Experimental Psychology PSYC 212
Popular in Course
Popular in Psychlogy
This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mertie Schinner on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 212 at Whittier College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/230979/psyc-212-whittier-college in Psychlogy at Whittier College.
Reviews for Experimental Psychology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/29/15
Psychology 317 Literature Review Dr Ayesha Shaikh Whittier College Spring 2007 A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 PSYCHOLOGY 317 LITERATURE REVIEW Dr Ayesha Shaikh Of ce SCI 205A Class Time TTh 1100 71220 PM Of ce Hours M 230430 amp Th 1011 1230l30 Class Room SCI 101 Phone 9074200 ext 4475 office T XT P quot39 quot Manual ofthe AmericanP 39 39 39 39 A 39 quot 5Lh Ed 2001 Washington DC American Psychological Association COURSE GOALS Bibliographic instruction and writing experience are emphasized throughout the entire psychology curriculum and this course Literature Review is a keystone course for that curriculum Literature Review builds on research and writing skills students develop in prior core psychology courses and it prepares students for writing formal reviews of literature in 400level courses In addition Literature Review provides opportunities for students to begin developing research proposals for Whittier Scholars Psychology 417 Research Seminar or other independent research recommended for those bound for graduate school The discipline and skills practiced in Literature Review are essential for work in graduate schools as well as countless career positions Students have revised papers developed in this course for presentation at conferences and publication in professional journals PRERES QUISITES Literature Review builds upon research skills and analyses learned in PSYC 212 Experimental Psychology and PSYC 314 Statistics Therefore both are prerequisites to Literature Review ie may NOT be taken concurrently with Literature Review You must also have at least junior standing to enroll NATURE OF THE COURSE The course is a seminar involving reading discussion and systematic written assignments designed to give experience in a conducting library searches b evaluating research topics c analyzing and integrating research d presenting reviews orally and in writing and e peer reviewing one another s work The assignments culminate in a major literature review paper SPECIAL ACCOMMODATIONS Students who are eligible for special accommodations should con rm with Disability Services that Professor Shaikh has received appropriate notification Eligible students should contact Professor Shaikh via phone email office hours or before after class to arrange for accommodations Out of respect for students privacy Professor Shaikh will not contact or approach eligible students regarding special accommodations even after she has been notified by Disability Services A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 COURSE RE UIREMENTS a Class participation is essential since the class will be conducted as a seminar and it usually meets only once a week Students are expected to do the readings and writing assignments ahead of time and be well prepared to contribute to class discussions Students will make an oral presentation about their review paper to the class at the end of the semester b Written assignments will be due every week They must be handed in on time since they will be discussed individually in class on the due date Be prepared to present orally the contents of every written assignment Keep a copy on paper and in a computer le of all assignments that you hand in so that you will have the information available to develop and revise during the following week Instructions for the written assignments are described below c Grading policies are as follows Each day s prepared attendance will count up to 2 points Each written assignment except s 10 and 12 will count up to 10 points The First Draft 10 will count 40 points for the entire draft It is essential that this draft be complete so that you will have the bene t of feedback on all sections of the paper If sections of the rst full draft are missing points will be deducted The Second Draft 12 will count 100 points Written assignments or parts of written assignments received after the due date except the Second Draft will be eligible for half credit only and no written assignments will be accepted for points if turned in one week or more past the due date e g Assignment 1 is due on Thursday Feb 15 so it must be turned in during class on Feb 15 to be eligible for full credit or by Wednesday Feb 21 to be eligible for 12 credit If turned in on or after Thursday Feb 22 it will receive NO credit Late Second Drafts will be penalized for each day that they are late The First and Second Drafts of the full review will be graded only after all other previous assignments 1 through 9 have been completed whether or not the previous assignments are eligible for points at the time they are submitted A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 LITERATURE REVIEW SCHEDULE OF ASSIGNMENTS snb39ect to revision Date Topic Assignment All Assignments dne during class on T hnrsdays unless noted Feb 8 Introduction 0 Study Annual Reviews and other sources Selecting topics Reading Chapter 4 Feb 13 amp 15 Review Articles 1 Initial topic and checklist of sources used in Search strategies selecting topic Computer searches meet in Reading pages 78 11 7 Instructional Lab Feb 15 Feb 20 amp 22 Selecting topics 2 Outline of Psychological Bulletin article Understanding research theories Reading pages 11 7 122 207 215 Feb 27 amp Mar 1 Reviewing sources 3 Journal Analysis I Understanding theories and identifying theoretical issues Reading Chapter 2 Mar 8 Identifying methodological 4 Long checklist and notes on all sources checked issues and references found in each source Exploring libraries Choose topic FIELD TRIP TO UCLA LIBRARY on Sat March 10 at 900am Mar 15 Additional sources 5 Journal Analysis II Comparing theories and identifying methodological issues Mar 20 amp 22 Outlines 6 Finalized topic and initial alphabetized Mar 29 Identifying needed research 7 Initial outline with bibliography draft of one section Apr 12 Writing and referencing 8 Journal Analysis III Comparing results and APA style identifying needed research Reading pages 9 1 7 284 299 Apr 19 Editing rewriting amp peer 9 Detailed outline citing