Psychology Notes 10.27.15
Psychology Notes 10.27.15 PSYC 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Garringer on Thursday October 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Bowling Green State University taught by Mary Hare in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 10/29/15
102715 Language What is Language It is the communication system of our species It appears in all cultures even those without speech Language Lets Us 1 Express our thoughts 2 Convey Information to each other 3 Express and strengthen social and cultural bonds Questions for psychologists 1 What do we know when we know a language Much of it is part of our implicit memory we don t consciously know how we know it 2 How do we understand each other 3 How do children learn languages 4 Can other species learn it too Phonology The sound a language uses Phonemes Units of sound 0 Units of sound that make a difference in meanings Like the difference between bin and pin English has about 40 different Phonemes Languages have their own sets of phonemes But some sound differences are psychological not auditory le bin vs pin Vs spin Phonology We also have rules about how sounds can go together Different for different languages In English Morphemes the smallest language units that carry meaning 0 Types of morphemes 1 Content morphemes have 39semantic content or meaning nouns verbs adjectives adverbs 2 Function Morphemes add details to the meaning and serve various grammatical purposes Sentences Structure Syntax A phrase is an organized grouping of words A sentence is an organized grouping of phrases Rules 0 Some sequences of words are allowed but others are not ie tree diagram Rules of Syntax Each language has its own rules 0 English the cat chases the dog SVO Irish Chases the cat the dog VSO German John said that the cat the dog chases SOV SVO Subject Verb Object VSO Verb Subject Object SOV Subject Object Verb 102715 It s the rules of syntax that describe how words are organized into phrases and sentences Syntax quotMental Grammarquot We have implicit knowledge of the grammar of the language we know You know what does or doesn t sound correct in your language but you might need to be a linguist to describe what you know Word Meaning Theory 1 De nitions De nitional theory of word meaning 0 What is a game Chess hide and seek professional football 0 De nitions are quotnecessary and suf cient conditionsquot 0 But some members of a category are rate better than others even though both meet the conditions required Meaning and Prototypes The meaning of words is represented by the best member of the category this is the best because it is the most typical Often called the prototype or prototypical member 0 Things that resemble it closely enough will also be treated as category members Category members do not have to be identical Can share quotfamily resemblancequot Typicality Effects Children learn typical category members rst Typical members are categorized faster quotIs a robin a birdquot lt quotis an ostrich a birdquot We name typical members faster than atypical ones Sentence meaning Sentences describe events In basic English sentence we 0 Name the topic the subject 0 We then say something about it The predicate usually the verb and direct object This is what the book calls a proposition Of course they can also be ambiguous Structure ie The batter hit the umpire Meaning Who did what to whom ie The batter hit the umpire Comprehension How do we comprehend entire sentences Interpretation is very fast 0 We continuously interpret what we are hearing 0 We don t wait until the end of the sentence to interpret and know what s going on We take many things into account as well 102715 0 What we know about how the world works 0 What the conversation is about 0 Possible relations among words Sentence structure and Ambiguity Sometimes we turn out to be wrong Garden Path Sentences misleading content or sentence structure leads you to the wrong interpretation ie Murder victim remains identi ed