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Galaxies and Cosmology

by: Fredrick Dickinson

Galaxies and Cosmology ASTR 220

Marketplace > Yale University > Astronomy > ASTR 220 > Galaxies and Cosmology
Fredrick Dickinson
GPA 3.64

Pieter Dokkum

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Pieter Dokkum
Class Notes
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This 238 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fredrick Dickinson on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 220 at Yale University taught by Pieter Dokkum in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/231023/astr-220-yale-university in Astronomy at Yale University.


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Date Created: 10/29/15
Jan 26 2009 MassLuminosity Relation Hurtnprnng lluuell Diagrun m Sun in the 511 Neighburhood v 1 IYDOD DOOLO V 1 39gt Supergxanls mnmuO moLh Gvams g i quotw Mam sequence IMO Whue dwarls W00 l w o E A F G K M 25000 10000 6000 3000 Temperature K l IgtIll HH H4HH4H C 2391 sochrones 20thick 40 so Myr A U a U 3 3 C 0 mi E E v r U o E E 3 H xHMquotIquotHquot HHIH O 1 2 3 V l Color measures temperature MassLuminosity Relation G star 1 solar radii tfusim come a M star 04 solar radii 0 star 60 solar radii Hydrogen Shell Burn 3 7 core collapse 4 red giant envelope quot39 A Cape a Ubga SMusA Omicron Ceti 33er 10 Re 4 HO 2 HO 80 RE 3 o Jupiter 01 R9 Siri s B 001 Re Mia 10216 K Wm 41558 A63 and Pos r AGB sTars high mass loss Red Giant Eontractign I i 100000 25000 10000 Simplified view no horizonTal branch 6 7 0 1 J 0 a 1 I du 1 1 lt4 1 u 1 u a u 1 I 0 u I a a I S 3 0 MRI I I q I III I 1N mm quotwax Inn in I IN I I 7b 5 x I o u 0 a I 71 I 0 E I x I 0 U I n I Alixk I 2 I 11 1 I 41 I 51 I 1 I O 7 5 1 I 3 w l I 2 I 4 I I I 0 5 I qf Z 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 O 1 0 o 0 00011 log T K Nonburning hydrogen Hydrogen fusion Helium fusion Carbon fusion Oxygen fusion Neon fusion Magnesium M 5 fusion Silicon lusion Iron ash Astro 220 Galaxies and cosmology April 20 2009 Astro 220 Galaxies and cosmology April 20 2009 a U av 2 C 3 0 0 lt1 039 a E C 9 U o L empgrunweme20m20 no A QmO3 QAO concordance Qm03 QAO7 flat no A sz1 QAO m 1z 35 redshift 100 I I I I 1000 countssecond 500 n I I I I I 2 Time seconds BU RSTS D II LL ID gt D Z BATSF 48 Gates I I IIIIII I I I IIIIII 1 I 111111 I I TIIIII 1 1 lilllll I I IIIIII l lllillll I I I VIIIII I llllllll Oquot I Tean secor cs 0 OO 2704 BATSE GammaRay Bursts 90 W39 v 1 P r 41 GRB 990123 3109 4 74 35 1 999 0 1 23T09z47t1830 1999012 1999 01 231092573806 April 3 2003 39 39i in 3941 VA H xyms39n39l39k f 688030329 Image of Ah tl gia m c f ORB Ilil liii lEJ quotIfl FORSJ Ifmf3939r39 39439 nlr um I Il r391rx1rm I39llllllvlll7lllllll lllIIIVlIllI39lllIIIIIIIIH39lllIII1FIIVII SN 2003dh TN WNW quot3 SN 1998bw L I 39m I r MWMX M l 406 quotMk In I 74a mwv k MM 83d rm Vhw 83a k k K WW w www J 39r39 I u 39 w m v 39 quot 12392d gt1 mamaquot 1 I quot39M Mm 159d J 7 393 NAME v 151 39 39 quot 39 39 NW quotWu 39 39Ww zz sz a 53 m C D E G 2 E Q U Q allIIIlllllIIIIIAIIIIIIIHIIIAIIIIIIIIIXIIIIXIIXIIIIIIII39IIIIII 300 500 700 900 Rest Wavelength nm Visual Spectra of Hyp crnova in GRB 050529 VLT FORS NIKE I39IIII 111115 I 1117mm L IIIW v mm 33 Munum I39mmum a I l l I I 20 T g 9 15 E 39 g I E I I 0 07 I I I I I I 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 03 0910 Redsh39Ift z I 5 o 2 1m 1m MU IHI A L H Jll IIl HHI HAII 1 1M rm quotW W w W T W w I r 057 x l gt I 4000 4500 