key references draft of review second section 3 copies Apr 26 Work on first draft No assignment due Tues May 1 Exchange drafts for comments 10 3 copies of First Draft of Literature Review due Tuesday May 1 1100am May 8 amp 10 Oral presentations 11 Critiques of students papers 2 copies of each critique1 for me and 1 for each author May 15 amp17 Oral presentations 12 Second Draft one copy inside your portfolio amp portfolio due Thur May 17 1030am A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 INSTRUCTIONS FOR WRITING ASSIGNMENTS The Psychology Department believes that all students should be skilled in using computers both for statistical analyses eg Psych 314 and for writing Therefore all written assignments in this course must be written on a computer except Assignment 0 You will have an easier time editing and revising your work which is essential for good writing as well as making backup copies on paper and in computer files so that you will not lose valuable time and information You may use any computer to which you will have access throughout the semester PCs and Macintosh computers are available in the Center for Academic Success the Computer Center the library and in various other locations We no longer accept the excuse for a late paper The computer ate my diskfile Learn how to save your work on separate disks and on computer space that the Computer Center might set up for you When you are using a computer get into the habit of periodically saving your work in case the system crashes When you end a short session or periodically in a long session print out a copy of your work so far and also save a backup copy on another disk The next time you work on the same file save it under a different name eg Outline 1 Outline 1a in case something happens to the file itself That way you still have the previous version While this takes up more disk space the time you might save is more valuable than the cost of another disk All written assignments MIST be in standard APA Fifth ed manuscript style with 1inch margins on the top bottom and both sides Do not blockjustify the text that is left justify but allow the right margin to remain quotjaggedquot Pages should be numbered in the upper righthand corner 12 inch from the top and 1 inch from the right side of the page Use double spacing throughout Do not skip lines between paragraphs or insert extra lines between sections of paper Staple the pages in the upper left corner DO NOT USE A REPORT COVER and do not include any blank pages All citations and bibliographic references must be written in APA Fifth ed style These rules may sound rigid but they are the same rules used by all APA journals and by most graduate courses in psychology These rules are increasingly becoming standard in many other fields as well Each written assignment should have a title page The First Draft and Second Draft of your Literature Review Paper should use the APA format for title pages All other assignments should have a the assignment number and description of the assignment centered on the title page followed by b the name of your topic c your name d the name of the course and e the date the assignment is due For example Assignment 1 Initial Topic and Checklist of Sources Your Initial Topic eg Development of Prejudice Your Name eg Ayesha Shaikh Psychology 317 Literature Review February 15 2007 Criteria for grading all assignments will include a thoroughness in completing the assignment b understanding of the relevant theoretical and methodological issues and c writing style and attention to form including APA writing citation and referencing style Specific instructions for each assignment are included in this packet PORTFOLIO OF WRITING ASSIGNMENTS Throughout the course you will be collecting mounds and mounds of material including first and further drafts of various documents lists and lists of references both handwritten and computer generated various stages of bibliographies note cards copies of articles and completed assignments with instructor feedback not to mention the last draft of your final paper All this stuff everything you write in this course along with everything that other people write about your writing needs to be carefully and neatly kept in a portfolio that will be turned in at the end of the course Keep it organized starting now A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING LITERATURE REVIEW PAPERS The following kinds of criteria will be used when grading drafts of papers You should consider these criteria when writing drafts of your paper and use them as guides for making written comments on your colleagues drafts Write comments directly on your colleagues papers marking where they apply and also write up a summary sheet of comments This summary should address the following sorts of questions both with general evaluative comments and with page numbers of specific examples where appropriate Mention the strengths of the paper and point out weaknesses even if you cannot quite say why sections are weak This summary of comments for literature reviews will be at least one page long and shorter for sections I II Selection of topic and appropriate references a Is the scope of the topic appropriate given the amount of literature available and the number and types of references found or should the topic have been narrower or broader From the opposite perspective are there sufficient references cited given the scope of the topic and size of the paper b Is there an appropriate mix of journals vs books and review vs research reports Is there an overreliance on secondary sources Are the sources scholarly as opposed to popular or unsystematic or unscientific c Are there sufficient recent sources to make the review uptodate or is there an overreliance on dated materials On the other hand are classic studies if applicable and available included as well as recent works Adequacy of the introduction and definition of key conce ts a Is the topic or key issue of the paper stated clearly and appropriately review V below b Is the importance of the topic indicated in an appropriate manner eg in terms of incidence prior research or social problem c Are the major terms of the topic or key issues defined sufficiently with appropriate references cited cf III below d Is the reader introduced to the major sections of the paper ie major headings to follow see IV and VII below Adequacy of reporting of theories ndings and sources a Are relevant theories