General Biology I (Core 030)
General Biology I (Core 030) BIOL 1406
Wharton County Junior College
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nannie Kunze on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1406 at Wharton County Junior College taught by Kevin Dees in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/230976/biol-1406-wharton-county-junior-college in Biology at Wharton County Junior College.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
The Chemistry of Life Concepts taken from chapters 2 3 amp 4 Organisms are composed of matter Anything that takes up space and has mass Abiotic items are also composed of matter Matter is made up of elements A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions There are about 92 naturally occurring elements Oxygen O Carbon C Iron Fe Zinc Zn Etc Of the 92 naturally occurring elements only 25 are known to be essential to life of these 25 only four 4 compose approx 96 of living matter Carbon C Oxygen O Hydrogen H Nitrogen N Trace elements Required by organisms in very small quantities Still very important despite their limited abundance Fe iron required for oxygen transport iodine needed to produce a hormone in the thyroid gland goiter Atoms The properties ofelements depend on atoms Smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an element Atoms are composed of subatomic particles Neutrons no charge neutral Electrons negative charge Proton positive charge Structure of atoms Nucleus Protons Neutrons Electrons orbit the nucleus Atomsjoin to form molecules and compounds Two or more atoms join to form a molecule ie H2 hydrogen molecule A compound consists of two or more different atoms joining to form a molecule ie H2 0 water molecule also a compound Chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and compounds Covalent bonds Sharing of electrons by atoms Very strong Represented by dashed line in structural formula HOH May be single one pair of electrons shared or double 2 pr shared May create polar molecules areas of charge H2O is polar Water molecule example of polar covalent bonding lonic bonding transfer loss or gain electrons Formation of ions charged atom Cation positive charge lost electron Anion negative charge gained electron Bonds form due to attraction between anions and cations Very strong Hydrogen bonds Very weak individually strength in numbers Attractions between partially positive H atoms and partially negative atoms Example joins water molecules together v 9dquot 19 Water special properties Hydrogen bonding and polarity make water very important to life s processes Water is Cohesive hydrogen bonding holds water molecules together Water molecules pulled up the tissues of a plant or creates surface tension on water s surface Water is Able to absorb large quantities of heat and only slightly change its own temperature nsulation Evaporative cooling as water absorbs energy and changes state from liquid to gas heat energy is taken away Water is Less dense as a solid than a liquid lce floats This is important to water bodies as they freeze in the winter The ice floats and insulates the water beneath it Water is The universal solvent The mixing of two or more substances is known as a solution The dissolving agent is the solvent The substance dissolved is the M Water dissolves polar or ionic compounds Hydrophilic water loving Water does not dissolve nonpolar compounds Hydrophobic water hating Water molecules may also dissociate form ions H20 a H OH water9 hydrogen ion hydroxide ion These ions effect the pH concentration of Hydrogen ions pH scale Buffers minimize change in hydrogen and hydroxide 7 IOnS 0 The importance of carbon Water is the universal medium for life but all life is made of chemical compounds that contain carbon These are known as organic compounds Compounds that contain covalently bonded carbon Inorganic compounds nonorganic NaCl Hydrocarbons organic molecules with only carbon and hydrogen Lots of stored energyllllll Biology Chapter 5 Biological macromolecules Small molecules like water and NaCl have certain properties that arise from the bonds which hold atoms together in a particular arrangement Many ofthe molecules that compose the cells in a living thing are huge and are often termed macromolecules very large molecules some proteins for examples contain thousands of covalently bonded carbon atoms There are four categories of biological macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids ewwe these three categories are composed of molecules that are formed as polymers Polymers Polymers are long molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds These basic units or building blocks are known as monomers As we will see the monomers of each of the three different macromolecules are different but the chemical mechanism to build polymers from these monomers is very similar Synthesis and breakdown of polymers Each monomer molecule will be connected to an adjacent monomer by a chemical reaction known as dehydration synthesis When a covalent bond forms between the two monomers each monomer contributes a part of a water molecule the H hydrogen ion OH39 hydroxide group These reactions are building reactions anabolic reactions and require the input of energy Enzymes are used to help speed up these reactions by lowering the activation energy of the