle angled in balance v straight 0000 0 Locking knee joint condyles allow it to lock Arched feet shock absorption Nondivergent hallux inline toes Reduced curvature in digits Other hominin trends 0 Shift in limb proportions 0 Reduced prognathous 0 Reduced diastema