cited and explained adequately with concepts defined sufficiently so that the reader can understand them b Are studies described in enough detail hypotheses methods results and conclusions so that their relationship to other studies and to theoretical and methodological issues can be understood by the reader c Is it clear whether each general statement is a hypothesis a result of a specific study or a general conclusion and what it is based on d Is it clear whose ideas are being presented 7 the writer of the paper or a source that is cited and which source e Are quotation marks used appropriately Is quoting used when paraphrasing is more appropriate f Are the references in the text made in an appropriate form at is the format of the reference list appropriate and are the two consistent ie names and years match all sources cited in the text are listed in the References and all the References are cited in the paper g Is it clear when a source is cited from a secondary source Are such instances rare after the review has a solid foundation Integration and organization of materials Are definitions from various authors combined in an appropriate and logical manner b Are differing theories organized in an appropriate manner c Are differing studies grouped together compared and contrasted in appropriate ways d Are theories or hypotheses appropriately related to particular studies or to groups of studies e Is the historical and logical interplay of various theoretical and methodological developments in a line of research clear to the reader f Is the organization of the overall paper appropriate clear and logical g Is the organization of each section of the paper appropriate clear and logical A Shaikh V Id a e Psych 317 Spring 2007 enti cation of issues Are issues raised and addressed concerning the conceptual and operational definitions of key terms Is the degree of agreement among theorists and among researchers on definitions discussed sufficiently and appropriately Are issues raised about the adequacy of the theories cited Are the hypotheses and issues tested by the studies clear and are the implications of the studies findings for the theoretical issues clear Are methodological issues raised about the adequacy of the studies cited Are the criticisms related to single studies or to groups of studies in an appropriate manner Are all issues raised addressed in terms of theories and studies cited or future research that needs to be done VI Adequacy of summary of current state of the literature a Is there an adequate summary of the unresolved theoretical and methodological issues b Is there an adequate discussion of future research needs Are specific issues variables populations hypotheses etc mentioned as opposed to a vague call for more research VII Writing style and mechanics a Does the paper tell a coherent story that sticks closely and revolves around obvious themes b Is the paper well organized See IV above Are headings and transitions and warnings to the reader of headings and subheadings to follow used appropriately to make the organization clear to the reader and to make the paper flow logically c Is the writing clear see III above Are details and definitions missing or are sentences awkward and ambiguous Is the passive voice avoided when possible Do the following kinds of writing weaknesses occur rarely to be verbs weak verbs negatives multiple prepositions d Are paragraphs internally organized and of appropriate length e Are sentences grammatical Look for complete sentences agreement between singular and plural nouns and verbs appropriate use of words consistent and appropriate use of present tense for theories and the past tense for findings correct punctuation and unambiguous pronouns f Is the paper free of spelling and typing errors g Are the formats of the cover page abstract page numbers and references appropriate Is the paper stapled once in the upper lefthand corner no report cover VIII Overall evaluation a would you rate the paper overall b Is the basis of this evaluation clear in the comments you have made above c Have you included both positive and negative comments pointing out first the main strengths and then the main weaknesses both in your overall evaluation and in each of the sections above A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Plagiarism Basic citation rule All ideas and written work taken from other sources including general concepts organizations of ideas paragraphs sentences phrases or unique terminology must be clearly and properly attributed to original authors by using APA style citations appropriate punctuation and clear description and explanation where necessary Any written work that is not clearly and appropriately attributed to other authors is assumed to be either a of such general information that the average interested reader of the document must surely have personal knowledge of it see notes 1 and 2 OR b the original work of the author of the document De nition of plagiarism Any written work that does not conform to the basic citation rule is plagiarism Note 1 Personal knowledge must be general enough so that all thinking adults should be able to recognize it and agree with it as true eg Monkey s can t y Columbus set sail before George Washington became president or Stress is caused by stressors Note 2 The average interested reader possessing knowledge in the discipline you are writing about would know more than a novice in the field So a student of psychology should know for example that Freud hypothesizes psychosexual stages or that an Ftest is a parametric statistic In other words if you have somehow allowed your reader to infer incorrectly from your written presentation that you were the creator of an idea an organization a sentence a phrase or a unique term then you have plagiarized Dishonest Scholarship Authors of original pieces or work have the right to expect that people who cite their work will accurately represent the information in the work without error or incorrect amendment Readers have the right to expect that authors of a secondary source accurately represent the information or work cited from another source without error or incorrect amendment Authors of secondary sources that disregard or violate these expectations are guilty of dishonest scholarship Source David B Volckmann Professor of Psychology Whittier College Whittier CA A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 To Members of Literature