5000 5500 5000 5500 BATSF 4B Enhamg 2003 long bursTs associcn ed wiTh Supernovcg C j J BUR 2005 short bursts perhaps associaTed wifh nsn mergers O Q LLJ m 3 Z Jlllllll Illlllll 111111111 lllHllll lllllllll 11 0339 quotquotA 60 GammaRay Burs GRB 050724 ESQ PR tho 3905 December m 2005 Centaurus A Xray 0 39 Astyo 220 v Galaxies andC39osmoogy Feb 23 2009 satu op LL I 495 The Galactic Center at 22 microns Adaptive Optics 19955 5037 50745 o 50735 5072 50720 cm 5017 sore 5071a KeckUCLA Ga actwc Centeerup Hubble Sp ace Telescope 39 strengthened the evidence 39 Andxomeda principal investigator animation R0 eland P van dex Marel marelsnsiasedu M32 major axis stellar kinematics HST 52V V kms i so m 7 U 0 Prediction without 21 395 72 0 25120 51 2 5 black hole R arcsec Spectrum of Gas Disk in Active Galaxy M87 Approaching Receding Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph M87 AngloAustralian Observatory Photo by David Malin Spectrum of Gas Disk in Active Galaxy M87 Approaching Receding Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph M87 AngloAustralian Observatory Photo by David Malin Galaxy M87 HST WFPCZ Visible 01 mm years NASA NRAO and J EireIta STSCI STScl PR09943 d Hubble StaceTelescope Mm l mu m 3c 27 I Narrow Line quot Region Broad Line Jet Obscuring Torus Type II vi 4 gt lt gt o lt 6 1 A H H 77 m 1010 101150 100 200 LBbu1geL a kms Gebhar39d r ef al 1999 also Fermrese amp Merritt 1999 Expected luminosity function mag h Mpc Formation massive i galaxies suppressed 10 5 i 20 25 M1 slogh NGC 507 NGC 4374 NGC 4472 quot NGC 4486 NGC 4636 NCC 4696 NCC 6166 Ho r gas in ellip rical galaxies wi rh ac rive nuclei A39s go 220 Gaanies and cosmolgg39y from Rees OLIr Cosmic Habitatquot Maxwell39s equaTions predicT The exisTence of elecTr omagneTic radiaTion ie lighT moving wiTh speed of 300000 kms 7quot2 i r 4 radiation ie iigiii moving wiiii speed of 300000 kms THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Wavelength In mews Sin a a wavelength C nmmnn nnma nf wawr Sources fl equemy waves pev second nmgy nf Madmn vain 1039 I Icngcl 10quot 10 1039 39 10quot mquot 104 10 quot 10 10 I T I 10quot mquot 10quot I T T T 1 1 quot o 7 39 1 1mmou 4 39 39x j Enutul gt sham hlr 1 my Edle hm hm Wrm mam em 1 WAU lb FANLU u I quotAll K 39 u v I 9 K A 39u muua ms 39 Id 42 m Ram Mr nu we Cum 5le Bull Ku 39n av r i up u with In 41 1 w Marker I J I l 1 lol 10H 390 IOU IO loll 101 390 gt hxghcr l 10quot 10quot 1039 10quot loquot I 1 l I 39 I J J 1039 10quot mquot 0quot 1oquot 10quot 10 m mquot 10 10i m 9 9 2 s Particle nature of light 0 9 e 9 photoelectric effect Wave nature of light double slit experiment illustration Young 1803 Spectrum falls on screen 700 nm White light 600 nm 500 nm Prism breaks light into its spectrum 400 nm The higher the temperature of a blackbody the shorter the wavelength of maximum emission the wavelength at which the curve peaks Visible light lTTle gherEe temperature of a blackbody the more light ng is emitted at allwavelengths gt 3 Ill w a E A I 500 1000 2000 Wavelength nm gt Wavelength mm 1 067 05 I I I FIRAS data with 4000 errorbars 2725 K Blackbody T U gt a E gt r I c a d l c Type Of Radiation CRmmnrmys Xernys U iimvi39oiei Visibie Infrared Radio Radiaied By Objects ArThis Temperature more man 1031eivm K 106710B K 10471039S K 1037104 K 107103K less Khan 10 K Typical Sources accreuon disks around biack noies gas in lusiers ofgaiaxie sugevnova remnants sieiiar comm supernova remmms very hm stars pidners srdrs some meiiires ooi iouds