reaction Polymers may also be broken down into smaller units by a catabolic reaction This process requires the addition ofwater and is known as hydrolysis Split with water The reverse of dehydration synthesis Also requires enzymes to activate 1 Carbohydrates Functions Quick energy source fuel Structural building materials Sugars monosaccharides form the basic monomers of golzsaccharides monosaccharides Glucose is the most common mostsugamamesend inrOSe Glucose is important in the cellular respiration reaction easy to catabolize Glycosidic linkages Covalent bonds formed by dehydration synthesis linking monosaccharides Fructose b Glucose Sucrose a disaccharide Other disaccharides maltose found in beer Lactose found in milk Large polysaccharides Macromolecules ofa few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides Used for storage may be catabolized by hydrolysis to create monosaccharides for fuel Used for building materials for cells Polysaccharide examples Starch storage polysaccharide in plants Glucose bank for plants Most animals have enzymes that can hydrolyze starch Glycogen storage polysaccharide in animals Stored in liver and muscle tissue Used when demand for sugar increases only a day s worth of stored energy Cellulose the most abundant organic K compound on earth m Structural polysaccharide found only in plants Found in the cell wall of plant cells Very strong Forms long fibers Most animals do not have enzymes to hydrolyze cellulose Termites and cows use sym biotic microorganism s Chitin structural polysaccharide found in arthropods Insects crustaceans arachnids Composes the exoskeleton Also found in some fungi Used to make surgical thread very thin very strong and decomposes easily 2 Lipids Do not consist of polymers Grouped together because they are hydrophobic little or no af nity for water Classes of lipids Fats Phospholipids Steroids Fats Consist of a glycerol and fatty acids Are formed by dehydration synthesis Function energy storage 2X sugar insulation in adipose tissue Saturated fats fatty acid tail does not have double bonds in the hydrocarbon chains This makes them very stable and more difficult to break down Solid at room temperature Most animal fats lard butter increased risk of CV disease atherosclerosis Unsaturated fats fatty acid tails have double bonds in hydrocarbon chains Most plant oils olive oil Liquid at room temperature Phospholipids 9g Similar to fat but only has two fatty acid tails attached V j to glycerol and has a phosphate group P04 as well Amphipathic I I and rI A When placed in water forms phospholigid bilazer Steroids Cholesterol fond in animal cells Some hormones estrogen testosterone 3 Proteins Very diverse group with many functions Monomers are amino acids 20 naturally occurring Amino group a carbon H 0quot Carboxyl group H o or R group variable Linked during dehydration m synthesis to form quot7347 peptide bonds i l Functions of proteins Enymes catalysts in reactions Digestive enzymes Structural Qroteins physical support Collagen Storage Qroteins stores amino acids Casein milk protein Transport Qroteins aid in transport in organs or cells Hemo lobin Hormonal Qroteins coordinates body activities Insulin Receptor Qroteins ell s response to stimuli Acteylcholine binding sites Contractile Qroteins contraction for movement Actin and m osin Defense Qroteins protection against disease antibodies Protein function is determined by shape TL AVA AVA nllw laualn n lawJain lino acids 4 m a 39139 I rm 2 l 8 o 5 if u g 9quot 7 3 a 2 y 0 a a 3 0 an a I 39 r r I hurl a my Aer Secondary structure Hydrogen bonding along backbone causes the polypeptide chain to coil a helix fold l3 pleated sheet owkm k 39amp 39av t f Tertiary structure interactions among side R groups chains causes additional folding and produces a truly three dimensional molecule Quaternary structure occurs between two or more polypeptide chains Protein are very large 3D molecules and their shape is crucial to their function When proteins change their shape they change their function lfthe shape change is dramatic the protein may become denatured and lose its functionality Q r VF n 4 l 5 g 2 A 5 Fa V 4 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information Hereditary information Primary structure of a protein is determined by the sequence of amino acids This sequence of amino acids is ultimately programmed by the units of inheritance called genes Genes consist of molecules of DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA Ribonucleic Acid RNA Nucleic acids as polymers Composed of monomers called nucleotides Three components of a nucleotide Nitrogenous base Adenine cytosine thymine guanine uracil Phosphate Pentose su ar Ribose or deoxyribose The nucleotides are joined by the bonding of the phosphate group from one nucleotide to the pentose sugar from the next Forming the phosphate sugar backbone This also makes these chains directional 3 and 5 ends DNA structure Two comglementafy strands of nucleotides Formed by the hydrogen bonding of complementary base pairs A T and G C double helix Discovered by Watson and Crick The structure of DNA allows DNA to carry genetic information in the sequences of the bases and to selfreelicate make a copy of itself The strands are directional 3 and 5 ends antiparallel
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