Review From Ayesha Shaikh Professor Re Your first assignment 0 do it today and keep it in your portfolio Welcome to the Spring Semester 2007 Welcome especially to the keystone course of your whole undergraduate psychology career Literature Review We need to hit the road running Let s start thinking about various topics that you might focus on for your library research in Literature Review 0 To help you think about your topics list some areas of psychology that are very interesting to you 0 Why did you become a psychology major Are you a psychology major o What do you want to do in life that touches on research conducted by psychologists The paper that you will be writing this semester must have a topic that lies within the range of topics listed in the Annual Review of Psychology The only exception is a topic that you can justify at the outset of the course as relating to research in mainstream areas of psychology There are six volumes of Annual Review of Psychology on reserve in the library Acquaint yourself with the contents of three or four of these volumes 0 Read over some of the articles What topics captured your interest 0 Why do you think you were interested in these topics 0 What turned you off about some of the other topics 0 How easy was it for you to read about the topics that did interest you A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Writing Assignment 1 Initial topic and list of sources used in selecting topic Due Thursday February 15 2007 The purpose of this assignment is to help you nd an initial topic area to explore as a possible topic for your Literature Review Paper Usually when you begin you don t know enough about the topic to know whether the topic is an appropriate one The topic may be so broad that there is too much literature available in which case you need to narrow the topic as you proceed On the other hand the topic may be so narrow so offbeat or so new that there are not enough good research sources to write an entire paper on it in which case you need to expand the topic or nd another topic that is more feasible To nd your initial topic you should think about psychological issues that interest you Recall topics that were touched upon in courses that you had you may want to thumb through some of your old notes or textbooks you have used Also look through the table of contents of psychology journals in areas of psychology that interest you Most helpful will be literature reviews such as those in Psychological Bulletin orArmual Review of Psychology as well as various handbooks These reviews not only suggest issues but also provide valuable background information and give you an idea of the amount of information available on a particular topic Topics to avoid or to be wary about If the topic is not found inArmual Review of Psychology you will probably nd the topic too hard to explore or write a paper about 2 Avoid topics requiring analysis of case studies 3 Avoid topics that rely on howto or nonscienti c sources eg alternative methods for drug rehabilitation or examples of programs for cognitive development that have been used by teachers and parents Assignment 1 0 Identify your initial topic Type a list of the sources that you reviewed while thinking about your topic To identify each source give the reference information for the source in APA 5th edition style and underneath the reference informally describe any articles or chapters in it that were helpful see Chapter 4 of APA Publication Manual You must classify your list of references under the following headings and you must have at least one source under each ofthe headings annual reviews other literature review journals other psychological journals publishing research handbooks and other specialized encyclopedias textbooks rho0692 0 Your list should include at least 10 reference entries overall A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Writing Assignment 2 Outline of a Psychological Bulletin article Due Thursday February 22 2007 The purpose of this assignment is to learn what a Literature Review paper looks like what is included in such a paper and how it might be organized Later you may use the article you find for this assignment as a template for organizing and writing your own Literature Review Look though recent issues of Psychological Bulletin published since January 2001 and find a literature review article that looks interesting to you If you have a topic area in mind an article relevant to that area will help you identify a more specific topic later on If you don t have a topic area in mind an interesting article may help suggest a topic to you Note that there are several types of Literature Review articles Some emphasize theory others emphasize research methods while others emphasize research findings The majority include all three Select an article that does include all three if you can Do not select an article that is labeled a metaanalysis or one that has lots of data computations When you have found a good article check the signup sheet at the front desk in the library If no one else has signed up for that article sign your name and give the article s reference No two students may use the same article for this assignment so whoever signs up first claims the article Photocopy the article including the references at the end in the library and leave the journal in the library so that others may use it also Read your article paying careful attention to the headings and subheadings Write an outline of your article using all these headings and subheadings Write other entries to summarize the main points inserting all important citations in the outline One effective way to write an outline is to type the headings and subheadings into a computer file using appropriate formatting for indenting to various levels Then go back and type in a short summary of each paragraph or two within that structure of headings You are not required to outline the entire article in detail Divide the number of pages of text in the article by 2 and outline only the first half of the article For the last half of the outline simply finish listing the headings and subheadings Your outline and summaries should be detailed enough so that I can understand the nature of the article Type the word Abstract at the top of the outline centered but do not outline it with subentries Under References in your Outline indicate a the number of references and b type up one reference that is a Primary Source