ofdust and gas pianers radio emission produced by eieurons moving in magnetic eids gt L39 In w H E Visible light I lt gt Blackbody curve at 5800 K Sun s intensity curve 500 1000 2000 3000 Wavelength nm gt w n O u 4 E u a Or39ion visual Or39ion infrared Visqu light Hubble Space Telescope Xruys Chandra Observatory Exlmlerms rml irmdiannu Winquot 2 20 1395 1 10 I 0 5 K 00 1 253 5034 60 quotWIquot 1260 1300 7 50 ZI JIZILI 2250 L bL D 1 550 3WD 3253 15500 3750 41330 Wavelength nm 4795 4000 10 9 0 7 s 5 4 3 2 1 390 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 y j v w 1 7 4 1 4600 4005 4510 4015 4020 4025 4030 4035 4040 4045 4850 4055 4050 4055 4070 4075 4080 4005 4090 4055 400 h 1 1 1 1 1 1 W WV yw PT 139er 1 1 V v r39i1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 40 0 4005 4910 4915 4920 4925 4930 4935 4040 4945 4950 4955 4950 4055 4970 4975 4900 4905 4090 4555 5000 Incoming photon Emitted photon A 6563 nm A 6563 nm 0 Atom absorbs a 6563hm 1 Electron falls from the n 3 photon absorbed energy causes orbit to the n 2 orbit energy lost electron tojump from the n 2 orbit by atom goes into emitting a up to the n 3 orbit 6563nm photon Lyman Eerie a tscrprjcru Ifquot quot Ehalrrrzr Eerie3 3 hayrpdon F39azchen Eeries 3 b 51 r p uquot c n quotu39 l Eizalrrpar Eerie3 g e rricn g H 5 Elrzaciz tt Eerie3 3 t ayrprjcu n aaoo woo 42w 4401mm A I I I I I SpecTr um of Vega showing Balmer39 lines of Hydrogen ASCA Spectrum of CasA 39 I 39 39 V 4 NN a U aquot Hel e Mg Si sU r 5mg A gt 0 f D O 2 23 5 O 3 as 3 W t 3 I H L v 1quot v L ilflift n 49 dint wavelength A wnfurmmm 4307 mm zov hmame H n u y l n r Gypsum mumr germ Calm x w SAJFLszmWASU Astro 220 Galaxies and cosmology First class Jan 12 2009 GOES12 Solar Xray Imager Carrington Solar Rotation 2006 2728 days 2003 08 03 181545 UTC November 14 2008 3 lighTminuTes Mm 39i aie uTsi ij gr 1 ligthay 10 Orbit of Plu The Oort Comet Cloud 10 Light Yeats Lalande 211 85 Stluve 2398 News Procyon Star Galactic Centr e 5 Eastidani O L37258 g 6 L72532 8M 6 cCetI PUMa myquot m W m a m wequot I I muss g w W Aldehilamp We if A may L mm 74 was W 39 g 7 am I my ap wAva 2 I may a m w Saw Achzm v Salaam W WW came 55 m Wu Wm guys 15w Norma Arm M58 Urion Sagittarius Arm 3 cutumC rux A m A m 39 Globular Clusteis M3 1U UUU I5 l l Sun39s I Location M3o Sagittarius A Dwarf Galaxy 4 M75 rm Perseus Cygnus Arm r poiJen 100 000 I i I Sea tans Dwarf Ursa Minor Dwarf D39aco Dwarf MilkyWaR Sagittarius M Luarg age anlc budfs Smar 3 Magellanic C loud Sculptor Dwarf o 151 Frd up 1 milllion ly s a E39Andromeda 15539 II In and l39l EPegasus E31513quot Dwarf C etus SE 39 Dwarf39E L65 3 E Aquarius WLM Dwarf Sagittarius Dwarf ltregular 10 million I l 39 39 I39Dmado 2 I Eeoll 39 Groups 5 F ornaalc i Cluster E39Eiaanus Cluster mans amelah 5mm M100 HSTWFPC2 k Energy V a 0 73 from Rees OLIr Cosmic Habitatquot Astro 220 Galaxies and cosmology Feb 18 2009 Visibe light Xr ays y l y 7 y y y pman vs mama nausm N ALLcLuerns m 5 200 00 8 T 5 Hal IN E 57 a 5 E a 396 g g 4 l 5 n J 2 Elllpflcal l 1 m 1 20 10 l LO 30 I 0 O5 00 05 I 0 15 20 Projected density Dressler 198039 Morphologydensity relation o 9 f A 2 o quot g f 2 47 122 0 g 4 X V 4quot 47 m e 5 4 E O 797 a o 001 01 1 10 100 mx x1014 Me 4 slice 83381 galaxies 141402 total into fat Astroplysics Uniemit of Imsbruck DEVELOPMENT OF GALAXY MERGERS 0000 Cyr Milky Way mom Lu 1 winks satu op LL I 495 Astro 220 Galaxies and cosmology April 22 2009 a I l l I I 20 T g 9 15 E 39 g I E I I 0 07 I I I I I I 