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MITRsrch Media Arts&Sciences MAS URG
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ila O'Kon on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAS URG at Wellesley College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/230925/mas-urg-wellesley-college in Media Arts and Design at Wellesley College.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
REPORTS Fig 3 Realtime enzyme screening with A ferase without and arrow w1th CIAP using 2 Fractional pore activity Y 18 after addition of 20 ul of reaction mix ture and 2 to LUVs 3 CF is shown as a function of reaction time Reaction mix tures A 0 X and 4 O Uml apyrase 40 mM ATP B o x 2 O and 16 O Uml RAMA 750 Uml triosephosphate isomerase TIM 40 mM Dfructose 16 diphosphate FDP C 0 X 66 O and Ge 00 Uml CIAP 800 mM UDP D o X 8 O arrow addition of 66 Uml CIAP and 32 O Uml gaIactosyltrans ferase 250 mM Nacetylglucosamine G cNAc 375 mM UDPGal or 375 mM NAcUDPGal 20 13 o U Onou quot0 m 2040 assays and no need to calibrate coupled mul tienzyme assays 13 14 Whereas intrinsic limitations concerning eg hydrophobic or lytic substrates certain more complex ana lytes I 8 continuous assay or in vivo detec t pore 2 Fig l 18 As expected from spe cific guanidinium phosphate interactions 19 KDm 2 determined for ATP demonstrated increased sensitivity by a fac tor of gt1000 of apyrase sensor 2 compared to 1 3 Mg2 3 I 7 18 on will be challenging to overcome at least The most impormnt adapmbility of pore 2 to in a general manner there is much room to sense various enzymes was exempli ed with implement various in vitro formats compati realtime detection of selected classes of en ble with highthroughput screening and min iaturization 1 References and Notes H a ley P S Ctemer Nature 413 226 2001 s Cheley L Gu H Bayley Chem Biol 9 829 2002 3 P Scrimin P Tecilla Curr Opih Chem Biol 3 730 and oligosaccharide synthesis 10712 are need ed As with apyrase rabbit muscle aldolase RAMA 10 and calf intestine alkaline phos Nr 1999 pnanse CIAP 11 convened strong channel 4 c Rackett Mumpadhyay Chem Soc Rev 30 blockers into poor ones Table 1 entries 5 to 7 274 2001 ecamlyzed substrate consumption was thus reported by the decreasing ability of the reaction mixture to hinder CF ef ux through 2 with increasing reaction time ie enz e gated pore formation Fig 3 A to C Bovin milk galactosyltransferase II 12 in contrast produced uridine diphosphate UDP with KD7 m 12 leI from two poor blockers Table 1 entry 8 This enzyme was therefore detect able by decreasing activity of pore 2 With I1 5 G J Kirkovits C D Hall Adv Supramol Chem 7 1 2000 6 S Matile Chem Soc Rev 30 158 2001 7 G Das S Matile Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99 5183 2002 Onouchi E Yashima N Sakai S Matile Chembiochem 3 1089 2002 Mthout highrtesolution crystallographic evidence it is not incorrect to perceive the depicted suprastrucr mres as at worst productive working hypotheses mat are consistent with all 64 functions discovr ered so far T D Marhajewski CrH Wong Ahgew Chem Int Ed 39 1352 2000 M M Palcic Memods Ehzymol 230 300 1994 N Wymer E J Toone Curr Opih Chem Biol 4 110 5 5 10 2000 D Wahler JrL Reymond Curr Opih Chem Biol 5 152 2001 14 A W Czarnik Acc Chem Res 27 302 1994 5 M Komoszynski A Wojtczak Biochim BiopIgs Act 1310 233 1995 16 G M Whitesides er al Acc Chem Res 28 37 W 17 All reported KD values are conditional to the method Hill analysis of concentration dependence specified in 8 18 See supporting data on Science Online 1 T S Snowd n E V Anslyn Curr Opih Chem Biol 3 740 1999 G Das P Talukdar S Matile data not shown 21 We thank JrL Reymond and N Sakai for advice J Gruenberg for access to still video camera and flro rescence counter and the Swiss NSF 20007 06481801 and Nau39onal Research Program Sue pramolecular Functional Materialsquot 40477057496 for financial support Supporting Online Material wwwsciencemagorgcgicontentfull29855981600 DC1 Materials and Methods References and Notes 14 August 2002 accepted 14 October 2002 Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in Bangladesh Charles F Harvey1 Christopher H Swartz1 A B M Badruzzaman2 Nicole KeonBlute1 Winston Yu1 M Ashraf Ali2 Jenny Jay1 Roger Beckie3 Volker Niedan1 Daniel Brabander139 Peter M Oates1 Khandaker N Ashfaque1 Shafiqul Islam4 Harold F Hemond1 M Feroze Ahmed2 a o to corroborated the proposed m demonstrated the possibility to detect two en zymes simultaneously or from a different point of view to turn synthetic multifunctional pores off and on using enz e y aken together these results demonstrate practical usefulness of synthetic supramo lecular pores for fluorometric detection of enzyme activity a topic of current scientific interest 13 The most important character istic of our assay is adaptability of the same High levels of arsenic in well water are causing widespread poisoning in Ban gladesh In a typical aquifer in southern Bangladesh chemical data imply that arsenic mobilization is associated with recent inflow of carbon High concen trations of radiocarbonyoung methane indicate that young carbon has driven recent biogeochemical processes and irrigation pumping is sufficient to have drawn water to the depth where dissolved arsenic is at a maximum The results of field injection