journalism test notes
journalism test notes JOUR 101 001
Popular in Media and Society
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
JOUR 201 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Chris Huebner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
JOURNALISM 1 Mass Audience Homogeneous segment for one media product 2 Music Industry a Music s technology advancements b Radio vs recordings vs TV c Internets impact on industry d Economic of the recording industry 3 New mass media have often been defined in terms of the communication technologies that preceded them 4 Early recording technology a 1877 Edison discovers a way to play back sound Called invention the phonograph b First recording was mary had a little lamb c Metal cylinder horn had crack d Needle retracted groves in cylinder e 1887 Emile Berliner invented the flat disk and the technology to play it i Gramophone early playback device using a flat disc with lateral grooves cut on one side ii Berliners disks outpaced Edison s cylinders bc easier to mass produce f Best selling model of the early 20th century Portola i Mass Medium ii Introduced by the Victor Recording Company 1906 iii Affordable and designed to complement household decor 5 Radio threatens the industry a 1920 birth of radio b Defining moment in the recording industry c Radio Corporation of America buys victor company and forms RCA victor d Manufactured records and record players e Begin to convert phonograph factories to radio factories f During the Great Depression radio offers a cheaper alternative than continue to buy records 6 A new format emerges a Vinyl is introduced in the 1940s b Much cheaper more durable and better sound quality to discs c After WW2 the economy strengthens d Bell labs began to sell woofers and tweeters e Recording quality advances stereophonic sound f 1958 world standards for stereo records was established 33 13 g Able to record sound true to the original form 7 Formats that duplicate a Through the 1950 33 13s and 45s singles were the accepted format b Tapes originally introduced as eight track cartridge tape c Phillips electronics were the first to market with the 18inch tape version d Made music portable car version e Sony Walkman was introduced in 1979 f THE BLANK TAPE IS INTRODUCED g Compact disc was originally introduced in 1983 h Credited with revitalizing the music industry i By 1987 CD sales were double the amount of LP sales j Tapes obsolete by 2000 8 Introduction of FileSharing a Filesharing seen as convenient b Allowed people to try new music with very little risk c Could be stored on your computer 9 Streaming Music a Signaled a very major shift in music consumption b Ownership to access c By 2014 Spotify had 10 million paying customers d Monetization payouts Music and Culture 1 Rock and Roll 1950s a Black Migration i Southern blacks to northern cities ii Blurring of southern blues with urban styles b Youth Culture i Many turned to music and arts in reaction to cold war and traditional values ii Access to music increased c Racial integration i 1948 Truman signed executive order to integrate armed forces ii Brown vs board of education 1954 d Rock and roll became a cultural reflection of the times 2 High and Low Culture 3 Masculinity and Femininity 4 Sacred and Secular a Rock and roll was not a reflection of moral norms b Jazz and blues musicians often associated with scandalous behavior c Blending of gospel and rock and roll Consolidation of the Recording Industry US accounts for one third of music sales globally By 2012 3 major labels account for 65 of the market Universal Music Group Sony Music amp Warner Music Grants major labels a large amount of influence over what gets produced and distributed Growth of indie labels digital technology creates access for labels over the past few years independent labels have doubled their market share RADIO Origins of Broadcasting early pioneers turned telegraph technology into waves that carried the voice Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone in 1876 began the idea that we could send the human voice through electromagnetic waves Investors were desperate to free transmissions from the confines of waves Heinrich Hertz demonstrated that electronic currents could be sent via waves Early Developments in Radio Marconi 1896 Combined Edison s electric power hertz s metal coil and Morse s telegraph technology to create a wireless telegraph system Created the American Marconi in 1899 Wireless telegraphy name for early transmissions before human voices could be carried on ainvaves At first they destroyed his creation because they thought it was a bomb Wireless Reginald Fessenden was the first to transmit the human voice Lee De Forest credited with inventing the audion amplified radio signals increasing the qualitydistance which it could travel 1907 When the US entered WWI the Navy declared a moratorium on patent lawsuits and seeks to improve radio technology Trained approx 10000 personnel in radio Frank Conrad formed one of the first radio stations Conrad also credited with the first professional Cox Harding presidential election As a hobby he began broadcasting news amp music In 1923 ATampT forms WEAF in NYC ATampT also had the rights to connect signals between stations WEAF NYCWNAC Boston By 1924 ATampT had created a network of 22 stations the word affiliate emerges GE managed to link WGY ATampT refused to let other carriers use their networks of affiliates 1926 RCA bought ATampTs telephone group NBC red entertainmentsports NBC blue newscultureinfo Radio Act of 1927 radio was no longer regulated by the gov US Dept of Commerce Communications Act of 1934 communication technology was seen as a good thing streamlined regulatory standards practiced across networks protect equal and affordable networks Golden Age of Radio 1930s people looked fonNard to and talked about the various forms of entertainments shows featured live performances comedians soap operas amp prime time programming 0 Popular drama the shadow the lone ranger 0 Game shows the 64 question 0 Magazines covered popular radio entertainers 0 Sense of celebrity created within the industry FDR Fireside Chats 1933 Transistors made radio portable Telecommunications Act of 1996 continue to promote entree into communications market deregulation of the converging broadcasting and telecomm markets Podcasts 39 mil Americans listened to a podcasts last month Exam 0 newspaper TV radio music Newspaper Industry Evolution of American newspapers 0 First newspaper publick occurrences foreign and domestic only last one issue 0 15 yr later john cambell s boston newsletter which lasted more than 1 publication 0 early american newspaper were government controlled 0 1735 John Peter Zinger Case accused of seditious libel helped define what exactly freedom of the press meant jury filed in favor of zinger newspaper now have the right to print the truth 0 instilled the idea that the press would be a watchdog for government and the other branches of government 0 The federalist papers written by Alexander Hamilton James Madison and John Jay were published serially in several NY newspapers extremely important in the nation building process used to convince citizens that we needed a democratic government moving toward the 1800s newspapers designed by specific groups of people newspaper owned or supported political party editorial page became place for properly labeled opinion pieces front page became the location for hard news stories about current events that have impact on people39s lives 0 Penny Press 1830s era of inexpensive advertisersupported newspapers Benjamin Day s the New York Sun is the first penny press made newspapers accessible to everyone rise of the middle class growth of literacy urban growth better printing technology urban populations were growing very fast penny press became the first mass medium to bring consumers to producers 574 newspapers to 2226 after the civil war Matthew Brady was a photojournalist during the civil war brought to life what the newspapers were writing about Developing Models of Journalism 0 sensationalism the practice of stressing human interest stories over hard news used to increase readership yellow journalism era in which competition lead to high levels of sensationalism reached its height in the HearstPulitzer war 1890s many historians believe the headline battles between both publishes encouraged the US to move fonNard with the Spanish American War of 1898 Yellow Journalism Lead to Investigative Journalism 0 objectivity o inverted pyramid o nut graph why is this important to u Interpretive journalism aims to explain key issues and place them in a broader historical or social context 0 the columbia dispatch 1980 became the first paper to go online 0 USA today hit the shelves in 1982 emphasis on visual style 0 online news site the drudge report broke the Bill Clinton amp Monica Lewinsky scandal 0 allowed to operate as a non profit take in tax deductible contri