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 03 0910 Redsh39Ift z I 5 o 2 1m 1m MU IHI A L H Jll IIl HHI HAII 1 1M rm quotW W w W T W w I r 057 x l gt I 4000 4500 5000 5500 5000 5500 39 A a I Au 2 1 V A Avv dv L A Q v Qquot l V 439 g 9 A a Mu 39 Mammal saw Andmmzdl Gnlnxy GALEX mime mum Jenn mum Boeing 737200 100 feet long JWST 72 feet long School Bus 44 feet long HST 44 feet long Hubble primary mirror quot quot y vzs39un w 79 m a 515239 3 1 Incoming perturbed wavefronts Wavefront tilts over subapeltures 39 Lenslet array 4 Detectors Offset images from subapertures Incoming Outgoing perturbed canceled wavefronts wavcfmms Deformable mirror mm mm re1erenoe beacon hght horn target W O Colllmalor M Beam Splmer dlChrolC ilk W V W Wavelronl Sensor Wavefront Analysis Actuator Control m M Delormable L Mirror Camera Image Post Processing Cellini North Opdcal Imago WITHOUT Adaptive Optics Resolu o NS arcseconds FWHM I Gemini Norti Imam Image WITH Adamc Optics Ramlmlnn 39 009 amends FWHM Volcanos on Io moon of Jupiter Gamma Xrays Ultraviolet Visible Infrared MicroWave Radio 1 8 6 5 2 3 10 m 10 m 10m 5x10 m 10 m 10 m 10 m JWST 15 million km infrared wavelengths 39 39 39I39 1quot blackbody emission of gas op rical wavelengths 39 obscura rion by dust also in This picture a profos iar seen before nuclear fusion sTarTs 39 a V Embedded Outflow in HH 4647 Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC mm ugh quot155 NASA JPL L alwch A NunegaL respu SSECaltech nusus Fragmenfafion of molecular cloud infrared wavelengths 39 39 39I39 1quot blackbody emission of gas op rical wavelengths 39 obscura rion by dust also in This picture a profos iar seen before nuclear fusion sTarTs 39 a V Embedded Outflow in HH 4647 Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC mm ugh quot155 NASA JPL L alwch A NunegaL respu SSECaltech nusus H mm M SCALO r ZIID yr ammo T H mm m MW c m Dervac new my Iog mass not mm mm Henna mm ITmm am 1 gure Crnuu mpw um mm mm dz m m Mum and Scalm um zoqo Agelmumgen 39 ZJiji 39mwcaje The Infrared Milky Way This map of me mfmmd sky iniludes hL1 ght of a 13 billion smrs I Hymns am I h K 3390quot ar39r l 7U quot lt 90 barytzar F 39r CLL39WaerS arrquot 39 r x s i l 1 t km 5 f G SW S Itiwr njerlt39139 1 Sims 2 o LJpu which bun an Neutrm alumm Hydrugen creates 2w cm ramauun NeuTr39al Hydrogen 21 cm radiaTion ci a a 54 I lav l C 0 quot AngloAustrali n Observatory tumTun Ila lc nu hu 0mm speed kms 2mm mm mmm Distance from galactic cenwr 1y 4 i munm From my mum Rurulion curve or wheellike mluhon i Dwsmnte mm cenw gt Planetlike mlution Romniop urve or plunelhke romnun Disk of 1 Galaxy Mp ew Spiral mm Gahcm fquot d m ABCD I V c After one orbit of star A d After two orbits of Star A FlocculenT spiral galaxy no clear paTTer n i I 39 Example of fiday induced spiral arms radio 21cm simulaTion A slow moving tn 39 39 e truck Individual oars approach the traffic know slow down as they move oaiefuny Il1r n 11 3911 Inn 1 I consists of different cars at different times moi of m ic E 1 new a 1 Years mm Mm Eak je mm by umquot man may Ndersan mm by m Mm mm NmnamV em mmmn Hawed mm mm WWW mvahcenseh a U av 2 C 3 0 0 lt1 039 a E C 9 U o L empgrunweme20m20 no A QmO3 QAO concordance Qm03 QAO7 flat no A sz1 QAO m 1z 35 redshift 20 E E DEED in Relative brightness o t I t t t t 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10 Wavelength V 4 0 3 mo lt 1H349395353 3 HMEQMEEB HSAQEJ SEEEAK HMS QMEEE k x f i fHE Df 39 H sgsfa a 1


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