and another reference that is a Secondary source label which one is primary and which one is secondary You should discover that your outline will include the following elements of literature reviews definition of terms look for different definitions of the same terms theoretical approaches look for differing predictions explanations methodological approaches look for different methods research results for various topics identify these and look for con icting results unresolved theoretical and methodological issues identify these mqwzau future research needed may be combined with unresolved issues Once your outline is typed and printed go back through it and categorize with a pencil or pen every line or every section of the outline Use the capital letter symbols above to categorize the contents of the article Some sections of the outline will have designations for several elements Put the full citation for the article in APA format author year title journal volume pages in place of the topic above your name on the title page of the report you hand in Attach your photocopy of the article to your report with a paper clip after rst stapling all thed pages of your report together and all photocopied pages of the article together in the upper left corners A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Writing Assignment 3 Journal Analysis 1 Comparing Theories Due Thursday March 1 2007 The purpose of this assignment is to prepare you to read research articles the way professional psychologists read them First a reader of a journal article needs to ascertain the nature of the theory and hypotheses that are being tested the way these hypotheses are translated into real operationalized variables and the data that support do not support or even contradict these hypotheses For these articles and all subsequent articles that you read learn to think in terms of the questions given below Select two primary research articles on the same topic reporting experimental or correlational studies that you are likely to use in your paper Photocopy the articles read them thoroughly and then answer the questions that are given below Be precise and faithful to the meaning of the articles Sometimes it may seem that you are using the same information to answer more than one question That s all right as long as the information really answers the questions For any question or parts of questions for which you think there is no information given state c1ear1y No information is given However if I find the information in your article your paper will lose points 1 Describe the theories andor theoretical approaches that are being tested or that serve as paradigms in these articles Your article may not have one if the research is datadriven If no theory or paradigm is being tested then list the previous research that the study is based on 2 In order of importance state the three most important general hypotheses that are being tested in the articles N o more than three for each article Study the title abstract introduction main results and conclusions to be sure you have these hypotheses correct For each general hypothesis identify the independent variables predictor variables and the dependent variables criterion variables Use only these hypotheses for the rest of the assignment 3 For each of the general hypotheses you will have an independent variable or predictor variable Precisely define each of these variables in the operational terms given in the article In each case what measurement scales are used nominal ordinal interval ratio 7 4 Likewise for each of the general hypotheses in 2 you will have a dependent variable or criterion variable Precisely define each of these variables in the operational terms given in the article In each case what measurement scales are used 5 For each of the general hypotheses you will have a specific hypothesis which is stated using only terms operationally defined IVs and DVs or predictor variables and criterion variables defined in 3 and 4 above F quot to each general hypothesis in 2 state the specific hypothesis that is being tested in the study reported in the article 6 State the null hypothesis that corresponds to each of the first two specific hypotheses in 5 7 Carefully describe the principal results that support any of the hypotheses that you have presented in 5 8 Carefully describe any results that do not support the hypotheses in 5 leading the authors to not reject the null hypotheses presented in 6 9 State the authors conclusions showing whether the general hypotheses in 2 and the theory in 1 are generally supported or not sup orted 10 What future implications for the theory or recommendations for further research based on the theory are presented Organize your paper along the following lines Reference to first article in proper APA style Reference to second article in proper APA style 1 Theoriestheoretical approaches a First article b Second article 2 General hypotheses a First article 1 2 3 b Second article 3 Operational Definitions A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Writing Assignment 4 Review sources checked and references found in each source Due Thursday March 8 2007 The purpose of this assignment is to determine the feasibility of writing a literature review paper on the initial topic you have selected You must do a careful job of determining this now because after you turn in your revised topic in Assignment 6 you will NOT be allowed to change your topic If everything is going well you should find that this week s assignment builds on and incorporates some of what you have achieved in your search up to this point At this stage of your search you need to check systematically reviews handbooks and electronic databases to determine the number and kind of materials available for your topic Has anyone done any recent research on your topic Have too many people done recent research on your topic If there are too many materials you need to narrow your topic39 if too few materials you need to expand your topic or find a totally new topic A Prior literature reviews can often provide clues If there is an entire literature review devoted to your topic it is probably too broad since the literature on the topic has probably expanded since the literature review was published If there is no literature review that even mentions the general topic it is probably 0 new or so narrow or so offbeat or so underrepresented in the empirical psychology literature