of molasses nitrate and lowarsenic water show that organic carbon or its degradation products may quickly mobilize arsenic oxidants may lower arsenic concentrations and sorption of arsenic is limited by saturation of aquifer materials prepare new substrate or productspecific antibodies as for catalytic assays using en zymelinked immunosorbent assay cat ELISA and related assays or synthetic re In an effort to prevent waterborne disease ceptors for individual enzymes no need to Bangladesh shifted its drinking water supply label substrates as in uorogenic and radio from surface to groundwater Many o the recently installed 6 to 10 million drinking water wells contain high concentrations of arsenic I causing widespread arsenicosis 1602 22 NOVEMBER 2002 VOL 298 SCIENCE wwwsciencemagorg 1505 charge yearly whereas precipitation less ontribu s 0 m 60 in ltrates fr ganicerich pond and river sediments e obse hatm bilization is not driven by detrital organic carbon Water budgets advent of massive irrigation pumping has drawn relatively young water u i a a radiocarbon ages ofDoc relative to MC and methane impl t o 39 39 REPORTS pumped groundwater that is not evaporated or or onds mus rerri e timated trom pump tests gives an average lateral component to groundwatervelocity ot17 cmda ce 2951ss32002 ey c r Hanrey Water Rerour Rex in press 21 Supported by NSF grant ENLOOOWBB NSF graduate g l e ua the Bangladesh ater cone sistentwith thiswater budget increasing trom 1 1 cmday in lanuary to 22 cmday in March Ale though no regional gradient is evident trom the measured hydraulic heads strong lateral tlows controlled by the position or irrigation wells and recharge areas may create complex pathways tor invading water Applying Darcy s law to lnterpolztr ed hydraulic heads and hydraulic conductivity esr tellowships a rant trom the Alliance tor Globa r hin r i Supponing culine Material www sciencemag orgcgicontenttull29bss9b1502 Dc1 Materials and Methods References 5 August 2002 accepted 21 October 2002 Grasping Primate Origins jonathan I Bloch and Doug M Boyer The evolutionary history that led to Eoceneandlater primates of modem aspect r r in a 39L L i s r r co e as may be typical of Bangladesh 19 Thus irrigation ing may affect arsenic cone implem n o hoc basis 20 How ever th apparent relation ofarsenic mobility to 39 ow of organic carbon raises concerns about the ap ropriate depth of new drinking water wells and men 39 39 39 39 39 gation wells 8 8 References and Notes S dleyEdsAr2nc Contamr net of Groundwater In Bangladesh British Geoe Survey Report WC0019 2001 bgsacukarsenicBangladesh 2 A H Smith E o lingas M Rahman Bull WHO 73 1093 2000 3 c r Hanrey Environ Sci 3 491 2001 4 R Nickson etalNature 95 338 1998 P L Smedley D G KinniburghAppl Geochem 17 517 2002 T R ChowdhuryetalNatws 401 545 1999 D Das et al Borerhole soilrsediment analysis or some As a ected areas in roc int Gon on Arsenrc rn Groundwater Gaure Effectand Remedy Calcutta ecember199s g data on Scrence Dnline H Khan Geology of Bangladesh University Press haka Bangladesh 1991 M r et al Water Rerour Re 7 109 M 2001 E Keon et al Envtori Sci rechnol 5 2778 2001 9 Senn H r HemondScrence 295 2373 2002 c A Appelo etalEnvrron Sci rechnol 253095 2002 D K Nordstrom in Minor Elementr 2000 Processing and EnvironmentalArpectrofAr Sb Se Ta and Br c Young Ed Society tor Mining Metallurgy and Exr ploration littleton Go 2000 pp 2 e s S L Goodbred lr S A lltuehl Geology 27 559 1999 s c l szp H Poths Geochrm Gormochrm Acta 50 1213 1985 M l WhiticarGhem Geol 151 291 1999 18 No rivers tlow trom theareaduring thedryseason so form Carpolestes simpsoni that includes most of the skull and many 39 ses indicate that Carpolesh39dae are closely related to mpsorli had long fingers and an ergence and an ankle specialized bones Phylogenetic analy Euprimates c s lacked orbital co ancestor of Euprimates was primitively an arbo postcranial opposable hallux with a nail it for leaping We infer that the real grasper adapted for terminal branch feeding rather than a specialized leaper or visually directed predator Extant primates are distinct from other anther ian mammals in ha 39 brains enhanced first toes and grasping hands and feet 1 2 m A r vmg large vision 39 Museum ot Paleontology University ot Michi an E 1109 Ceddes Road Ann Arbor Ml 481094079 USA quotTo whom correspondence should be addressed E7 u mail carpoumich ed F g 1 Hypothesis of phyr nc 39ps i logene relationshi n exhausn39ve Search rlmm and rooted P ous cladisn39c aria gence the ability to leap nails on at least the to explajEeSe specializations i gl39spfleapc ing locomotion 3 which predicts simullar neous evolution of grasping and leap39 quot mg n visually directed predation 4 which predicts simultaneous evolution of forwardrfacing orbits Asiorycles Outgroup TUpaaglts Scandentia Dermoptera Chlioplera PammDmyidae Plesiadapidae Plesiadapllcrmes Carpoleslldae Omomyidae Euprlmales Adapidae v lyses 10 me mpology supports a plesiadapiformreuprimale link whereas me cladogram based on Adapidae Unambiguous synapomorphies suppom39ng a carpolesn39dreuprimale link include more a ha 0 p ii uei eei etatarsal I and the entocuneitorm character 50 and lateral mrsion of the distal metatarsal I m character 65 22 NOVEMBER 2002 VOL 298 SCIENCE www3ciencemagorg