PY101 Notes PY101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine McCance on Tuesday January 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Sheila Black in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 274 views. For similar materials see Psychology 101 in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/20/15
Chapter 1 o o o o I 01152015 January 13 PY 101 Psychology the discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes Based on expirmentation Emerges from physiology and philosophy Wilhelm Wundt 18421920 i lntrospection asks patient specifics on what they are feeling great detail ii Carfeully measured observations iii Expiriments Edward Titchener i Wundt s student ii Relied on introspectionnot subjective enough William James 18421910 i Functionalism to help improve enviornments Sigmund Freud late 1800 s i Freudianpsychoanalytic psychology ii Belief in the unconscious iii Theories based on interatctions with patiens in insane asylum iv Sexuality and violence v Psycee is compared to an iceburg 0 Part is unconscious part is effective i Mind mostly controlled by the unconscious ii Early childhood is important Behaviorism 0 Watson 18781958 Founder of behaviorism Behavior controlled by the environment 0 Nurture not nature Skinner 19041990 0000 Critical thinking and research 0 Ask questions 0 Examine evidence Analyze assumptions 0 Don t oversimplify Tolerate uncertainty Curiousity asking a lot of questions 0 Skepticism not accepting a quotfactquot as true without challenging it seeing if facts can withstand attempts to disprove them 0 Scienti c Method 1 Hypothesis the hunch that you have about something motivates your study 2 Design a study a Operational de nition telling the community exactly how you are going to measure your experiment 3 Collect data 4 Analyze data 5 Report ndings 00000 O O The True Experiment The most powerful form of research Control group does not get the treatment Experiment group does get the treatment Independent variable Dependent variable Strengths Conclusions about causeandeffect can be drawn Weaknesses 0 Arti cial nature of experiment 0 Ethical and practical issues Descriptivecorrelational methods looking for relationships Methods used when a researcher cannot manipulate the variables under study Archival data Case studies Surveys Naturalistic Observation 0 Simply observing what s happening 0 Don t insert oneself into the environment Allows researchers to describe patterns of behavior and discover links or associations between variables but cannot imply causation When there are two variables are related to each other they are correlated Correationnumerical index of degree of relationship 0 Correlation expressed as a number between 0 and 1 0 Numbers closer to 1 or indicate a stronger relationship 0 Higher correlation coef cientsincreasd ability to predict one variable based on the other 0 Two variables may be highly correlated but not casually related Collecting Data 0 Random sampling making sure that every individual in a population has an equal chance of being in your sample Randomdriven only by chance not by any characteristic