that sufficiently relevant materials are unlikely to be found If the topic takes up part of a literature review that is a few years old then there is a good likelihood that this will be a feasible topic as long as sufficient additional research has been conducted since the review was published B Electronic databases like PsycTNFO will help you find empirical research primary sources published in peer reviewed journals Be sure to distinguish among the differing kinds of articles Some are research reports and others are case studies metaanalyses or comments on other articles You have to remember that your final paper will concentrate rimaril N95 on em irical research re orts Your final literature review paper may cite a couple of previous literature reviews as starting points that is in your introduction but must update those prior reviews by analyzing original research reports ie primary sources published since those prior reviews The sources that you check should include each of the following kinds of sources A Psychological Bulletin articles for the last 5 years Annual Review of Psychology for the last 5 years Other Reviews and Handbooks check at least 3 different ones Electronic search using PsyclNFO past 10 years for peer reviewed journals publishing primary source empirical research ie NOT literature reviews U053 Format For each source of references that you check above type the reference for the source title volume year and list the references using APA 5 11 ed format found in that source If you found none list None for that source Hand in your list of reviewed sources organized by type of source Keep a copy to work with during the following week Remember that this assignment like all other assignments must be computer typed and references should be written according to strict APA 5d1 ed format Keep good computer copies of all the work you do because they form the basis of a A A or set of 39 that you are building It might be okay for this assignment to find fewer than three dozen usable references but you need to think seriously about changing the scope or focus of your topic if you do As you know from Assignment 2 published literature reviews often have 100 or more references You probably have to locate and screen that many in the next few weeks in order to find the three to four dozen that are m useful and directly relevant to your final paper A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Writing Assignment 5 Journal Analysis II Comparing Methods Due Thursday March 15 2007 This assignment is a continuation of the type of assignment you began two weeks ago which focused on reading two articles for their theoretical implications and translating theoretical variables into research and research back into theory This week you will focus on methodology In three more weeks you will focus on empirical results A researcher makes many choices when conducting research The most critical choice is the type of research design to use which then determines how strong the research conclusions will be Will the research be a series of interviews simple observations case studies correlational research a fullblown experiment etc Then variables must be operationalized systematic variance maximized error variance minimized confounding variables controlled populations of potential subjects identified and subjects selected and assigned to treatments if possible Remember all of that from your study of research designs As you did two weeks ago carefully choose two articles you will eventually be including in your final review paper and read them with the following checklist in mind It would be best for you to select articles that are different from those chosen for Assignment 3 if you want to expand your reading for your review The basic official rule here is that you cannot use more than one of the articles you used before Both articles should be about the same topic Hand in copies of both articles you are comparing If you reuse an article again you will need to hand it in again with this assignment This time you must COMPARE AND CONTRAST the two articles The assignment is to cover all of the issues below for each article relating the articles as you go Therefore choose articles that can be both compared and contrasted easily For the copy you hand in to me write a minireview about these two articles in which you are careful to cover the following list of comparisons Make sure you label each paragraph with the numbers given below so I can track what question you are answering Think about this exercise as prewriting for your final review paper because that s what you are doing in fact You should refer to the articles by the last nam es of the authors along with the date the study was published eg Smith Johnson and Jones 1999 If you can find no information for any of the following items type quotno information found quot 1 Operational definitions of the 39 variab1es or predictor variab1es no more than two per article Provide names units of measure values and procedures 2 Operational definitions of the dependent variable 5 or criterion variables that the authors are relating to the variables in no more than two per article Provide names units of measure values and procedures 3 The specific hypothesis es that relate the IVs and DVs predictor and criterion variables above Basic research design for each IV eg experimental correlational observational study Does each use a betweensubjects or withinsubject design or does either use a mixed design What are the methods of assigning subjects to different levels of the IVs Specifically are the subjects randomly assigned State at least two ways that the researchers tried to maximize systematic variance State at least three general sources of error variance Where do or might they come from State at least thri ways that the researchers tried to minimize error variance Internal validity identify at least two controls used in the research design to remove threats to internal validity that is at least two ways the researcher tried to eliminate sources of confounding 9 Internal validity if possible identify m variables that remain confounded with one or more of the IVs and therefore threaten internal validity of the conclusions about the IVs Based on the description of the article state the best definition of the populations from which the subjects were selected 11 State the method of selecting subjects from the population or specific populations Was it