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Physical Activity Physiology

by: aleavick

Physical Activity Physiology KINS 2010

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Kinesiology > KINS 2010 > Physical Activity Physiology
GPA 3.8
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt

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Chapter 11 Notes!
Kinesiology 2010
Dr Schmidt
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by aleavick on Wednesday October 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KINS 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Dr Schmidt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology 2010 in Kinesiology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 10/28/15
Class Notes Chapter 11 Physical Activity Physiology Learning Objectives Describe the goals of exercise physiology List key principles of the discipline and their practical appHca ons Understand important principles of exercise training and the skeletal muscle and cardiovascular system changes that occur with acute and chronic training Exercise Physiology The study of acute physiological responses to PA and the changes in physiological responses to chronic PA Di erence between acute and chronic Exercise physiologists apply principles of biology and chemistry to understand how the body responds to PA Foundation for conditioning tness and rehabilitation programs Goals of Exercise Physiology To understand 1 How to enhance physical performance 2 How to improve physical function in particular environments ex High temperaturealtitude 3 How PA and exercise improve health and tness 4 How exercise can be used to treat or prevent disease and alleviate symptoms of disease 5 Adaptions in human anatomy and physiology in response to PAExercise Research Methods in Physiology of Physical Activity Laboratory Ergometers treadmills leg and arm cycles etc Oxygen uptake gas analyzers V02 max Body composition underwater weighing calipers bioelectrical impedance and DEXA Biochemical blood samples and muscle biopsies Animal Models Fieldwork Technological advances have made eldwork more practical Skeletal Muscles Terminology Muscular strength vs endurance sometric vs lsotonic vs Isokinetic Eccentric vs Concentric contract Important points Different muscle ber types Adaptations to resistance training Key training principles Musce Biopsy Musce ber types 1 Slow twitchType 1Slow oxidative 2 Fast twitch 2 Type 2a Fast oxidativeglycolytic 3 Fast twitch x Type 2x Fast glycolytic Single Muscle ber physiology Peak power is different between muscle ber types All ber types tend to reach their peak power at about 20 peak force Starting a Resistance Training program Begin with a weight that is onehalf of the person s 1RM This is the proper weight if the person can lift it about 10 times After reaching 15 reps progress to a heavier weight For weight control 23 sets of each lift per day 23 times per week Strength changes with training in older subjects average age 68 years Why are their muscles bigger Nightly Performances Dynamic tension isometric Free weights plus Change in muscle size Hypertrophy Hyperplasia Microscopic view of Muscle cross section before and after training Key Training Principles Progressive overload Training must involve working the body harder than normal Speci city Training must match the type of activity the person engages in and stress the physiological system critical to optimal performance in the given sport Reversibility f training is decreased or stopped improvements will be reversed May decrease to level that meets daily demands Cardiovascular Systems Important points Cardiac output heart rate and stroke volume Acute changes with exercise Adaptations to training Factors effecting oxidative metabolism V02max Blood oxygen carrying capacity Local muscle blood ow Mitochondrial oxidative capacity Airlung oxygen exchange Cardiac output Oxygen transport into muscle Fick equation V02 Cardiac output x av02 diff Cardiac Output Q During Exercise Q heart rate HR X Stroke Volume SV Heart Rate during Exercise Resting heart rate Maximal heart rate Steady state heart rate Stoke volume during exercise Determine by Voume of returned venous blood Ventricuar size Ventricuar contractility Aortic Pressure Stroke Volume During Exercise Reduced time to ll as heart rate increases There is limit to how much can be pushed out Changes in V02max with 12 months of endurance training Exercise prescription for aerobic tness Prescription for aerobic tness includes four basic factors FI39IT Erequency of participation lntensity of exercise bout Duration time of each exercise bout Mode or type of exercise Minimum threshold required for bene ts Varies widely across individuals General Guidelines 35 days per week or more gt or equal 5060 V02max most important factor 2030 min is optimal at appropriate intensity Modes can varywhole body and dynamic Monitoring Exercise lntensity lntensity can be monitored using Karvonen Method heart rate reserve of maximal HRR added to resting HR Ratings of Perceived Exertion Subjective rating of workload using numerical scale quotTalk Testquot Training Heart Rate Linear Relationship Between Heart Rate and V02 Karvonen Method Maximal heart rate reserve HRmaxHRrest Target heart rate THR is calculated THR75 HRrest 075 HRmaxHRrest Training heart rate ranges can then be determined Borg Ratings of Perceived Exertion Scale


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