New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Human Physiology

by: Nia McCullough

Human Physiology BIO 342

Marketplace > Wofford College > Biology > BIO 342 > Human Physiology
Nia McCullough
Wofford College
GPA 3.93

George Davis

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

George Davis
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biology

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia McCullough on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 342 at Wofford College taught by George Davis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/230990/bio-342-wofford-college in Biology at Wofford College.

Similar to BIO 342 at Wofford College


Reviews for Human Physiology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/29/15
KIDNEY REGULATION OF OSMOLARITY Urinalysisdoc 30 November 2008 One of the kidney s main functions is to regulate the osmolarity of body uids at around 300mOsm per liter In these experiments the kidneys will be presented with an excess water andor salt load and the response will be monitored by measuring the volume and concentration of the urine produced Overview of Lab 1 Empty bladder 2 hrs before lab and note the time 2 When lab period begins collect bladder contents label as control and 3 Drink test solution within 5 minutes 4 Analyze control urine sample for volume and salt conten 5 Collect urine at 30 minute intervals to measure volume and salt content 6 Determine the percentage of the water andor salt intake has been excreted during our lab 1 Drink plenty of water on the day of the experiment Avoii eating or drinking caffeine or theophylline all so drinks tea chocolate EMPTY YOUR BLADDER ONE OR TWO HOURS BEFORE THE LABORATORY BEGINS and RECORD THE EXACT TIME Do not save this urine sample It is not necessary to measure the volume of this sample 2 Upon entering the laboratory each student will take a urine collection bottle to the restroom and void into the bottle emptying the bladder completely Record the exact time This sample will be designated as control urine Take the specimen back to the lab and label You will analyze this control sample a J you have consumed the experimental solution 3 After collecting and labeling the control specimen each student will return to the laboratory and immediately drink one of the following solutions as quickly as possible You and your lab partners should agree on who will drink which solution 800 ml of distilled water 800 ml of water plus 7 grams of NaCl 80 ml of water plus 7 grams of NaCl These solutions are safe for humans with normal healthy kidneys Do not drink one of the solutions containing salt if you have blood pressure problems or if you are on medications that might be affected by water or salt loading You may elect not to participate in these experiments Once you have consumed the test solution you may not drink anything until the last urine sample is collected at about 150 minutes after drinking the test beverage 4 Every 30 minutes after drinking the solution each student will empty the entire bladder into a clean collection bottle If unable to void retain the urine in the bladder until the next 30 minute collection time and adjust your calculations accordingly 5 Analyze the urine from each collection including the control for a Volume Measure the total volume with a graduated cylinder Express as mlmin excreted This is why it is important to know the time interval between specimen collections b NaCl concentration i Place lml ofurine into atest tube 1 ii Add one drop of 20 potassium chromate and mix thoroughly on Vortexer iii Titrate with 29 silver nitrate 0171 Normal solution dropwise from a burette while agitating the test tube on a Vortex mixer after each drop until a persistent color change is obtained The end point of titration is a light pinkish brown Disregard the formation of precipitate you are looking for a light brown solution If you overshoot the endpoint of the titration discard the sample into the labeled waste container and start over iv Each ml of silver nitrate added represents 1 mgml of NaCl in the urine v Calculate 1 the total grams of NaCl in the urine collected at each 30 minute interval 2 the NaCl concentration in mgml of urine Optional activity Use the MultistiX9 SG test strips to test the control urine but no other urine samples See instructions on Page 3 of this handout 6 Record your data on the table on the next page Calculations for the control are complicated by the fact that the interval between the last urination before the lab and the first specimen collection is different for each student To make comparisons of NaCl excretion before and after ingestion of the experimental solution the NaCl excreted during the prelab interval must be extrapolated to determine how much NaCl would have been excreted in a 30 minute interval Notation tC time interval between last urination before lab and collection of the control sample in minutes VC volume of control urine sample V1 volume of first urine sample after ingestion of the test beverage UC concentration of NaCl in control sample of urine U1 concentration of NaCl in first urine sample after ingestion of the test beverage A sample calculation Time of last urination before lab 1248 pm Time of first urine collection during lab 233 pm tC time between 1248 and 233 105 minutes time over which control urine was produced For illustration assume that 62 ml of urine was collected and the concentration was 07 mgml VC 62 ml Uc 07 mgml NaCl excretion for a thirty minute interval during the period before ingestions of the solution 07 mgml 62 ml 30 min105 minutes 124 mg This means that during a thirty minute interval during the control period 124 mg of NaCl would have been excreted Note that 124 mg is 00124 g Time Volume ml Urine ow NaCl Urine NaCl mlmin Excreted in mgml 30 min g 0 control Vc Vctc 3ng Uc sample tc 30111111 V1 U1V1 U1 60 min V2 U2V2 U2 Time of last urination before lab period Test Pure Isotonic and saline Time Volume ml Urine Flow NaCl Urine NaCl mlmin Excreted in mgml 30 min 0 30 min 60 min 90 min 120 min 150 min Total Excreted in 25 hrs of intake excreted For the values in these cells you must account for the time interval between your last urination prior to lab See sample calculations on the previous page Procedure for Analyzing Control Urine Sample with Multistix 9 SG Test Strips 1 Remove 1 strip from bottle and replace cap Completely immerse reagent areas of the strip in Fresh urine and remove immediately to avoid dissolving out the reagents 2 While removing run the edge of the strip against the rim of the urine container to remove excess urine Hold the strip in a horizontal position to prevent possible mixing of chemicals from adjacent reagent areas andor contaminating the hands with urine 3 Compare reagent areas to the corresponding Color Chart on the bottle label at the times speci ed Hold strip close to color blocks and match carefully Avoid laying the