random 12 What basic research design best shows cause and effect relationships Does the research in the articles you chose show any actual cause and effect relationships 4 gt195 H 0 Important Suggestion Begin organizing your 1it review by possible subtopics you could write about Find and read core articles as background See how authors have divided up the field Sort your bibliography by topics theories methods used variables explored psychological approaches or whatever makes sense for your particular topic A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Writing Assignment 6 Final Revised Topic and Initial Alphabetized Bibliography Due Thursday March 22 2007 This week you will finish up the parts of Assignment 4 that have been left unfinished In particular you will need to a exhaust your systematic search of prior literature reviews b continue to find all that you can in the recent empirical literature that relates to your topic c finally decide exactly what your topic will be for the rest of the semester and d compile all of your references in a formal alphabetized bibliography alphabetized by first author s last name Up to this point you have been researching the literature to find what it has to offer you as far as a coherent topic and background resources that you can use productively Along the way you may have done quite a bit of reading taken notes and even drifted into the area of organizing your ideas about how your paper will finally look All of this activity is OK and you need to continue working out writing plans since you will be producing a full outline of your final paper next week THIS WEEK YOU MUST CONVERGE ON THE ACTUAL TOPIC OF YOUR INTENDED PAPER AND YOU NEED TO ASSEMBLE ALL THE POSSIBLE TITLES OF REFERENCES THAT YOU CAN LOCATE THAT MIGHT HELP YOU YOU CANNOT CHANGE YOUR TOPIC AFTER THIS ASSIGNMENT 1 Complete the exhaustive check of reviews handbooks and other sources that you started in Assignment 4 These sources are good for their reference lists but will not be so useful for the reference list you include in your paper 2 Make sure you have included any pertinent classical studies that were written prior to 1996 if this applies to your topic However the bulk of your bibliography should include empirical article references dating from 2000 to 2007 with several no less than 5 of them written during 2004 2007 3 Draft a working bibliography of all references that you presently have using APA format double spaced throughout and with no extra lines between references and alphabetized in one comprehensive list without source subheadings Then put an asterisk next to each new reference that you did not include in Assignment 4 so we can see what you have added since then Do this in pencil after you have printed out your list 4 As a title for this bibliography write the title you intend to use for your literature review Writing this title is your claim to the topic you intend to concentrate on for the rest of the semester It should look like this after your cover sheet DRAFT Title of Your Intended Literature Review BIBLIOGRAPHY followed by your bibliography Finally even though this bibliography may not be complete keep in mind that the following weeks activities will require that you find copy read and analyze your articles In other words after this week you should be completely shifted from a literature search mode to a literature studV mode Your searching days for this paper should be coming to an end Now it39s time to READa READa READ A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Writing Assignment 7 Initial Outline of Literature Review and First Written Section Due Thursday March 29 2007 In the last several weeks as you have been building a bibliography and becoming acquainted with reading the literature that you will be reviewing you were putting your thoughts in order on how to organize the literature review and what the final paper might look like This week you will create a draft outline of your final paper As you do you should use several strategies including the following A Review Assignment 2 which dealt with outlines of review articles We have suggested several approaches for a review article including methodological theoretical andor empirical findings as well as critical reviews versus purely descriptive reviews Study Psychological Bulletins and other review articles for hints about possible organizations Reflect on and refine your thinking about the organization of the articles you have collected Decide on a basic theme plot for the review You are all story writers now Tell the story Study the APA formats for headings and subheadings WUOW For this assignment you will also write the rst draft of one of the sections of your final review Assignment 7a Using APA format for headings and subheadings type a draft outline of your final literature review It will represent your best judgment about everything you will include how it will all be organized and what story it will tell Anyone reading it will be able to see an exact mapping of your final review Start with the word quotAbstractquot at the top then label your Introduction Rom an Number I Continue with the various sections of your paper making liberal use of headings and subheadings at this time Any ideas about paragraphs should be included as well Cite in the outline every article you are sure will appear in a specific location For example Abstract I Introduction A Introduce topic and provide rationale for topic B De ne terms Kagan 199939 Morris 2003 C State rationale for literature review D Roadmap for rest of paper 1 Perspectives of Prejudice 2 Individual Differences in Prejudice 3 Future Research and Conclusions II Perspectives of Prejudice A Historical empahsis Allport 195439 Duckitt 199239 Gaines Smith amp Reed 1995 B Sociocultural emphasis Allport 195439 DuBois 190339 Gaines et al 1995 Psychodynamic emphasis Allport 195439 Freud 192339 Smith amp Jones 200339 Thompson 2001 III Individual Differences in Prejudice etc IV Future Research and Conclusions etc V References Be sure to print out your updated bibliography and check to make sure all references and cites match All sources must appear somewhere in the outline Assignment 7b Write one section of your review It should correspond to one part either a Roman numeral or capital letter section of your outline above Obviously you should have read all the articles that will be represented in this section by the time you start writing it A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Writing Assignment 8 Journal Analysis III Comparing Research Results Due Thursday April 12 2007 This assignment is a continuation of the type of assignment you began several weeks ago which focused on reading two articles for their theoretical statements and implications and then comparing and contrasting two articles with respect to their methodologies This time you will focus on analysis of results As before choose two articles you will be using for your own 1it review paper and read them with the following checklist in mind Select two articles from the same section of your outline The assignment requires that you answer all of the questions below for each article while COMPARING AND CONTRASTING the articles Remember that you are warming up for a review paper in which you will make intelligent logical comparisons across many articles So again write a minireview about these two articles in which you are careful to cover all of the following points Write a separate paragraph for each of the points below identifying each of the points by the appropriate number 1 Name the independent predictor variables no more than 3 for each article Do not include scales or values 2 For each of the variables named above name the dependent or criterion variables no more than 3 for each IV or predictor Name the type of scale used for each dependent variable nominal ordinal 3 State the specific 39 using operational definitions that relates each pair of variables above and whether they are directional or nondirectional 4 In each article describe how the researcher has tried to increase the probability of getting a correct significant result power That is be specific in identifying whether or how a a high alpha was chosen b systematic variance was enhanced c sample size was enlarged d error variance was minimized e a onetailed test was chosen over a twotailed test39 f a withinsubject comparison was made39 andor g a parametric test was used instead of a nonparametric test Obviously not all of these research techniques will be used in your articles but identify and brie y discuss the ones that are Remember to compare the articles as you do this 5 Find and name all descriptive statistics that have been presented mean median mode variance standard deviation range correlation coefficient percentage etc Please provide only the names of statistics describing summaries of dependent variables no values no inferential statistics Sample answers mean heartbeats percentage of parents showing authoritative style standard deviation of accuracy measures 6 Determine whether or not the results are reliable Why do you think so In other words what consistencies do you see in the data that would imply that if another researcher followed the exact same research procedures the results would come out fairly close to these results Remember this is an issue of results 7 not methods theories or design 7 answer in terms of data only In other words do the results make sense Could they be replicated 7 Find and name all the inferential statistics used Sample answers chisquare correlation significance test of 8 In a general way without particular reference to your articles explain what a significant result of a statistical test means in terms of the null hypothesis and the significance level given If you do not know contact me or look it up in a statistics textbook 9 Search your articles for nonsignificant results If they are reported propose at least three different possible reasons the researcher might have obtained these particular results Hint carefully review items 3 4 an above The bases for your answers are in the logic of these points 10 Report the main results of the research one for each of the hypotheses in 3 and any interactions 1 1 Report the main conclusions of the research 12 What do you suggest for changes in the research that would have made it more useful va1id re1iab1e significant etc A Shaikh Psych 317 Spring 2007 Writing Assignment 9 Detailed Outline of Literature Review Second Written Section Due Thursday April 19 2007 This is the last assignment before you will be turning in a first draft of the entire literature review In this assignment you will finalize your draft outline with references and citations and write a second section of your lit review which will be critiqued by two of your colleagues 1 4 This week complete the draft outline of your final paper by revising your original draft outline and adding to it each of the citations you will include at the points you will introduce andor review them Your outline should be as complete as you can make it at this time You will need to have read andor re ected on a good proportion of the articles you will be reviewing You will also have to have a fair understanding of the placement in your review of the articles you do not have time to read completely As indicated above all the citations that you intend to use for the final literature review should be included with the outline above In the places in the outline where you currently intend to write about the references type them in a simple but identifiable form eg Jones 199939 Smith et al 2003 Add at the end of the outline a typed list of all remaining citations that you intend to include or might include in the final review If in doubt include it Turn in the updated current draft of your References section Every item in the References section should match at least one citation in the outline above including the list of citations at the end of the outline Conversely every item cited in the outline should have a reference in the References section Remember your former Bibliography is different from your current References Your bibliography included all the literature you might have tracked down that is related to your topic Your References will include only those entries that are actually to be cited ie referred to in your final review At this point your References will include all citations in your outline Write a second section of your review It should clearly correspond to one part of your outline Roman numeral or capital letter section above Obviously you should have read all the articles that will be represented in this section by the time you start writing it Prepare only one copy of your Outline and References Prepare three copies of your second written review section one for me and two for peer reviewers
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'