strip directly on the color chart as this will result in the urine soiling the chart Proper reading time is critical for optimal results Read the glucose and bilirubin test at 30 seconds after dipping Read the ketone test at 40 seconds the speci c gravity at 45 seconds pH protein urobilogen blood and nitrate at 60 seconds and leukocytes at 2 minutes The pH and protein areas may also be read immediately or at any time up to 2 minutes after dipping Color changes that occur after 2 minutes are of no diagnostic value You could compare your test results with chart in the lab that lists normal values Questlons 7 Answer these questions a What percentage of the original NaCl andor water load was excreted during the 25 hour interval following ingestion of the test liquid Enter these values in the last row of the data table Exclude data from the control urine since this specimen was obtained prior to the ingestion of the test solution b What is the osmolarity of the strong sal solution Which hormones is are involved in the response to this solution c What is the osmolarity of the dilute salt solution Which hormones isare involved in the response to this solution 8 Explain how the results illustrate the kidney s handling of water and salt loads for each of the solutions consumed Your explanation should include the roles of various hormones involved 9 What are the sources of error in these experiments Chapter 9 Questions Muscle Physiology Section A How do skeletal myofibers form How do one come to be multinucleated If a mature muscle is damaged from which type of cell can new muscle cell be generated What is hypertrophy De ne each of the following muscle myofiber myofibril myofilament Describe the arrangement of thick and thin laments in a sarcomere and how these are responsible for the A and I bands the H zone and the M line How do skeletal cardiac and smooth myofibers differ regarding shape and number of nuclei What characteristic of cardiac myofibers allows action potentials to spread from one cell to the next from lecture and page 383 What is meant by sliding filament hypothesis What are the two roles of ATP in the cross bridge cycle When is ATP actually hydrolyzed during the crossbridge cycle What is the basis of rigor mortis Why does rigor subside after about 2 days What are the functions of troponin and tropomyosin Define excitationcontraction coupling Beginning with the arrival of an action potential in a motor axon terminal list the events that lead to the release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum What is a Ttubule What are the roles of DHP receptors and ryanondine receptors What role does ATP have in myofibers regarding Ca How is the duration of a muscle twitch related to cytoplasmic Ca concentration What events contribute to the latent period prior to tension development or shortening Where are motoneuron cell bodies located What is a motor unit A neuromuscular junction A motor end plate What are the differences between an EPSP and an EPP How is it that one action potential in a motor axon leads to one action potential in each of the myofibers it innervates What types of receptors are found on the motor end plate How does each of these disturb the neuromuscular junction curare botulism organophosphates and myasthenia gravis Based on your knowledge of the fate of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction what drug might one use to treat myasthenia gravis How is it possible for a muscle to contract but not shorten What is the difference between isometric and isotonic contractions Give an example of each What is a lengthening contraction Can sarcomeres ever push or can they only pull De ne twitch What events occur during the latent period Why don t all muscles have the same contraction time How does load affect latent period velocity of shortening duration of twitch and distance shortened Under what conditions of load will contractions be isometric or lengthening What is the difference between summation and tetanus What is series elastic element Why is the peak tetanic tension so much greater than peak twitch tension What is the optimal length of a muscle and what is the significance of optimal length plus or minus 30 What are the functions of creatine phosphate and creatine kinase What is the source of ATP for the first 510 minutes of exercise for the next 30 minutes for longer than 30 minutes What is oxygen debt and how is it repaid How would one know it is being repaid Is ATP depletion responsible for muscle fatigue If not what is What determines whether a myofiber is fasttwitch or slowtwitch Compare and contrast the three types of myofibers with respect to source of ATP abundance of mitochondria capillary blood supply myoglobin content glycogen content rate of fatigue fiber diameter and motor unit size Explain why slow twitch oxidative fibers are the most resistant to fatigue Which muscles of the body have small motor units and what advantage does this confer Which muscles of the body have large motor units and why What factors control whole muscle tension Which types of motor units are recruited first second and third How is myofiber type related to the order in which motor units are recruited What terms apply to the loss of muscle mass that occurs when a person experiences damage to the nerve serving a muscle What is disuse atrophy In response to physical training how does a muscle enlarge by an increase in myofiber number by an increase in myofiber diameter by a change in the number of motor units by a change in ber type by an increase in capillaries Is the effect governed by the type of exercise weight lifting vs quotiron manquot training What is the probable explanation for muscle cramps What I hypcalcemic tetany and what is the mechanism of action For persons with myasthenia gravis how might neostaygmine be bene cial Why might thymectomy be useful What is the principle underlying plasmapheresis to treat myasthenia gravis Section B Smooth muscle By which type of neurons are smooth muscles innervated Describe the organization of contractile proteins in smooth myofibers How does excitationcontraction coupling occur in smooth muscles In particular how is the role of calcium different How can a smooth muscle maintain tension with a very low rate of consumption of ATP What is the source of Ca in smooth muscles Why do twitches in smooth muscle last so long What is smooth muscle tone Smooth myofibers can sustain graded potentials How does this affect tension development What is a pacemaker potential Other than neurotransmitters what else can in uence smooth muscle contractions How do synapses in smooth muscles differ from the neuromuscular junction of skeletal myofibers How can nervous activity induce smooth muscle relaxation What does stretching a smooth muscle usually lead to Why Compare and contrast single unit and multiunit smooth muscles Where is each type found


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.